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Poetry (language research)

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Poetry (language research)

  1. 1. Elements of Poetry Poetic Devices Types of Poetry Forms of Poetry
  2. 2. “Poetry is thoughts that breath and words that burn” - Thomas Gray “The spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings“ - Wordsworth "If I read a book and it makes my body so cold no fire ever can warm me, I know that is poetry“ - Emily Dickinson
  4. 4. FORM  Each poet uses the "form" which will most effectively EXPRESS what he wants to convey to other human beings.  Traditional poetry used to follow very strict forms.  This kind of poetry is called FREE VERSE. It is most often used in modern times and presents a multitude of possibilities.  The poet uses free form to make the poem fit the contents and to express the mood or feeling of his work.
  5. 5. LINES  These are the vehicle of the authors thoughts and ideas. These are the building blocks with which to create a poem.  The WORDS of each line proceed as usual from left to right, but they curiously end where the poet wants them to stop. Therefore, you may have some lines that are of equal length and others which are not.  Besides the length and margining of the first word in each line, the PUNCTUATION at the end of each is also a major tool for the poet. At times he will want us to make a full stop, other times a gentle or slight pause, and even others perhaps a sudden break, and so on. Ultimately, then, poetry creates sensations, moods, and images in the reader's mind.
  6. 6. STANZAS  The lines in a poem are most often divided into sections looking as some sort of paragraphing. These we call STANZAS. A stanza, therefore, is the grouping of the lines, sort of like a paragraph. One way to identify a stanza is to count the number of lines. Thus:  couplet (2 lines)  tercet (3 lines)  quatrain (4 lines)  cinquain (5 lines)  sestet (6 lines) (sometimes it's called a sexain)  septet (7 lines)  octave (8 lines)
  7. 7. RHYME  Rhyme is the SONIC imitation usually of end syllables of words. Two kinds of Rhyme: 1. END RHYME In which the words at the end of a given line rhyme. 2. INTERNAL RHYME This kind of rhyming is different from end rhyme in that the rhyming takes place somewhere within the line and not at the end. But most of us find it more natural to use rhyming at the end and not in the middle of our poem's lines. Still, the most widely read and enjoyed poetry artfully combines these and other patterns and techniques for the creation of the poems. Ex: (Internal Rhyme) It won't be LONG before my SONG ends the day, And the FLOWERS near the TOWERS reach the sky.
  8. 8. Colonel John McCrae wrote a famous poem called 'In Flanders Fields,' which uses end rhyme to create a rhythmic flow as he expresses his grief over the fallen soldiers who died on Flanders' battlefield during World War I. Here's the first stanza of the poem: 'In Flanders fields the poppies blow Between the crosses, row on row, That mark our place; and in the sky The larks, still bravely singing, fly. Scarce heard amid the guns below.‘ In lines one and two, the words 'blow' and 'row' rhyme, as do the words 'sky' and 'fly' in lines three and four. In line five, the word 'below' rhymes with the first two lines. In order to use end rhyme, one does not need to make every line rhyme. Only two lines need to rhyme in order to create end rhyme, but McCrae chose to use end rhyme multiple times to enhance the musicality of the poem.
  9. 9. PATTERN Rhyme contributes in creating a pattern when read appropriately. It creates a special effect which results in being pleasant and motivating.
