Toward Universal e-Learning


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E-Learning content must be inter- operable, accessible, semantically sound. This universal e-learning has technical and business benefits.

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  • Toward Universal e-Learning

    1. 1. Toward Universal e-Learning June 17, 2004 Greg Shin ( 신승식 ) http:// /blog e-Learning 센터 , 정보통신사이버대학
    2. 2. Table of Contents <ul><li>E-learning features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-Learning outreach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Universal design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universality of the Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-checkpoints </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Principles of universal e-learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal e-learning content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate structure from presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits of universal e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>Problems to be solved </li></ul>
    3. 3. I. Features of E-Learning <ul><li>Unique features of e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>E-learning outreach </li></ul>
    4. 4. 1. Unique Features of e-learning <ul><li>E-learning is the only window to the knowledge world for some people. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People with disability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People alienated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People not affordable for classroom training of high quality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only e-learning can accommodate for the individual learner. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learner control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learner preference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable (human) contact with learners </li></ul></ul>I. Features of E-Learning
    5. 5. 2. E-Learning Outreach What SCORM does for! e-learning content e-learning service I. Features of E-Learning Accessibility Interoperability Semantic Richness Machine Readable Machine Searchable Automatically Organized Knowledge Quality Learning for All Different People Old Inexperienced Cognitive Disabled Blind Low vision Color Blind Deaf Mobility Impaired PhotoSensitive Epilepsy Temporally Disabled Different Culture Different Language Different System Different Servers Different Clients Different OS’s Different Browsers Different Versions Black&White Display Printed Voiced Different LMS Different Vendors Different Server Environments Environmental Difference Noisy Environment Public Library Slow Connection Low Resolution On the go Unaffordable
    6. 6. II. Universal Design <ul><li>Universality Web </li></ul><ul><li>Non-normative Checkpoints </li></ul>
    7. 7. 1. Universality of the Web <ul><li>independence of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware platform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software platform - OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application Software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public, Group, or Personal scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scribbled idea to polished publication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language and culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data for machines or Documents for people </li></ul></ul>Source: The future of the World Wide Web, Tim Berners-Lee II. Universal Design
    8. 8. 2. Is your learning content…? <ul><li>valid with HTML 4 and CSS2, DOM spec? </li></ul><ul><li>acceptable on Mac/Linux, Mozilla/Opera? </li></ul><ul><li>flexible enough for small screens? </li></ul><ul><li>easily understandable for novice learners? </li></ul><ul><li>operable via keyboard? </li></ul><ul><li>readable through screen readers? </li></ul><ul><li>ready for i18n, or l10n? </li></ul><ul><li>excluding some learners intentionally? </li></ul><ul><li>reachable by general search robot? </li></ul>II. Universal Design
    9. 9. III. Principles of Universal E-Learning <ul><li>Universal e-learning content </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Semantics </li></ul><ul><li>Separate structure from presentation </li></ul>
    10. 10. 1. Universal e-learning content <ul><li>Traditional learning objects </li></ul><ul><li>Universal learning objects </li></ul>III. Principles of Universal e-Learning within domain across domains within domain across domains SCORM 1.2 SCORM 2004
    11. 11. Universal e-Learning Model <ul><li>Universal </li></ul><ul><li>E-Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Human Involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>Guiding </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction </li></ul>III. Principles of Universal e-Learning Self-Expanding Learning Self-Organizing Learning Material Universal Web Accessible Regardless of Learner Difference Interoperable Regardless of Machine Difference Semantic Regardless of Vocabularies Robust Regardless of Presentation Mode
    12. 12. 1. Interoperability <ul><li>Standard Compliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HTML 4 (XHTML 1, XML 1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CSS 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ECMA-262 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DOM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Robustness of Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Browser Compatibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilizing CSS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scalability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoidance of Proprietary Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ActiveX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended tags(element, attributes), objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-standard scripts, applets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deprecated technologies </li></ul></ul>III. Principles of Universal e-Learning
    13. 13. 1. Interoperability: Example <ul><li>Viewport Independence </li></ul>III. Principles of Universal e-Learning > 1. Interoperability
    14. 14. 2. Accessibility: Norms <ul><li>World wide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>W3C(1999), Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US(1998), Section 508 of Rehabilitation Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UK(1995), Disability Discrimination Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia(1992), Disability Discrimination Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IMS(2002), Guidelines for Developing Accessible Learning Applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IMS(2003), Learner Information Package Accessibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Domestic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>정통부 (2002), 장애인 노인 등의 정보통신 접근성 향상을 위한 권장지침 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>K-WCAG 1.0 (in processing) </li></ul></ul>III. Principles of Universal e-Learning > 2. Accessibility
