Energy & Power


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Overview of Energy Industry

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Energy & Power

  1. 1. Population Growth By Region<br />
  2. 2. Per Capita Carbon Emissions<br />
  3. 3. For Climate Change Skeptics; its not about climate!<br />World GDP<br />Global Carbon Emissions <br />
  4. 4. Energy Sources<br />
  5. 5. Use of Cars<br />
  6. 6. Technology Demands<br />
  7. 7. Fossil Fuel Uses<br />
  8. 8. Turning to Cities <br />
  9. 9. Per Capita Consumption of Energy<br />
  10. 10. Energy Consumption by Source<br />
  11. 11. Oil<br />
  12. 12. What Is Oil Used for Anyway?<br />
  13. 13. Oil Demand and Consumption by Nation<br />
  14. 14. How many years of oil are left?<br />
  15. 15. Hubbert’s Peak<br />
  16. 16. Demand for Oil Inelastic<br />
  17. 17. Oil Prices<br />
  18. 18. Production in Decline<br />
  19. 19. World Energy Use by Non-Alternative Fuels and Oil Resources Use by Region<br />
  20. 20. How does oil get to us?<br />
  21. 21. Oil Sands<br />
  22. 22. Natural Gas Reserves by Region<br />
  23. 23. Natural Gas Flows<br />
  24. 24. Coal Reserves in US<br />
  25. 25. Electricity Essential for Economic Growth<br />
  26. 26. 26<br />R<br />e<br />s<br />i<br />d<br />e<br />n<br />t<br />i<br />a<br />l<br />(<br />n<br />o<br />n<br />e<br />l<br />e<br />c<br />t<br />r<br />i<br />c<br />)<br />6<br />%<br />C<br />o<br />m<br />m<br />e<br />r<br />c<br />i<br />a<br />l<br />(<br />n<br />o<br />n<br />e<br />l<br />e<br />c<br />t<br />r<br />i<br />c<br />)<br />4<br />%<br />I<br />n<br />d<br />u<br />s<br />t<br />r<br />i<br />a<br />l<br />E<br />l<br />e<br />c<br />t<br />r<br />i<br />c<br />P<br />o<br />w<br />e<br />r<br />(<br />n<br />o<br />n<br />e<br />l<br />e<br />c<br />t<br />r<br />i<br />c<br />)<br />4<br />0<br />%<br />1<br />7<br />%<br />T<br />r<br />a<br />n<br />s<br />p<br />o<br />r<br />t<br />a<br />t<br />i<br />o<br />n<br />3<br />3<br />%<br />Source: Cambridge Energy Research Associates.<br />Data source: US Energy Information Administration. <br />80204-1<br />Electricity and Carbon Emissions<br />NAP_NAG_ConfCall_040308<br />
  27. 27. Electricity is Big Money<br />We Spend About $300 Billion<br />On Electricity Each Year<br />Fuel<br />Generation (Installed MWs)<br />Transmission<br />Distribution<br />Trading & Other<br />$92 Billion<br />Market Value of Fuel Use for Generation<br />$106 Billion<br />Value Added<br />$24 Billion<br />Value Added<br />$67 Billion<br />Value Added<br />$296<br />Billion<br />(Average Revenue per kWh: $0.081)<br />$7 Billion<br />Value Added<br />COAL<br />1,038 MM Short Tons<br />($31 Billion)<br />NATURAL GAS<br />5,679 Bcf<br />($51 Billion)<br />313 GWCoal<br />386 GWNatural Gas<br />61 GWPetroleum<br />100 GWNuclear<br />98 GWHydro<br />24 GWRenewables<br />Total: 982 GW<br />OIL<br />214 Million Barrels<br />($12 Billion)<br />Annual<br />Consumption:<br />3,660 TWh<br />NUCLEAR<br />($5 Billion)<br />FUEL COST DEFERRALS<br />($7.5 Billion)<br />U.S. Electric Value Chain, 2005<br />
  28. 28. National Fuel Mix<br />
  29. 29. Aging Infrastructure<br />
  30. 30. Cost of Energy Infrastructure Overhaul<br />
  31. 31. Thinking about Costs<br />
  32. 32. 32<br />Combustion Turbine<br />Combined Cycle<br />Supercritical Coal<br />Nonfirm Wind<br />Geothermal<br />Biomass<br />Solar CSP<br />Solar PV<br />50<br />75<br />100<br />125<br />150<br />175<br />200<br />225<br />250<br />275<br />Levelized Cost of Electricity<br />(2007 dollars per MWh)<br />Source: Cambridge Energy Research Associates.<br />Notes: See next slide for capital cost and operating cost assumptions. Wind utilization rate range is 20–40 percent, and cost range includes PTC benefits.<br />Natural gas price range of $6–$8 per MMBtu assumed for combustion turbine and combined-cycle units. Renewable energy production and investment tax credits included.<br />80109-5<br />Levelized Cost of Electricity for Conventionaland Renewable Power Options<br />CERA_NAP_ConfCall_032008<br />
  33. 33. Cost of Nuclear<br />
  34. 34. Increasing Cost of Electricity<br />
  35. 35. Matching Supply and Demand<br />