  10. 10. AABB Many poems that follow the AABB pattern are broken into quatrains, which are four line stanzas, where the first and second lines rhyme and the third and fourth lines rhyme. He'll Never Know I want to run, I want to hide From all the pain he caused inside. I want to scream, I want to cry. Why can't I tell him goodbye? I want to move on, I just can't let go. I love him more than he will ever know. I want to start over, I want to feel free! But this pain will never leave me be. He hurt me bad, the pain is deep. From all the promises he couldn't keep. All the lies, I heard him say. Are in my head and just won't fade. How can I forget him, leave the him behind. Erase the memories from my mind. He doesn't love me, and he never will. He will never care how I feel. - Jenifer
  11. 11. ABCB In an ABCB format, the second and forth lines of the stanza rhyme. The first and third lines do not rhyme with any others. One More Day Sitting sadly on my bed Listening to the wild winds blow, Crying bitterly behind my hair, Trying not to let it show. Knowing that you won't be back You left without good-byes, Never to mend my broken heart, Letting loose my cries. Every day I waited And every day I prayed, Hoping God would leave you here At least just one more day. © Tanya Heasman
  12. 12. ABAB In an ABAB format, the rhyming alternates lines. The first and third rhyme with each other, and the second and fourth rhyme. Healing Love Oh Great God, You alone can ease The pounding of my troubled heart Only with You I am at peace For You make all my fears depart Comfort me with Your blazing love And pacify my worried soul Your grace of love from up above Is healing love that makes me whole Cast away all my doubts and fears And lift my downcast spirit, Lord Please let my heart be brought to cheer By Your comforting love and Word My body and mind may be frail But your healing love keeps me strong Your love will never ever fail So to me, nothing will go wrong - Jocelyn S. Ongdico
  13. 13.  And it is rhyme which is one of the contributors to the pattern created in reading or writing a poem: SQUEEZE ... TEASE; RUN ... FUN; DEMONSTRATE ... WHAT SHE ATE. Another contributor to pattern is the number of syllables, as can be seen in the third set of the examples given right above. DE-MONS-TRATE as imitated by WHAT-SHE-ATE. Still another element which contributes to pattern is the accommodation and distribution of the lines. The reader is thus led or even forced into following a given pattern, and BEAT.  But the ultimate creator of pattern is the combination of the STRESSED SYLLABLES IN ANY PARTICULAR LINE of a poem.
  14. 14. RHYTHM This brings us to the topic of RHYTHM, perhaps the pivot point of all the elements, because it is rhythm which creates the pleasant gliding effect when we read a poem. It helps us as readers to travel along the lines of the poem with a certain enjoyable tempo created by the components of rhythm.
  15. 15. Counting-Out Rhyme Silver bark of beech , and sallow Bark of yellow birch and yellow Twig of willow. Stripe of green in moosewood maple, Colour seen in leaf of apples, Bark of popple. Wood of popple pale as moonbeam, Wood of oak for yoke and bran-beam, Wood of hornbeam. Silver bark of beech, and hollow Stem of elder, tall and yellow Twig of willow. -Edna St. Vincent Millay
  16. 16. Meter The systematic regularity in rhythm; this systematic rhythm (or sound pattern) is usually identified by examining the type of "foot" and the number of feet.  1. Poetic Foot: The traditional line of metered poetry contains a number of rhythmical units, which are called feet. The feet in a line are distinguished as a recurring pattern of two or three syllables("apple" has 2 syllables, "banana" has 3 syllables, etc.). The pattern, or foot, is designated according to the number of syllables contained, and the relationship in each foot between the strong and weak syllables.Thus: __ = a stressed (or strong, or LOUD) syllable U = an unstressed (or weak, or quiet) syllable
  17. 17.  In other words, any line of poetry with a systematic rhythm has a certain number of feet, and each foot has two or three syllables with a constant beat pattern .  a. Iamb (Iambic) - weak syllable followed by strong syllable. [Note that the pattern is sometimes fairly hard to maintain, as in the third foot.]  b. Trochee (Trochaic): strong syllable followed by a weak syllable.  c. Anapest (Anapestic): two weak syllables followed by a strong syllable. e.g. In her room at the prow of the house Where light breaks, and the windows are tossed... From "The Writer", by Richard Wilbur
  18. 18.  d. Dactyl (Dactylic): a strong syllable followed by two weak syllables. Here's another (silly) example of dactylic rhythm. DDDA was an / archer, who / shot at a / frog DDDB was a / butcher, and / had a great / dog DDDC was a / captain, all / covered with / lace DDDD was a / drunkard, and / had a red / face.   e. Spondee (Spondaic): two strong syllables (not common as lines, but appears as a foot). A spondee usually appears at the end of a line.
