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Equity in mathematical modelling education: a literature review

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Presentationo related to W-STEM project. Work conducted at Tecnológico de Monterrey (Mexico).

Hernandez-Armenta, I. y Dominguez, A. (2019). Equity in mathematical modelling education: A literature review. 19th International Conference on the Teaching of Mathematical Modelling and Applications. Hong Kong, Julio 21-26.

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Equity in mathematical modelling education: a literature review

  1. 1. Equity in mathematical modelling education: A literature review Angeles Dominguez Itzel H. Armenta 1 1,2 1 1. Tecnologico de Monterrey, Mexico 2. Universidad Andres Bello, Chile Session 6 Socio-cultural influence July 25th, 2019
  2. 2. Mathematical modelling means: 2
  3. 3. Mathematical modelling “Mathematical models and modelling are everywhere around us.” “Preparing students’ for responsible citizenship and for participation in societal developments requires them to build up modelling competency.” “The teaching and learning mathematical modelling activity can improve students’ mathematical modelling competency.” 3
  4. 4. Learning environments through modelling Significant learning experiences must represent students’ interests, characteristics and backgrounds without exception. 4
  5. 5. Addressing equity from mathematical modelling teaching “The principles of inclusion and equity are, then, not only about ensuring access to education, but also about having quality learning spaces and pedagogies that enable students to thrive, to understand their realities, and to work for a more just society.” (UNESCO, 2017, p. 19) Reflecting where is mathematics education and research standing in terms of equity is quite relevant to realize how it addresses inclusiveness issues and gender perspectives, seeking an equitable engagement of every student in the learning of mathematics. 5
  6. 6. Objective Provide a comprehensive reasoning of mathematics educational research works, focusing on those from a mathematical modelling standpoint, and how they undertake equity. When equity applies to participation and involvement in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields, calls for a deep analysis of underrepresented groups in these areas, alongside the establishment of policies that guide concrete actions (UNESCO, 2017). 6
  7. 7. Methodology: Systematic literature review “Systematic reviews are a type of scientific research that aims to integrate in an objective and systematic manner the results of empirical studies on a particular research problem in order to determine the state of the question in its field of study.“ (Ferreras-Fernández, Martín-Rodero, García-Peñalvo & Merlo-Vega, 2016) Revision of published material in the last five years and found at the International Commission on Mathematical Instruction (ICMI) Digital Library Project, the ICTMA book series International Perspectives on the Teaching and Learning of Mathematical Modelling, and top-grade databases (Scopus and Web of Science) 7
  8. 8. Search string, filters and decisions Mathematical modelling , mathematics education - (“math* model*” OR “math* educ*”) Equity, democratization and inclusiveness - AND (“equity” OR “democratiz*” OR Inclusiveness, “inclus*”) Gender- AND ( “gender”) Education- AND (“educ*”) 8 Scopus & WoS Search filters and decisions Total: 35 In both databases: 11 To review: 24 5 years: [2014 - 2019] Title-abstract-keywords Evaluate pertinence of titles and abstracts Total: 17 Full-text reading and analysis with guiding questions
  9. 9. + works included in review ICTMA 17 & 18 proceedings (2015, 2017) Digital Library ICMI: ICME proceedings 2017 ICMI Study Series 21, 2016 ICMI Study Series 22, 2015 ICMI Study Series 23, 2018 ICMI Study Conferences 23, 2015 ICMI Study Conferences 24, 2018 ICME Affiliate Organization Conference Proceedings ESU7, 2015 ICME Affiliate Organization Conference Proceedings History and Pedagogy of Mathematics, 2016 9
  10. 10. Equity Democratiz* Inclus* Gender Number of selected articlesTotal Relevant Total Relevant Total Relevant Total Relevant ICMI Study conferences 24 17 10 5 1 41 11 2 2 8 ICMI Study conferences 23 7 4 0 0 13 4 15 4 6 ICME Affiliate Conference Proceedings 2016 2 1 0 0 10 0 0 0 1 ICME Affiliate Conference Proceedings 2015 1 1 1 0 5 0 3 2 2 ICMI Study Series 21 22 3 1 1 24 3 10 2 5 ICMI Study Series 22 8 6 0 0 24 11 9 2 6 ICME 13 Proceedings 50 35 2 2 57 32 41 28 19 ICTMA 17 Proceedings 2 1 0 0 11 0 4 0 1 ICTMA 18 Proceedings 2 0 7 7 43 7 47 19 9 10
  11. 11. Methodology: Analysis of articles Guiding questions How do authors address… ● math modelling/world mathematization? ● gender issues? ● equity? ● inclusiveness? 11
