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Hsc project management 2017

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Hsc project management 2017

  1. 1. Introduction HSC Project management Planning, Design & Implementation 2017
  2. 2. Introduction The development of a new system to solve a Problem is similar for all types of users. There are many reasons for the need for a New or modified system. These include • new management • new technology • new product.
  3. 3. Introduction The development of a new system is the Responsibility of a systems analyst or a group of people called a project team. Project teams consist of: • systems analyst • programmers • participants
  4. 4. Introduction The development of a new system is the Responsibility of a systems analyst or a group of people called a project team. Project teams consist of: • systems analyst • programmers • participants
  5. 5. Developing a Project Plan • A project plan usually breaks the project into major tasks called subprojects. • It must provide an overall schedule, the details of the subprojects and a schedule for each subproject. • It must also identify the people, information technology and data/information required by the system. Ref: 6, 7, 10
  6. 6. Developing a Project Plan • Project goal—the result of the project if it is successful. Goals may be broad or they may be very specific. • Deliverable—a tangible item expected from a task. It may be a diagram, report, data dictionary, program or training manual. • Schedule—shows the timing of major tasks and who will do the work. The success of a new system depends on accurate time estimates for each task. Ref: 6, 7, 10
  7. 7. Stages of the system development cycle Understanding the problem Making decisions Designing solutions Implementing Testing, Evaluating & maintaining Statement of the problem Type of new system New system Using new system Problem with system Change in purpose Change type of system Change system Change use of system
  8. 8. Introduction The system development is important as it results in an efficient & error free as possible system. It may be important or necessary to revisit previous steps to modify or fine tune the new system.
  9. 9. Introduction The system development approaches Development Approaches There are six different approaches to Systems Development listed in the syllabus:
  10. 10. Introduction The system development approaches Traditional: involving Project Management with an attempt at strict adherence to time frames and a plan as developed in the planning stage. Traditional Project Management is used more for larger projects because of larger overheads with smaller projects often using other methodologies.
  11. 11. Introduction The system development approaches Outsourcing: This is where an external company is hired to do work that was previously carried out by employees of the company. This is very useful when skills and resources are required which the company has difficulty in supplying or in reducing management issues but cost are usually higher. .
  12. 12. Introduction The system development approaches Prototyping: This is where a version of the system or software is developed and trialed. This is useful if expensive hardware or infrastructure is not required such as in software or web site design. It would not be useful for network development because of the cost and infrastructure required.
  13. 13. Introduction The system development approaches Customisation: Customisation of an "off the shelf" product is a common solution for many companies. This is particularly useful for for HR, finance and database solutions with products such as Oracle (which now also includes People Soft) and SAP being two very successful examples.
  14. 14. Introduction The system development approaches Participant Development: Participant development happens when people within the information system develop their own solution. This usually will involve readily available technology and would be unlikely to work with complex systems.
  15. 15. Introduction The system development approaches Agile Methods: The biggest distinction between traditional and agile methodologies is the attitude to plans and planning. Traditional methodologies focus on producing detailed plans and treat deviations as errors that need to be corrected. Agile methodologies also produce plans, but see them only as approximations.
  16. 16. Introduction The system development approaches Agile Methods: Deviation from the plan are treated as feedback, and plans are adjusted accordingly. As such while traditional methodologies resist change, agile methodologies see change and view it as a normal part of a project. Agile methodologies approach development in an iterative and incremental manner. Each part of the plan is divided into small timeframes called interations at which point any changes will be added into the project.
  17. 17. Understanding the problem A problem may become evident in an organisation. It may be evident in privacy, inaccuracy or cost. To solve the issue a clear understanding of the problem needs to be formulated. • redefining the problem • identifying the important elements. A CLEAR PROBLEM STATEMENT IS ESSENTIAL AT THIS STAGE.
  18. 18. Understanding the problem A preliminary investigation determines if a Quick fix will solve the problem or if a new System is required. Steps are • Understand fundamental operations & problems of the current system • Each information process is examined and flaws in the system recorded • Needs & concerns of all participants are considered & there views need to be gathered in a variety of ways.