  19. 19.  2. The Number of Feet: The second part of meter is the number of feet contained in a line. Thus: one foot=monometer two feet=dimeter three feet=trimeter four feet=tetrameter five feet=pentameter six feet=hexameter (when hexameter is in iambic rhythm, it is called an alexandrine)  Poems with an identifiable meter are therefore identified by the type of feet (e.g. iambic) and the number of feet in a line (e.g. pentameter). The following line is iambic pentameter because it (1) has five feet [pentameter], and (2) each foot has two syllables with the stress on the second syllable [iambic]. That time | of year | thou mayst | in me | behold  Thus, you will hear meter identified as iambic pentameter, trochaic tetrameter, and so on.
  20. 20.  3. Irregularity: Many metered poems in English avoid perfectly regular rhythm because it is monotonous. Irregularities in rhythm add interest and emphasis to the lines. In this line:  The first foot substitutes a trochee for an iamb. Thus, the basic iambic pentameter is varied with the opening trochee. 4. Blank Verse: Any poetry that does have a set metrical pattern (usually iambic pentameter), butdoes not have rhyme, is blank verse. Shakespeare frequently used unrhymed iambic pentameter in his plays; his works are an early example of blank verse.
  21. 21.  5. Free Verse: Most modern poetry no longer follows strict rules of meter or rhyme, especially throughout an entire poem. Free verse, frankly, has no rules about meter or rhyme whatsoever! [In other words, blank verse has rhythm, but no rhyme, while free verse has neither rhythm norrhyme.] So, you may find it difficult to find regular iambic pentameter in a modern poem, though you might find it in particular lines. Modern poets do like to throw in the occasional line or phrase of metered poetry, particularly if they’re trying to create a certain effect. Free verse can also apply to a lack of a formal verse structure.
  22. 22. EUPHONY  EUPHONY is simply the combination of agreeable and melodious sounds which make a poem pleasant to listen to. It is the nice- sounding tone of a poem when read.  This is the reason why a poem is never as effective as when read aloud -- simply because poetry in general deals a lot with the euphonic sounds contained within it.  EUPHONY is perhaps one ultimate aim of poetry. The esthete -- the beautiful. It is poetry which allows mankind to express such beauty from within. Poetry itself is beauty created.
  24. 24. ALLITERATION The purposeful repetition of a consonant sound in two or more consecutive words, usually at the beginning of such words. Poem: "The Raven" by Edgar Allan Poe Example: Once upon a midnight dreary while I pondered weak and weary (1); rare and radiant maiden (11); And thesilken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain (notice the deft use of consonance as well) (13); Deep into thatdarkness peering, long I stood there wondering, fearing, / Doubting, dreaming dreams no mortal ever dared to dream before (19-20).
  25. 25. Analysis: One purpose of alliteration is to draw attention to specific words. When combined with other sound devices--rhyme, assonance, consonance, rhythm, meter, for example--the effect multiplies. In line 1, Poe repeats the w sound, with the last example being weary. Weary also happens to end a couplet, drawing added emphasis to it. The critical reader and thinker, therefore must ask himself, why? The narrator could be weary with life, the reason for which is given throughout the poem; Poe may emphasize the narrator's weariness as a clue that perhaps he's fallen asleep and the entire episode is a dream or an hallucination.
  26. 26. REPETITION a) Repetition of WORDS/ IDEAS/ or, IMAGES; b) ANAPHORA: The repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive lines or stanzas. Tomorrow when the sun comes out, Tomorrow when the birds sing out, Tomorrow it will come to be, Tomorrow, when you'll come to me. c) ANADIPLOSIS: The repetition of a word or phrase at the end of one line and at the beginning of the next; or, at the end of the last line in a stanza or verse, and at the beginning of the next stanza. She will never come to this my land, To this my land where I belong.