  12. 12. Math modelling/world mathematization I - Is found related to student-centered approaches as relevant pedagogical aspects behind modelling like concept-based learning, life mathematization through divergent and disruptive thinking, creativity and collaborative learning (Luria, Sriraman & Kaufman, 2017) as well as spatial reasoning skills (Lowrie & Jorgensen, 2018). - Modelling and problem-solving processes are also addressed in relation to the development of citizenship and mathematical competencies (Zhu, 2018). Frameworks for the assessment of such competencies "subsume various mathematical activities that define mathematical literacy; they might include mathematising, arguing, proving, and problem solving, among others, under one broad psychological construct" (Nortvedt & Buchholtz, 2018, p. 559). - Opportunities for curriculum linkage with values presented are proposed -eg. contextualization of word problems by relating them with real life social issues discussion, implementing democratic strategies for mathematical education for life, bringing up human values such as equity (Movshovitz-Hadar & Yael Edri, 2015). 12
  13. 13. Math modelling/world mathematization II - Mathematical sense-making processes are related to authority-construction in the classroom, leading to identity development and empowerment of marginalized subjects (Langer-Osuna, 2017). - In collaborative mathematics classrooms, like the ones promoted by mathematical modelling activities, students and teachers share intellectual authority, allowing students to take ownership of their ideas. This leads to greater conceptual understanding by taking part of making ideas up, decision-making, justification and assessment of reasonable or "correct" thoughts (Cantley, Prendergas & Schlindwein, 2017; Langer-Osuna, 2017). - Also seen as the application of mathematics for "making a better world". These meaningful applications structure practices and discourses for identity construction, possibly related to motives and meanings about being a mathematician (particularly a female mathematician one - gender related) (Solomon, Radovic & Black, 2016; Cantley, Prendergas & Schlindwein, 2017). The development of mathematical talented women is proposed to be studied with socioepistemological perspectives (Farfán Márquez & Simón Ramos, 2018). 13
  14. 14. Gender issues I - Girls are considered a historically marginalized group that experiences biases and are in need to mathematical empowerment. Relations of authority in mathematics classrooms might explain why student interactions become gendered (Langer-Osuna, 2017; Farfán Márquez & Simón Ramos, 2018) - Social structures embedded in traditional teaching practices could promote contradictions about gender roles. These become resources and motives for improvisation, leading to resignification about what it is to do mathematics (Alcock, Attridge, Kenny & Inglis, 2014; Solomon, Radovic & Black, 2016; Deward, 2017) and encouraging new inclusive pedagogies -eg. STEAM approaches- (Montero & Jormanainen, 2017) - Differences among definitions and implications of the use of "gender" and "sex" terminologies are also discussed (Zhu, 2018). 14
  15. 15. Gender issues II - Gender is considered to be a factor that influences inequitable opportunities and outcomes in education, as well as the most used indicator for the assessment of equitable education (Lowrie & Jorgensen, 2018; Nortvedt & Buchholtz, 2018; Zhu, 2018). - There is a call for an assessment that can be culturally responsive so that it addresses heterogeneity and balances equity issues with educational policy -eg. personality and learning styles- (Nortvedt & Buchholtz, 2018) 15
  16. 16. Equity and inclusiveness - Dilemmas between concepts of "equity" and "equality", based on axiological roots and implicating the need of a common ground and framework. - When feminist pedagogies are used as framework, equity manifests in a precedent form, which highlights the role and experience of a marginalized counterpart. - Possible causes for unequal participation of genders in the mathematics professional development: 1) Lack of role models, 2) Gendered preferences and teaching approaches , 3) Gendered nature of mathematics, 4) indirect influence of cultural discourses that associate mathematics with masculinity, 5) Socially constructed gender stereotypes. 16
  17. 17. Equity and inclusiveness - Dilemmas between concepts of "equity" and "equality", based on axiological roots and implicating the need of a common ground and framework. - When feminist pedagogies are used as framework, equity manifests in a precedent form, which highlights the role and experience of a marginalized counterpart not promoting inclusiveness at all. - Possible causes for unequal participation of genders in the mathematics professional development: 1) Lack of role models, 2) Gendered preferences and teaching approaches , 3) Gendered nature of mathematics, 4) indirect influence of cultural discourses that associate mathematics with masculinity, 5) Socially constructed gender stereotypes. 17
  18. 18. Results There exist alternatives to incorporate the teaching of social values like equity and inclusiveness to the education of mathematics, particularly through modelling activities. However, these relationship are yet waiting to be deeply explored. Each work part of this systematic literature review open just a narrow window of analysis and understanding of equity in mathematics education, a call for collaborative academic action is suggested. 18
  19. 19. Conclusions 19