  19. 19. Understanding the problem Data & information are collected throughout the system development cycle. Data is used: -to understand the problem; -to develop an appropriate solution; -to assess the feasibility of a proposal; -to design a new system; -to evaluate the system
  20. 20. Understanding the problem Data needs to be accurate as if it is not then the new system may not meet the required needs. It therefore needs to be collected in an organised way to ensure no omissions. Data may be collected in a number of ways: • Interviews • Questionnaires/Surveys • Observation • Measurements Face-to-face Mailed Face-to-face Online Observation Electronic or Manual
  21. 21. Communication Skills • Negotiation skills - negotiation is a discussion between two parties with a goal of reaching agreement on issues. • Interview techniques - involve careful preparation, implementation and follow-up. • Team building - is the process of getting a group of people working together.
  22. 22. Communication Skills • Active listening - involves restating, reflecting and summarising the speaker’s major ideas and feelings. - active listeners encourage the speaker and are non-committal. • Conflict resolution - solves arguments and disputes. - it involves listening to the other person’s views and looking at the conflict as a problem to be solved. - the aim is to create a “win-win” situation.
  23. 23. Understanding the problem The data being collected needs to be both: 1. Valid -in general the responses belong to all. 2. Reliable –other surveys will draw the same result. The data collected needs to be documented for it to be analysed. A diagrammatic method is often used such as: • Context diagram • Data flow diagram • Story board.
  24. 24. Understanding the problem Context diagram . Entity System Entity Data flow Data flow
  25. 25. Understanding the problem The Data Flow Diagram DFD. Customer Search System Customer details details Call number Call details Database
  26. 26. Understanding the problem •Story board.
  27. 27. Understanding the problem •Story board.
  28. 28. Understanding the problem The analysis of the existing system should determine: How the system works? What it does? Who uses it?
  29. 29. Understanding the problem The requirement report is a statement about the needs of a new system. The requirement report : • outlines the aims & objectives of the new system • how it will help the organisation • is based on the data collected from the participants • must match the goals of the organisation.
  30. 30. Understanding the problem The requirement report is a statement about the needs of a new system. The requirement report also provides an overview of the new system in terms of the: • data/information to be used • information processes • information technology The requirement report is used to develop Potential solutions to the problem.
  31. 31. Understanding the problem If the preliminary investigation recommends Further examination, a project plan is developed For the system. A project plan is a plan that organises a project by specifying who, what, how and when. It includes: • Gantt charts • Scheduling tasks • Journal & diary entries • funding management plan • Communication management plan
  32. 32. Understanding the problem Information management software helps individuals to manage information & schedule tasks: •It allows emails to be exchanged & organised. •Appointments, events, & meetings are entered into electronic calendar. •Allows tasks to be assigned.
  33. 33. Understanding the problem It provides a quick method of determining if a project is on schedule. The chart can be used to gauge progress and to identify any problems. A Gantt chart is a popular way of managing a project Understanding the problem Making decisions Designing solutions Implementing Testing, evaluating and maintaining Time (weeks) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  34. 34. Understanding the problem A Gantt chart is a popular way of managing a project
  35. 35. Understanding the problem It provides a quick method of determining if a project is on schedule. The chart can be used to gauge progress and to identify any problems. A Gantt chart is a popular way of managing a project
  36. 36. Making decision Decisions are made on possible solutions that have been developed using the requirement report and the scope of the problem. Constraints are taken into consideration (Economic; Technical; Schedule & Organisational.) A feasibility study is carried out with the constraints and recommendations are made. (no change; new system; investigate another solution)
  37. 37. Making decision The management will then select the most appropriate option & the project plan may need further modification. The details of the new system are presented, along with recommendations for design, implementation and maintenance.
  38. 38. Making decision Data dictionaries contain a comprehensive description of each field in the database. They commonly include a field name, data type, number of characters (field width) & description for the purpose of the field. Context diagrams are used to represent entire information systems. The system is shown as a single process along with the inputs & outputs (external entities ) to the system.
  39. 39. Making decision Data flow diagrams represent the information system as a number of processes that together form the single process of a context diagram. The source of the data, its flow between processes & its destination along with data generated by the system is represented. A data flow diagram shows: • The input for the system (source) • Processes performed by the system • Output form the system (destination) • Storage
  40. 40. Making decision Data flow diagrams only show movement of data & not the movement of other things such as products. They do not explain how the processes works. A Decision tree is a diagrammatic way of representing all possible combinations of decisions & there resulting actions. Example here page 71 It represents the decisions made within a system as the branches of a tree. Each branch finishes in a particular action.