  27. 27. ONOMATOPOEIA The use of words which imitate the sounds they stand for. BEACH ORCHESTRA The waves are racing Towards the shore Booming crashing…more more more! The sand is crunching beaneth my feet Boom crash crunch crunch I march to the beat Sandcastles toppling Umbrellas whisking by Storm clouds brewing Land meets sky Booming waves Biting winds Full grey clouds Let the storm begin. -
  28. 28. INVERSION a) ANASTROPHE: To the sea she went, Without smiling they parted, b) HYSTERON-PROTERON (the last first): Then came the thunder. Out she went. Fear she felt.
  30. 30. Simile Metaphor -is the rhetorical term used to designate the most elementary form of resemblances: most similes are introduced by "like" or "as." These comparisons are usually between dissimilar situations or objects that have something in common, such as "My love is like a red, red rose.“  - leaves out "like" or "as" and implies a direct comparison between objects or situations. "All flesh is grass."
  31. 31. Storm At Sea CRASHING waves... SMASHING seas... Bringing sailors to their knees. As they struggle to save their lives, Hoping and praying help arrives. The stormy seas as dark as coal, Preventing the sailors from reaching their goal. Battered and bruised, but still they fight... Staring ahead into the dead of night. Rocking and rolling as they try to stand... Hoping against hope that they soon reach land. Bleary eyed from lack of sleep. Down in their cabins, huddled like sheep. As they're rocking and rolling down beneath, Weary sailors above resist with gritted teeth. Hours later, as the storm starts to dissipate, It leaves a calm tranquil sea in it wake. The veteran sailors know the battle is over and they have won... As they contemplate other storms yet to come... By Amar Qamar Source:
  32. 32. Synecdoche -is a form of metaphor, which in mentioning an important (and attached) part signifies the whole (e.g. "hands" for labor). -Examples:  Boots on the ground—refers to soldiers  New wheels—refers to a new car  Ask for her hand—refers to asking a woman to marry  Suits—can refer to businesspeople  Plastic—can refer to credit cards  The White House—can refer to statements made by individuals within the United States government
  33. 33. Metonymy -is similar to synecdoche; it's a form of metaphor allowing an object closely associated (but unattached) with a object or situation to stand for the thing itself (e.g. the crown or throne for a king or the bench for the judicial system). -Example: The given lines are from Shakespeare’s “Julies Caesar” Act I. “Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears.” Mark Anthony uses “ears” to say that he wants the people present there to listen to him attentively. It is a metonymy because the word “ears” replaces the concept of attention.
  34. 34. Symbol -is like a simile or metaphor with the first term left out. "My love is like a red, red rose" is a simile. If, through persistent identification of the rose with the beloved woman, we may come to associate the rose with her and her particular virtues. At this point, the rose would become a symbol.
  35. 35. My Heart Leaps Up When I Behold My heart leaps up when I behold A rainbow in the sky Spring and daisies means youth in Sara Teasdale’s “Wild Asters”: In the spring, I asked the daisies If his words were true, And the clever, clear-eyed daisies Always knew. Brown and barren means growing old in Sara Teasdale’s “Wild Asters”: Now the fields are brown and barren, Bitter autumn blows, Bitter autumn means death in Sara Teasdale’s “Wild Asters”: Now the fields are brown and barren, Bitter autumn blows, And of all the stupid asters Not one knows. - William Wordsworth’s
  36. 36. Allegory - can be defined as a one to one correspondence between a series of abstract ideas and a series of images or pictures presented in the form of a story or a narrative. For example, George Orwell's Animal Farm is an extended allegory that represents the Russian Revolution through a fable of a farm and its rebellious animals.
  37. 37. 1. “Animal Farm”, written by George Orwell, is an allegory that uses animals on a farm to describe the overthrow of the last of the Russian Tsar Nicholas II and the Communist Revolution of Russia before WW I. The actions of the animals on the farm are used to expose the greed and corruption of the revolution. It also describes how powerful people can change the ideology of a society. One of the cardinal rules on the farm for the animals is: “All animals are equal but a few are more equal than others.” The animals on the farm represent different sections of Russian society after the revolution. For instance, the pigs represent those who came to power following the revolution; “Mr. Jones” the owner of the farm represents the overthrown Tsar Nicholas II; while “Boxer” the horse, represents the laborer class etc. The use of allegory in the novel allows Orwell to make his position clear about the Russian Revolution and expose its evils.