    15. 15. Assistive Technologies <ul><li>For input and output </li></ul>III. Principles of Universal e-Learning > 2. Accessibility Braille Display Screen Reader Screen Magnifier Speech Recognition One Hand Keyboard Foot Mouse Joystick Eye Gaze System
    16. 16. Design guidelines for the disabled <ul><li>Examples of design requirements for people with different kinds of disabilities include: </li></ul><ul><li>Visual: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>described graphics or video; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>well marked-up tables or frames; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>keyboard support, screen reader compatibility; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hearing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>captioning for audio, supplemental illustration; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical, Speech: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>keyboard or single-switch support; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>alternatives for speech input on voice portals; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive, Neurological: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>consistent navigation, appropriate language level; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>illustration; no flickering designs. </li></ul></ul>Source: III. Principles of Universal e-Learning > 2. Accessibility
    17. 17. Accessibility: General Principles <ul><li>Provide alternate access route. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide multi-modality. </li></ul><ul><li>Use gracefully transforming technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Think device independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Organize robust structure. (not necessarily same as “robust design”) </li></ul><ul><li>Think forward & backward compatibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize user control. </li></ul>III. Principles of Universal e-Learning > 2. Accessibility
    18. 18. Accessible Learning Products <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomson NETg </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web Conference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizon Live, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning Management System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black Board, THINQ, Pathlore, ATutor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authoring(Developing) Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macromedia Flash MX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trivantis Lectora </li></ul></ul>III. Principles of Universal e-Learning > 2. Accessibility
    19. 19. Accessible Products: Example 1 <ul><li>Horizon Live </li></ul>III. Principles of Universal e-Learning > 2. Accessibility
    20. 20. Accessible Products: Example 2 <ul><li>Thomson NETg : Learning Studio </li></ul>III. Principles of Universal e-Learning > 2. Accessibility
    21. 21. 3. Semantic Web <ul><li>Semantic Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provides a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning , better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. </li></ul></ul>III. Principles of Universal e-Learning > 3. Semantics
    22. 22. Semantic e-Learning <ul><li>HTML has already limited semantic features! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Link types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alternate, Stylesheet, Next, Prev, Contents, Index, Glossary, Copyright, Chapter, Section, Subsection, Appendix, Help, Bookmark </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural Markup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li><h1>, <h2>, <q>, <dl>, <ol>, <acronym>, <title>, title,… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>URI, Unicode, UTC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correction history: <del>, <ins> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metadata (DC) </li></ul></ul>III. Principles of Universal e-Learning > 3. Semantics
    23. 23. Semantic (Learning) Material: Example <ul><li>Semantic Presentation Slides </li></ul>III. Principles of Universal e-Learning > 3. Semantics Overview Slide1 slide14 Slide12 Slide20 Overview Screen.css Lee Copyright Doc Korean Translations Printer.css First Prev Top TOC Next Last Author Copyright Alternate Style Primary Style Alternate Version
    24. 24. 4. Separation of Presentation <ul><li>Content-Form Separation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content creator needs to focus on content! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designer needs to focus on how it shows! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use standard compliant, structural markups! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilize CSS and XML(including SVG, SMIL, MathML)! </li></ul></ul>III. Principles of Universal e-Learning > 4. Separate Structure from Presentation
    25. 25. Separation of Presentation: Example <ul><li>CSS Zen Garden </li></ul>III. Principles of Universal e-Learning > 4. Separate Structure from Presentation
    26. 26. IV. Benefits of Universal E-Learning <ul><li>Technical efficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase usability. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce maintenance cost. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Become search engine friendly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repurpose content for multiple formats. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forward compatibility (semantic web, device independence…) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Business benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase market/audience reach. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be ready for internationalization. (eg. caption, alt text, Section 508) </li></ul></ul>IV. Benefits of Universal E-Learning
    27. 27. V. Yet to be Solved <ul><li>Complex interaction (including simulation) </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional design practice </li></ul><ul><li>Universal learning environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authoring tool accessibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessible application, OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assistive technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual preference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>smart card? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collaboration, Integrated learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learning goals and result (effectiveness) </li></ul>V. Problems to be Solved