  41. 41. Making decision A decision table represents all possible conditions & the actions that will result. The table is divided vertically into conditions & actions & horizontally into the rules that are based on combinations of the conditions. Story boards are a diagrammatic way of representing the elements of the information system. There are two types linear (ordered) and non-linear (no order).
  42. 42. Designing Solutions Designing a solution is the transformation of the Specifications into appropriate hardware, software & information systems. It involves purchasing hardware, writing or buying software and specifying information processes to make the system operational The new system is developed from the prototype. Screen designs for input & output are created. The format & layout of each screen, report & menu must be created using good design principles.
  43. 43. Designing Solutions The technical specifications of hardware need to be identified before the hardware is bought & installed. The new system must be tested before implementation. Test data is prepared to test any potential problem. Design tools are used to better understand the system & document the new system. The tools are used to assist in explaining the operation of the new system.
  44. 44. Designing Solutions The design tools used in the designing solution stage of the systems development cycle include: • Context diagrams • Data flow Diagrams • Decision trees • Decision tables • Data dictionaries • Storyboards
  45. 45. Implementation During the implementation stage the hardware & software is installed & tested. Participants are trained so that they understand the benefits of the new system & how to use it. Participants need to be instructed about & assisted with the major features & functions of the system over a period of time. Information processes are continually tested during the implementation of the system over a period of time.
  46. 46. Implementation Minor changes to procedures are immediately implemented. Data is converted to the new system using one of the conversion methods. The method of conversion chosen must be justified, as there are advantages & disadvantages in each of the methods.
  47. 47. Implementation Direct conversion involves the immediate change to the new system on a chosen date. (probably best for small systems)
  48. 48. Implementation Phased conversion is the replacement of one system by another in a series of stages. (each module is tested individually & staff develops confidence in the new system.)
  49. 49. Implementation Pilot conversion involves building & testing the new system before replacing the old system. (the old system is still available if the new system fails or experiences problems)
  50. 50. Implementation Parallel conversion involves the old & new system both working together at the same time. ( this allows the participants & users to get used to the new system & to check the new system’s output.)
  51. 51. Testing Testing is a way to verify the quality of the project. Testing a system is a very important part of the implementation of a system. Without rigorous testing, the system cannot guarantee to work as expected. Tests must be designed to examine the systems operation under all possible events.
  52. 52. Testing
  53. 53. Testing
  54. 54. Testing
  55. 55. Testing Testing of hardware involves use of diagnostic software. Backup systems should be tested by selecting files to be stored. Software is tested using data that has been structured to test all decisions made within the system. Test data must cover all possible combinations of data that may be encountered.
  56. 56. Evaluating & maintaining Evaluation determines whether the system is working as expected or whether changes are required. Maintenance is the modification of the system by making minor improvements. The format evaluation will check to see if: • The system has met its benefits & cost objectives • Make recommendations for future changes.
  57. 57. Evaluating & maintaining The operations manual details the procedures that participants should follow when using a new system. The operations manual should: • Be in a user friendly format • Have clear concise instructions in point form • Contain screen dumps to clarify instructions • Have instructions for file management & security.
  58. 58. STAGEPROCESSES source http://hsc.csu.edu.au/ipt/project_work/1-2/stages.htm Understanding the problem The first stage of the process, understanding the purpose and identifying changes that may be made to an existing system. Identify and communicate with participants in the current system. Suggest the use of a prototype to clarify participants understanding.
  59. 59. STAGEPROCESSES source http://hsc.csu.edu.au/ipt/project_work/1-2/stages.htm Planning The second stage involves the conducting of a feasibility study. The nature of the problem is clearly described in a report and recommendations are made to management as to whether the proposed solution is practicable. A project plan is developed.