  38. 38. Personification -occurs when you treat abstractions or inanimate objects as human, that is, giving them human attributes, powers, or feelings (e.g., "nature wept" or "the wind whispered many truths to me"). Look at the human characteristics used by Howard Nemerov in his poem “The Vacuum.” Also notice how personification reveals the speaker’s attitude toward housekeeping.
  39. 39. The Vacuum The house is quiet now The vacuum cleaner sulks in the corner closet, Its bag limp as a stopped lung, its mouth Grinning into the floor, maybe at my Slovenly life, my dog-dead youth. I’ve lived this way long enough, But when my old woman died her soul Went into that vacuum cleaner, and I can’t bear To see the bag swell like a belly, eating the dust And the woolen mice, and begin to howl Because there is old filth everywhere She used to crawl, in corner and under the stair. I know now how life is cheap as dirt, And still the hungry, angry heart Hangs on and howls, biting at air.
  40. 40. Irony  takes many forms. Most basically, irony is a figure of speech in which actual intent is expressed through words that carry the opposite meaning.  Paradox: usually a literal contradiction of terms or situations  Situational Irony: an unmailed letter  Dramatic Irony: audience has more information or greater perspective than the characters  Verbal Irony: saying one thing but meaning another  Overstatement (hyperbole)  Understatement (meiosis)  Sarcasm  Irony may be a positive or negative force. It is most valuable as a mode of perception that assists the poet to see around and behind opposed attitudes, and to see the often conflicting interpretations that come from our examination of life.
  41. 41. We come across the following lines in Shakespeare’s “Romeo and Juliet”, Act I, Scene V. “Go ask his name: if he be married. My grave is like to be my wedding bed.” Juliet commands her nurse to find out who Romeo was and says if he were married, then her wedding bed would be her grave. It is a verbal irony because the audience knows that she is going to die on her wedding bed.
  42. 42. IMAGERY The use of language, sensory language, language which stimulates the reader's imagination. The use of the sensory language which serves to transmit or invoke the same or similar images in the reader's mind. Those Winter Sundays Sundays too my father got up early and put his clothes on in the blueblack cold, then with cracked hands that ached from labor in the weekday weather made banked fires blaze. No one ever thanked him. I’d wake and hear the cold splintering, breaking. When the rooms were warm, he’d call, and slowly I would rise and dress, fearing the chronic angers of that house, Speaking indifferently to him, who had driven out the cold and polished my good shoes as well. What did I know, what did I know of love’s austere and lonely offices? Robert Hayden
  43. 43. VARIETY  The use of variety in length of lines, rhythm, rhyme, distribution of lines and words, and anything else which adds to the EFFECTIVENESS of the poem. Variety may be used to create humor, depression, or many other moods or sensations. The effective poet learns to use variety whenever and wherever it serves his purposes of expression and externalization of internal experiences.
  44. 44. Assonance  Takes place when two or more words close to one another repeat the same vowel sound but start with different consonant sounds. “Men sell the wedding bells.” The same vowel sound of the short vowel “-e-” repeats itself in almost all the words excluding the definite article. The words do share the same vowel sounds but start with different consonant sounds unlike alliteration that involves repetition of the same consonant sounds.
  46. 46. NARRATIVE  There are many kinds or types of poems. Some describe what poets see; some what they remember; and others what they perceive through other senses. But other poems are intended to tell a story. These are called NARRATIVE POEMS. Just like the regular stories which you read in your literature courses, a narrative poem also has the same basic elements. It has a setting, one or more characters in it, usually a conflict, a plot which builds up to a climax, and even a conclusion, oftentimes. The story which the narrative poem tells can also be about almost anything.
