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Nursing theories


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Nursing theories

  1. 1. FUNDAMENTALS OF NURSING<br />NURSING NOTES<br />CONCEPTUAL AND THEORETICAL MODELS OF NURSING PRACTICE<br />TheoristDescriptionFLORENCE NIGHTINGALEDeveloped the first theory of nursing.Focused on changing and manipulating the environment in order to put the patient in the best possible conditions for nature to act.HILDEGARD PEPLAUIntroduced the Interpersonal Model. She defined nursing as a therapeutic, interpersonal process which strives to develop a nurse-patient relationship in which the nurse serves as a resource person, counselor and surrogate.FAYE ABDELLAHDefined nursing as having a problem-solving approach, with key nursing problems related to health needs of people; developed list 21 nursing problem areasIDA JEAN ORLANDODeveloped the three elements – client behavior, nurse reaction and nurse action – compose the nursing situation. She observed that the nurse provide direct assistance to meet an immediate need for help in order to avoid or to alleviate distress or helplessness.MYRA LEVINEDescribed the Four Conservation Principles. conservation of energyconservation of structured integrityconservation of personal integrityconservation of social integrityDOROTHY JOHNSONDeveloped the Behavioral System Model. Patient’s behavior as a system that is a whole with interacting parts how the client adapts to illnessgoal of nursing is to reduce so that the client can move more easily through recovery. MARTHA ROGERSConceptualized the Science of Unitary Human Beings. She asserted that human beings are more than different from the sum of their parts; the distinctive properties of the whole are significantly different from those of its parts.DOROTHEA OREMEmphasizes the client’s self care needs; nursing care becomes necessary when client is unable to fulfill biological, psychological, developmental or social needs.IMOGENE KINGNursing process is defined as dynamic interpersonal process between nurse, client and health care system.BETTY NEUMANStress reduction is a goal of system model of nursing practice. Nursing actions are in primary, secondary or tertiary level of preventionSISTER CALLISTA ROY Presented the Adaptation Model. She viewed each person as a unified bio-psychosocial system in constant interaction with a changing environment. The goal of nursing is to help the person adapt to changes in physiological needs, self-concept, role function and interdependent relations during health and illness. LYDIA HALLIntroduced the notion that nursing centers around three components: person(core), pathologic state and treatment(cure) and body(care).JEAN WATSONConceptualized the Human Caring Model. She emphasized that nursing is the application of the art and human science through transpersonal caring transactions to help persons achieve mind-body-soul harmony, which generates self-knowledge, self-control, self-care and self-healing.ROSEMARIE RIZZO PARSE Introduced the Theory of Human Becoming. She emphasized free choice of personal meaning in relating to value priorities, co-creating of rhythmical patterns, in exchange with the environment and contranscending in many dimensions as possibilities unfold.MADELEINE LENINGERDeveloped the Transcultural Nursing Model. She advocated that nursing is a humanistic and scientific mode of helping a client through specific cultural caring processes (cultural values, beliefs and practices) to improve or maintain a health condition<br />