  60. 60. STAGEPROCESSES source http://hsc.csu.edu.au/ipt/project_work/1-2/stages.htm Designing This third stage involves the documentation of the development of a solution to the new system. A prototype may be used to help clarify the solution to the participant. System design tools can also be used to explain the solution, for example; context diagrams, data flow diagrams, decision trees, decision tables, data dictionaries, storyboards.
  61. 61. STAGEPROCESSES source http://hsc.csu.edu.au/ipt/project_work/1-2/stages.htm Implementing At this stage decisions are made on how the new system will be implemented. An implementation plan is developed setting out clearly: -support for the participants of the new system through training?, -methods of testing the new system -the conversion from the old system to the new designed system. -steps in an operation manual/s.
  62. 62. STAGEPROCESSES source http://hsc.csu.edu.au/ipt/project_work/1-2/stages.htm Testing, evaluating and maintaining This stage is the most important; users begin to use the new system, the performance of which is tested against the design specifications. The maintenance of the new system is important through the training of participants and the reviewing of the operation manual/s.
  63. 63. STAGEPROCESSES source http://hsc.csu.edu.au/ipt/project_work/1-2/stages.htm Testing, evaluating and maintaining This stage is the most important; users begin to use the new system, the performance of which is tested against the design specifications. The maintenance of the new system is important through the training of participants and the reviewing of the operation manual/s.
  64. 64. STAGEPROCESSES source http://hsc.csu.edu.au/ipt/project_work/1-2/stages.htm Testing, evaluating and maintaining This stage is the most important; users begin to use the new system, the performance of which is tested against the design specifications. The maintenance of the new system is important through the training of participants and the reviewing of the operation manual/s.
  65. 65. STAGEPROCESSES source http://hsc.csu.edu.au/ipt/project_work/1-2/stages.htm Testing, evaluating and maintaining This stage is the most important; users begin to use the new system, the performance of which is tested against the design specifications. The maintenance of the new system is important through the training of participants and the reviewing of the operation manual/s.
  66. 66. Social & Ethical issues source http://hsc.csu.edu.au/ipt/project_work/1-2/stages.htm Social and ethical issues to be considered throughout cycle: equity, privacy, security of data, accuracy of data, copyright laws, freedom of information, changing nature of work, health and safety, human or machine centred, work environment, ergonomics
  67. 67. Social & Ethical issues source http://hsc.csu.edu.au/ipt/project_work/1-2/stages.htm Keywords •Machine Centred Systems, •human centred systems, •Work environment, •ergonomics, •telecommuting, •social isolation, •deskilling
  68. 68. Social & Ethical issues source http://hsc.csu.edu.au/ipt/project_work/1-2/stages.htm These days information systems are affecting everyone's lives. People's privacy is being compromised. People find that have been put out of work by a computer. Some people just struggle with the technology. A new system should help process the work better and a positive change. But what about the negatives? How is the system affecting the participants? Is their work load less or has it increased? Is the new system infringing on their privacy?
  69. 69. Social & Ethical issues source http://hsc.csu.edu.au/ipt/project_work/1-2/stages.htm Machine Centred Systems: are designed around the computer at the expense of people. The machine centred system will simplify and make the computer more efficient and the people need to work around the computer. Human Centred Systems: are designed around the needs of people first and the computers are made to fit in with the needs of the participants.
  70. 70. Social & Ethical issues source http://hsc.csu.edu.au/ipt/project_work/1-2/stages.htm The Work Environment A new system may mean drastic changes in the work environment. This may cause stress for some workers. However some changes may also be detrimental to the physical health of the participants. As such all ergonomic factors need to be taken into account when designing new systems.
  71. 71. Social & Ethical issues source http://hsc.csu.edu.au/ipt/project_work/1-2/stages.htm The Changing Nature of the Workplace Unfortunately changes in technology are not always positive and may be impacting significantly upon the social structure of the work place. Telecommuting: More workers now are able to work from home through the internet.
  72. 72. Social & Ethical issues source http://hsc.csu.edu.au/ipt/project_work/1-2/stages.htm Social Isolation: People are gregarious animals. Gregarious means that we like meeting with other people. Unfortunately technology can isolate people as well as bring people together. This is particularly a problem in machine centred work places. Deskilling: As much as the technical skills of some workers are increasing at a fast pace other areas of the work force are particularly being deskilled as the computers take over more of their work.

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