  47. 47. On Being Human Angelic minds, they say, by simple intelligence Behold the Forms of nature. They discern Unerringly the Archtypes, all the verities Which mortals lack or indirectly learn. Transparent in primordial truth, unvarying, Pure Earthness and right Stonehood from their clear, High eminence are seen; unveiled, the seminal Huge Principles appear. The Tree-ness of the tree they know-the meaning of Arboreal life, how from earth's salty lap The solar beam uplifts it; all the holiness Enacted by leaves' fall and rising sap; But never an angel knows the knife-edged severance Of sun from shadow where the trees begin, The blessed cool at every pore caressing us -An angel has no skin. They see the Form of Air; but mortals breathing it Drink the whole summer down into the breast. The lavish pinks, the field new-mown, the ravishing Sea-smells, the wood-fire smoke that whispers Rest. The tremor on the rippled pool of memory That from each smell in widening circles goes, The pleasure and the pang --can angels measure it? An angel has no nose. The nourishing of life, and how it flourishes On death, and why, they utterly know; but not The hill-born, earthy spring, the dark cold bilberries. The ripe peach from the southern wall still hot Full- bellied tankards foamy- topped, the delicate Half- lyric lamb, a new loaf's billowy curves, Nor porridge, nor the tingling taste of oranges. —An angel has no nerves. Far richer they! I know the senses' witchery Guards us like air, from heavens too big to see; Imminent death to man that barb'd sublimity And dazzling edge of beauty unsheathed would be. Yet here, within this tiny, charmed interior, This parlour of the brain, their Maker shares With living men some secrets in a privacy Forever ours, not theirs.
  48. 48. LYRIC/DESCRIPTIVE  LYRIC poetry, also called DESCRIPTIVE poetry, is a very personal kind of poetry. It is usually brief, melodic, and very expressive. It is descriptive in essence, and conveys IMPRESSIONS, FEELINGS, EMOTIONS, SENSATIONS, and very personal and INTIMATE VIEWS concerning an experience. Lyric or Descriptive poetry may touch such themes as: nature, beauty, love and friendship, the joy of life, death, patriotism, and the like.
  49. 49. Dying (aka I heard a fly buzz when I died ) I heard a fly buzz when I died; The stillness round my form Was like the stillness in the air Between the heaves of storm. by Emily Dickinson
  50. 50. HUMOROUS  It is probable that you, as student of literature, have never really stopped to think how versatile poetry is. But it is because poetry is so FLEXIBLE, so PLASTIC, that there are so many varieties of poetry in the world or nation. The plasticity of poetry makes it possible therefore for author's to bend and shape this kind of written expression to suit their needs or purposes.  It is no wonder then that some poets should choose HUMOR as their main purpose in writing a poem.
  51. 51. A BUBBLE MRS. Mehitable Marcia MooreWas a dame of superior mind,With a gown which, modestly fitting before,Was greatly puffed up behind. The bustle she wore was ingeniously plannedWith an inspiration bright:It magnified seven diameters andWas remarkably nice and light. It was made of rubber and edged with laceAnd riveted all with brass,And the whole immense interior spaceInflated with hydrogen gas. The ladies all said when she hove in viewLike the round and rising moon:"She's a stuck up thing!" which was partly true,And men called her the Captive Balloon. To Manhattan Beach for a bath one dayShe went and she said: "O dear!If I leave of this what will people say?I shall look so uncommonly queer! " So a costume she had accordingly madeTo take it all nicely in,And when she appeared in that suit arrayed,She was greeted with many a grin. Proudly and happily looking around,She waded out into the wet;But the water was very, very profound,And her feet and her forehead met! As her bubble drifted away from the shore,On the glassy billows borne,All cried: "Why, where is Mehitable Moore?I saw her go in, I'll be sworn! " Then the bulb it swelled as the sun grew hot,Till it burst with a sullen roar,And the sea like oil closed over the spot-- Farewell, O Mehitable Moore! - by: Ambrose Bierce (1842-1914)
  53. 53. LIMERICK A LIMERICK is a special type of poem intended to be humorous. It consists of five lines only. It is usually a nonsense verse which often concerns something ridiculous. But even so, it follows a regular and distinctive pattern.
