Issues in Globalization of E-Learning Content and Accessibility


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Accessible content is more ready to internationalization.
Compliance to web standards can reduce possible inaccessibility from global learners.

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Issues in Globalization of E-Learning Content and Accessibility

  1. 1. Issues in Globalization of E-Learning Content and Accessibility 2004-12-13 Sung-shik Shin LG Electronics gregshin at lge dot com
  2. 2. Table of Contents <ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization and accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization issues revisited </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
  3. 3. Terminology <ul><li>encompasses both internationalization and localization </li></ul><ul><li>putting into place the requisite materials, financial, and personnel resources in a global market to support your product or service on a local level </li></ul>Globalization(G11N) <ul><li>preparation necessary for cost effective localization </li></ul><ul><li>process of planning, designing and implementing a &quot;culturally and technically&quot; neutral product </li></ul><ul><li>needs to be addressed in the earliest product planning stages </li></ul><ul><li>properly internationalized product is easier to localize than a non-internationalized product </li></ul>Internationalization (I18N) <ul><li>Adapting a product to a particular language & culture </li></ul>Localization (L10N) <ul><li>Transcribing into one's own or another language </li></ul><ul><li>part of localization </li></ul>Translation
  4. 4. Globalization and Accessibility Translation burden Internationalization cost <ul><li>Separate structure from presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Use markup properly. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep universal design. </li></ul>General Different convention <ul><li>Avoid time-limited response. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide tool tips. </li></ul><ul><li>Size independent design </li></ul><ul><li>Clear navigation </li></ul>Novice users the old different technology Limited bandwidth <ul><li>Standard compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Provide multi-modal content. </li></ul><ul><li>Use interim solutions. </li></ul>Limited environment Assistive technology Different Environment <ul><li>Provide keyboard access. </li></ul><ul><li>Use interoperable technologies. </li></ul>Physical disabilities Second language Language barrier Dyslexia Culturally different <ul><li>Use clear language. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide culturally neutral icon, symbols. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid animations. </li></ul><ul><li>Specify natural language. </li></ul>Cognitive/learning disabilities Dyslexic condition <ul><li>Provide alternate text. </li></ul><ul><li>Design color independently. </li></ul>Visual impairment Hard to comprehend No sound device <ul><li>Provide caption. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide video/audio description. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide transcripts. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide translations. </li></ul>Hearing impairment Temporal silence Global Aspects Possible Solutions Learner Aspects
  5. 5. Globalization issues revisited
  6. 6. Character problems <ul><li>Always declare character encoding. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XML: <?xml version=“1.0” encoding=“UTF-8”?> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HTML: <meta http-equiv=“Content-type” content=“text/html;charset=UTF-8” /> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CSS: @charset “utf-8”; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JavaScript: <script type=“text/JavaScript” charset=“utf-8”> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HTTP header: Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Numerical Character Reference(NCR) vs. literal characters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only use escapes for characters in exceptional circumstances. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicode characters can be represented literally in UTF-8. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Markup vs. Unicode characters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some Unicode characters are not suitable for use with markup. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Unicode characters are OK. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Compatibility characters’ vary in appropriateness. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Language <ul><li>Languages are different from character encoding scheme. </li></ul><ul><li>Specify natural languages </li></ul><ul><ul><li><html lang=“ko”> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><xml xml:lang=“ko”> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><blockquote lang=“fr-CA”> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoid abbreviations, and acronyms, jargons. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Na </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not available? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Numerical aperture? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not applicable? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use <acronym>, <abbr> markups. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Fonts <ul><li>Do not rely on typeface only. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use semantic markup instead. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Always set generic font families. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>font-family: “Times New Roman”, Times, 바탕 , Batang, UnBatang, serif; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do not design font-dependent layout. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different OS supports different font-size. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let learners select their own preferred fonts. </li></ul></ul>Font examples Generic font family Courier , Dotumche , Batangche Times , Batang Arial, Helvetica, Dotum Monospace serif sans-serif
  9. 9. Locale specific data <ul><li>Date & Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>02/04/03? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feb 4 th , 2003?, April 2 nd , 2003?, April 3 rd , 2002?,… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use ISO 8601 date & time format. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2004-02-03T13:20 (UTC +0900) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or use Accept-Language HTTP header. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Numbers, Currency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>123,456? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Names, address, phone numbers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nguyen Ngoc Lan? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sort </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French sorting order is different from that of English. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Search </li></ul>
  10. 10. Display capacity <ul><li>Use relative size rather than absolute unit. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pt, px, cm, in,… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>em, ex, %, small, larger,… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use viewport (display, voice, braille, etc) independent design. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Pop-ups <ul><li>Popups are big barrier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for the disabled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for the assistive technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for the unsupported user agents (such as PDA or TV web) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They are blocked by more user agents. </li></ul><ul><li>They are regarded awkward by many cultural groups. </li></ul><ul><li>If you REALLY want more than two windows, TITLE them properly. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Browser compatibility Internet Explorer 6 Internet Explorer 5 Opera Mozilla Source: , 2004-12-08 Netscape Navigator
  13. 13. Grand design principles <ul><li>Separate form factors from content. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use style sheets and course templates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write structure (content) first, and add design templates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think versatile content for different devices, different preferences, different cultures. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide design resources, use MULTI media. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Layered graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vector design (SVG, SMIL, MathML, …) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programmable (parametric) design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reusable resources (audio, video clips, image clips, text transcripts, titles…) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Translation of other things <ul><li>Screen capture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is software available in all languages? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Graphic letters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use markup instead if available. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avatar, virtual human </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it culturally neutral? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configurable / modifiable by parameters? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voice actors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aren’t they too many? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Video, audio & flash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media types: Windows Media, Real Media, QuickTime, … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide captions, collated text transcripts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate text equivalents from video. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SMIL is a good alternative. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Cultural difference <ul><li>Don’t rely on colors only. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide alternative texts or markers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colors have different connotations in different countries. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don’t rely on non-verbal cues only. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide alternative descriptions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide orientation information. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local regulations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Section 508(US), Disability Discrimination Act(UK, Australia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local, national certification, standards, patent/legal issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consider the cultural, religious variations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid culturally sensitive graphics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give access to in-country SMEs(Subject Matter Experts). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use glossaries, translation memories. </li></ul></ul>우
  16. 16. Conclusion <ul><li>Global issues and considerations should be integrated into the early stages of content development. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners are not alike in their ability, level of motivation, preference, technology readiness, and cultural backgrounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible content is more ready to internationalization. </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance to web standards can reduce possible inaccessibility from global learners. </li></ul>
  17. 17. References <ul><li>Date & Time(ISO 8601): </li></ul><ul><li>Unicode : </li></ul><ul><li>IANA(Internet Assigned Numbers Authority): </li></ul><ul><li>I18N: </li></ul><ul><li>Character Model: </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Information Exchange: http:// </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Assurance: </li></ul><ul><li>Learner Profile: http:// </li></ul><ul><li>IMS Accessibility: http:// </li></ul><ul><li>Multimodality: </li></ul><ul><li>Section 508: </li></ul>