  20. 20. References Alcock, L., Attridge, N., Kenny, S., & Inglis, M. (2014). Achievement and Behaviour in Undergraduate Mathematics: Personality Is a Better Predictor than Gender. Research in Mathematics Education, 16(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/14794802.2013.874094 Cantley, I., Prendergast, M., & Schlindwein, F. (2017). Collaborative cognitive-activation strategies as an emancipatory force in promoting girls’ interest in and enjoyment of mathematics: A cross-national case study. International Journal of Educational Research, 81, 38–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2016.11.004 Dewar, J. M. (2017). Women and mathematics: A course and a scholarly investigation. BSHM Bulletin: Journal of the British Society for the History of Mathematics, 32(3), 246–253. https://doi.org/10.1080/17498430.2017.1319160 Eley, P. M. (2015). Technology in Mathematics Education: A Catalyst for Diversity Leadership. STEM Education: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications, 311–321. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-4666-7363-2.ch017 Ferreras-Fernández, T., Martín-Rodero, H., García-Peñalvo, F. J., & Merlo-Vega, J. A. (2016). The Systematic Review of Literature in LIS: An approach. In F. J. García-Peñalvo (Ed.), Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Technological Ecosystems for Enhancing Multiculturality (TEEM’16) (Salamanca, Spain, November 2-4, 2016) (pp. 291-298). New York, NY, USA: ACM. 20
  21. 21. Horoks, J., Couchot-Schiex, S., & Grugeon-Allys, B. (2018). De l’utilité de l’initiation à la recherche en formation initiale en master MEEF 1. Ce qu’en disent les professeur.es des écoles stagiaires. Questions Vives. Recherches en éducation, 5 (2), 133-148.. https://doi.org/10.4000/questionsvives.3121 Langer-Osuna, J. M. (2017). Authority, Identity, and Collaborative Mathematics. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 48(3), 237–247. https://doi.org/10.5951/jresematheduc.48.3.0237 Lowrie, T., & Jorgensen, R. (2018). Equity and spatial reasoning: Reducing the mathematical achievement gap in gender and social disadvantage. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 30(1), 65–75. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13394-017-0213-7 Luria, S. R., Sriraman, B., & Kaufman, J. C. (2017). Enhancing equity in the classroom by teaching for mathematical creativity. ZDM, 49(7), 1033–1039. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11858-017-0892-2 Marquez, R. M. F., & Ramos, M. G. S. (2018). El Desarrollo del Talento de las Mujeres en Matemáticas desde la Socioepistemología y la Perspectiva de Género: Un Estudio de Biografías. Bolema - Mathematics Education Bulletin, 32(62), 946–966. https://doi.org/10.1590/1980-4415v32n62a10 Murray, D. H., Obare, S., & Hageman, J. (2016). Early Research: A Strategy for Inclusion and Student Success. In ACS Symposium Series: Vol. 1231. The Power and Promise of Early Research (Vol. 1231, pp. 1–32). https://doi.org/10.1021/bk-2016-1231.ch001 21
  22. 22. Nortvedt, G. A., & Buchholtz, N. (2018). Assessment in mathematics education: Responding to issues regarding methodology, policy, and equity. ZDM, 50(4), 555–570. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11858-018-0963-z Piatek-Jimenez, K., Madison, M., & Przybyla-Kuchek, J. (2014). Equity in Mathematics Textbooks: A New Look at an Old Issue. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 20(1), 55-74. https://doi.org/10.1615/JWomenMinorScienEng.2014008175 Solomon, Y., Radovic, D., & Black, L. (2016). “I can actually be very feminine here”: Contradiction and hybridity in becoming a female mathematician. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 91(1), 55–71. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10649-015-9649-4 Suero Montero, C., & Jormanainen, I. (2017). Theater Meets Robot – Toward Inclusive STEAM Education. In D. Alimisis, M. Moro, & E. Menegatti (Eds.), Educational Robotics in the Makers Era (pp. 34–40). Springer International Publishing. UNESCO. (2017). A Guide for ensuring inclusion and equity in education. UNESCO Publishing. UNESCO. (2017). Measuring gender equality in science and engineering: the SAGA toolkit [E-Reader Version]. Retrieved from https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000259766 22
  23. 23. Vale, C., Atweh, B., Averill, R., & Skourdoumbis, A. (2016). Equity, Social Justice and Ethics in Mathematics Education. In K. Makar, S. Dole, J. Visnovska, M. Goos, A. Bennison, & K. Fry (Eds.), Research in Mathematics Education in Australasia 2012-2015 (pp. 97–118). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-1419-2_6 Young, J., Gorumek, F., & Hamilton, C. (2018). Technology effectiveness in the mathematics classroom: A systematic review of meta-analytic research. Journal of Computers in Education, 5(2), 133–148. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40692-018-0104-2 Zhu, Y. (2018). Equity in Mathematics Education: What Did TIMSS and PISA Tell Us in the Last Two Decades? In G. Kaiser, H. Forgasz, M. Graven, A. Kuzniak, E. Simmt, & B. Xu (Eds.), Invited Lectures from the 13th International Congress on Mathematical Education (pp. 769–786). Springer International Publishing. 23
  24. 24. W-STEM (Building the future of Latin America: engaging women into STEM) is a project funded under European Union ERASMUS+ Capacity-building in Higher Education Programme (598923-EPP-1-2018-1-ES-EPPKA2-CBHE-JP) The European Commission support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents which reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. 24

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