  36. 36. Misaligned Incentives-Regulated Monopolies<br />
  37. 37. Undoing Monopolies<br />
  38. 38. Misaligned Incentives- IPPs<br />
  39. 39. Regional Power Generation<br />
  40. 40. 40<br />Source: GE Power Systems Energy Consulting, The Effects of Integrating Wind Power on Transmission System Planning, Reliability and Operations,<br />a report prepared for the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, 2004. Used with permission.<br />80109-6<br />Wind Output Does Not Match Load<br />CERA_NAP_ConfCall_032008<br />
  41. 41. Wind Power in the US<br />
  42. 42. 42<br />1<br />,<br />6<br />0<br />0<br />1<br />,<br />4<br />0<br />0<br />1<br />,<br />2<br />0<br />0<br />O<br />r<br />d<br />e<br />r<br />s<br />1<br />,<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />T<br />u<br />r<br />b<br />i<br />n<br />e<br />T<br />r<br />a<br />n<br />s<br />a<br />c<br />t<br />i<br />o<br />n<br />8<br />0<br />0<br />P<br />r<br />i<br />c<br />e<br />(<br />2<br />0<br />0<br />6<br />d<br />o<br />l<br />l<br />a<br />r<br />s<br />p<br />e<br />r<br />k<br />W<br />)<br />6<br />0<br />0<br />T<br />r<br />e<br />n<br />d<br />L<br />i<br />n<br />e<br />4<br />0<br />0<br />2<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />1<br />9<br />9<br />9<br />2<br />0<br />0<br />7<br />1<br />9<br />9<br />7<br />1<br />9<br />9<br />8<br />2<br />0<br />0<br />0<br />2<br />0<br />0<br />1<br />2<br />0<br />0<br />2<br />2<br />0<br />0<br />3<br />2<br />0<br />0<br />4<br />2<br />0<br />0<br />5<br />2<br />0<br />0<br />6<br />Source: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory database, US Department of Energy.<br />71108-6<br />Reported Wind Turbine Prices—United States<br />CERA_NAP_ConfCall_032008<br />
  43. 43. Pollution Points<br />
  44. 44. Air Pollution<br />
  45. 45. Air Pollution Impacts<br />
  46. 46. Pollution Controls, Cap and Trade Has Worked<br />
  47. 47. 47<br />New Power Generation Capacity Characteristics and Costs <br />Source: Cambridge Energy Research Associates. <br />Notes: Combustion turbine design basis assumes 2 x 7F, dual fuel capable, nominal 340 MW. Combined-cycle gas turbine design basis assumes 2 x 2 x 1 7F, dual fuel capable, nominal 500 MW, closed-loop wet cooling. Supercritical coal unit design basis assumes nominal 600 MW unit with double reheat.<br />Capital cost figures include owner's costs (development/permitting, land acquisition, construction G&A, financing costs, interest during construction, etc.), but exclude contractor risk premiums. Fixed O&M includes property tax and insurance as well as other fixed operating expenses (labor, maintenance materials, ongoing capital, etc.). Variable production cost includes fuel (natural gas at $6.00 per MMBtu, coal at $1.60 per MMBtu, and biomass at $2.00 per MMBtu) and variable O&M costs. Biomass design assumes a dedicated wood combustion facility. Solar PV cost estimate is based on utility scale installations. <br />CERA_NAP_ConfCall_032008<br />
  48. 48.
  49. 49. Wind<br />Wind Resource Map: Potential forUtility-Scale Wind Power Development (U.S. Annual Average Wind Power)<br />
  50. 50. How Do Solar Panels Work<br />
  51. 51. Solar Methods<br />
  52. 52. Solar Thermal<br />
  53. 53. Solar<br />
  54. 54. 54<br />Source: Cambridge Energy Research Associates, Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy (DSIRE).<br />*Previous Minnesota RPS was a nonbinding goal except for Xcel Energy.<br />**Wisconsin requires all utilities to increase renewables contributions by 6 percent over the 2001–03 average level by 2015 and has a nonbinding goal of 10 percent by 2015.<br />***Vermont’s voluntary standard becomes mandatory in 2013 if it is not met by 2012.<br />****California: IOU = investor-owned utility; ESP = energy service provider; CCA = community-choice aggregator.<br />*****Virginia: 2007 sales less the average annual percentage of power supplied from nuclear generators between 2004 and 2006.<br />60502-2_1207<br />Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) and Purchase Obligations by State<br />CERA_NAP_ConfCall_032008<br />
  55. 55. The Future?<br />
  56. 56. Technology to Save Us?<br />
  57. 57. How do we rethink meeting our needs?<br />