  54. 54. HAIKU  This is a traditional form of poetry which originated in Japan. In form, it is apparently a very simplistic sort of poetry, but the truth is that it is an art trying to create Haiku poetry with the beauty and effectiveness it requires.  Haiku poetry consists of only THREE lines in all.  The first line of the Haiku poem must have FIVE syllables; the second line must have SEVEN syllables; and finally, the third must consist of another FIVE, just like the first. (5/7/5). Thus, the Haiku poet is obliged to describe as vividly as possible, in only seventeen syllables, a picture or IMAGE or SCENE which beautifully forms sharply in the reader's mind.
  55. 55. What is the Structure of a Haiku Poem? A Haiku consists of 3 lines and 17 syllables. Each line has a set number of syllables see below: Line 1 – 5 syllables Line 2 – 7 syllables Line 3 – 5 syllables An Example of a Haiku Poem (5) The sky is so blue. (7) The sun is so warm up high. (5) I love the summer. Haiku poems don't need to rhyme, but for more of a challenge some poets try to rhyme lines 1 and 3.
  56. 56. BALLAD  One of the oldest types of poetry is a special kind of Narrative poem known as the BALLAD. The Ballad tells a story and happens to be quite lengthy. As a rule, a Ballad is concerned with a sharp CONFLICT and with deep HUMAN EMOTION. Once in a great while, though, a ballad here and there will deal with the funnier side of life. But, as a rule ballads dealt with love, honor, courage, and death.  The BALLAD STANZA contains FOUR LINES. The FOURTH line rhymes with the SECOND. The FIRST and THIRD lines usually have FOUR ACCENTED SYLLABLES while the SECOND and FOURTH have THREE each.
  57. 57. Annabel Lee It was many and many a year ago, In a kingdom by the sea, That a maiden lived whom you may know By the name of Annabel Lee; — And this maiden she lived with no other thought Than to love and be loved by me. She was a child and I was a child, In this kingdom by the sea, But we loved with a love that was more than love — I and my Annabel Lee — With a love that the wingéd seraphs of Heaven Coveted her and me. And this was the reason that, long ago, In this kingdom by the sea, A wind blew out of a cloud by night Chilling my Annabel Lee; So that her high-born kinsmen came And bore her away from me, To shut her up, in a sepulchre In this kingdom by the sea. The angels, not half so happy in Heaven, Went envying her and me; Yes! that was the reason (as all men know, In this kingdom by the sea) That the wind came out of the cloud, chilling And killing my Annabel Lee. But our love it was stronger by far than the love Of those who were older than we — Of many far wiser than we — And neither the angels in Heaven above Nor the demons down under the sea Can ever dissever my soul from the soul Of the beautiful Annabel Lee: — For the moon never beams without bringing me dreams Of the beautiful Annabel Lee; And the stars never rise but I see the bright eyes Of the beautiful Annabel Lee; And so, all the night-tide, I lie down by the side Of my darling, my darling, my life and my bride In her sepulchre there by the sea — In her tomb by the side of the sea. Edgar Allan Poe (1849)
  58. 58. FREE VERSE  The poet uses free form to make the poem fit the contents and to express the mood or feeling of his intentions or purposes. The length of the lines is irregular, the indentation of the lines may also vary from one to the next, it does use rhythm, but it seldom uses end rhyme nor regular stanzas. Capitalization of the first letter in each line and proper nouns is unorthodox or conveniently changed. Punctuation is equally affected, and the distribution of the lines and words is entirely in the hands of the writer. Most poetry we read today, therefore, is Free Verse.
  59. 59. After the Sea-Ship After the Sea-Ship—after the whistling winds; After the white-gray sails, taut to their spars and ropes, Below, a myriad, myriad waves, hastening, lifting up their necks, Tending in ceaseless flow toward the track of the ship: Waves of the ocean, bubbling and gurgling, blithely prying, Waves, undulating waves—liquid, uneven, emulous waves, Toward that whirling current, laughing and buoyant, with curves, Where the great Vessel, sailing and tacking, displaced the surface; by Walt Whitman
  60. 60. EPIC It is a long narrative poem in elevated style recounting the deeds of a legendary or historical hero. The Iliad (800 BCE) Iliad is another example of an epic. It was written by the popular Greek poet, Homer. It relates the story of the Trojan wars, involving themes of courage, boldness, love for one’s country and nostalgia of family. However, it describes many legends related to the siege of Troy, the events took place before the siege, the gathering of the warriors prior to the siege and the causes of the war. Later, the epic foretold the looming death of Achilles and the destruction of Troy. The style of narration is grand, and suits an epic poem — the reason that it is still one the most celebrated work of antiquity.
  61. 61. SONNET  It is a lyric poem consisting of 14 lines and, in the English version, is usually written in iambic pentameter. There are two basic kinds of sonnets: the Italian (or Petrarchan) sonnet and the Shakespearean (or Elizabethan/English) sonnet. The Italian/Petrarchan sonnet is named after Petrarch, an Italian Renaissance poet. The Petrarchan sonnet consists of an octave (eight lines) and a sestet (six lines).  The Shakespearean sonnet consists of three quatrains (four lines each) and a concluding couplet (two lines). The Petrarchan sonnet tends to divide the thought into two parts (argument and conclusion); the Shakespearean, into four (the final couplet is the summary).
  62. 62. A Shakespearean sonnet is generally written in an iambic pentameter, there are 10 syllables in each line. The rhythm of the lines must be as below: From fairest creatures we desire increase, That thereby beauty’s rose might never die. But as the riper should by time decease, His tender heir might bear his memory: But thou, contracted to thine own bright eyes, Feed’st thy light’s flame with self-substantial fuel, Making a famine where abundance lies, Thyself thy foe, to thy sweet self too cruel. Thou that art now the world’s fresh ornament And only herald to the gaudy spring, Within thine own bud buriest thy content And, tender churl, mak’st waste in niggarding. Pity the world, or else this glutton be, To eat the world’s due, by the grave and thee -William Shakespeare
  63. 63. ELEGY  It is a lyric poem that mourns the dead. [It's not to be confused with a eulogy.]  It has no set metric or stanzaic pattern, but it usually begins by reminiscing about the dead person, then laments the reason for the death, and then resolves the grief by concluding that death leads to immortality. It often uses "apostrophe" (calling out to the dead person) as a literary technique. It can have a fairly formal style, and sound similar to an ode.
  64. 64. O CAPTAIN MY CAPTAIN O CAPTAIN! my Captain! our fearful trip is done; The ship has weather'd every rack, the prize we sought is won; The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting, While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring: But O heart! heart! heart! O the bleeding drops of red, Where on the deck my Captain lies, Fallen cold and dead. O Captain! my Captain! rise up and hear the bells; Rise up--for you the flag is flung--for you the bugle trills; 10 For you bouquets and ribbon'd wreaths--for you the shores a-crowding; For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces turning; Here Captain! dear father! This arm beneath your head; It is some dream that on the deck, You've fallen cold and dead. My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still; My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will; The ship is anchor'd safe and sound, its voyage closed and done; From fearful trip, the victor ship, comes in with object won; 20 Exult, O shores, and ring, O bells! But I, with mournful tread, Walk the deck my Captain lies, Fallen cold and dead. - WALT WITMAN
  65. 65. ODE It is usually a lyric poem of moderate length, with a serious subject, an elevated style, and an elaborate stanza pattern. The Ship of State (Odes I, 14) Quintus Horatius Flaccus (Horace) (65-8 B.C.) On Ship! New billows sweep thee out Seaward. What wilt thou? Hold the port, be stout See'st not thy mast How rent by stiff Southwestern blast?Thy side, of rowers how forlorn? Thine hull, with groaning yards, with rigging torn, Can ill sustain The fierce, and ever fiercer main;Thy gods, no more than sails entire, From whom yet once they need might aid require, Oh Pontic Pine, The first of woodland stocks is thine.Yet race and name are but as dust, Not painted sterns gave storm-tost seamen trust; Unless thou dare To be the sport of storms, beware.O fold at best a weary weight, A yearning care and constant strain of late, O shun the seas That girt those glittering Cyclades