Week 8: The digital city


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Slide deck for week 8 of Technology in the Public Sector, Northwestern University, Summer 2012

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Week 8: The digital city

  1. 1. Week 8: The Digital City  Technology  in  the  Public  Sector  Northwestern  University  MPPA  490  Summer  2012  -­‐  Greg  Wass  
  2. 2. (first some technology basics)
  3. 3. 1. Application architecture¤  Presentation interface (UI / GUI)¤  Business logic¤  Database management
  4. 4. Example: GIS architecture
  5. 5. Architecture in the cloud
  6. 6. N-tier vs SOA
  7. 7. 2. Application development methods
  8. 8. Waterfall vs. agile developmentSource: Green Line Systems, accessed 8/1/12 at http://glsystems.wordpress.com/2012/01/20/greenline-systems-inc-helping-governments-use-agile-development/
  9. 9. Why agile? ¤  25% of all projects fail outright through eventual cancellation, with no useful software deployed. ¤  U.K. study showed waterfall-style scope management was the "single largest contributing factor for failure, being cited in 82% of the projects as the number one problem.” ¤  A DOD study showed "46% of the systems so egregiously did not meet the real needs (although they met the specifications) that they were never successfully used, and another 20% required extensive rework" to be usable.Source: VersionOne, Inc., accessed 8/1/12 at http://www.versionone.com/Agile101/Agile-Software-Development-Benefits/
  10. 10. Value of agile developmentSource: VersionOne, Inc., accessed 8/1/12 at http://www.versionone.com/Agile101/Agile-Software-Development-Benefits/
  11. 11. Barriers to using agile in public sector ¤  cumbersome acquisition processes ¤  complex IT development and infrastructures environments ¤  large and layered management structures ¤  the need to support policy, regulation and oversight driven department, agency and office program control effortsSource: Green Line Systems, accessed 8/1/12 at http://glsystems.wordpress.com/2012/01/20/greenline-systems-inc-helping-governments-use-agile-development/
  12. 12. 3. IT project stages (public sector)1.  Governance 8.  Design2.  RFI 9.  Development3.  Requirements gathering / 10.  Implementation BPI 11.  Training4.  RFP 12.  Change management5.  Demos 13.  Post-implementation6.  BAFO 14.  Maintenance7.  Contract negotiation 15.  Additional phases
  13. 13. Alternative approaches¤  In-house development¤  Staff augmentation contract¤  Software as a service (SaaS)¤  COTS (Commercial off-the-shelf) software¤  Grants¤  “Purchase of care”¤  Competitions/contests/prizes
  14. 14. 4. Watching the marketplaceSource: Gartner
  15. 15. Gartner “priority matrix” Source: Gartner
  16. 16. GIS(Distance to the closest McDonalds)
  17. 17. GIS: map layers (vs. reality) ¤  Homes ¤  School districts ¤  Streets ¤  Zip codes ¤  Cities ¤  CountiesSource: Thad Wasklewicz, University of Memphis
  18. 18. GIS must be capable of: ¤  Capturing data (geographic/coordinate or tabular/ attribute) ¤  Storing data (vector and raster formats*) ¤  Querying data (based on attribute or location) ¤  Analyzing data (interaction of multiple datasets) ¤  Displaying data (visualization) ¤  Output (maps, reports, graphs)* Raster images are based on pixels and thus scale with loss of clarity, while vector-based images can be scaled by anyamount without degrading quality.
  19. 19. GIS applications in government ¤  Economic development ¤  Human Services ¤  Transportation and Service ¤  Law Enforcement Routing ¤  Land use planning ¤  Housing ¤  Parks and Recreation ¤  Infrastructure ¤  Environmental Monitoring ¤  Health ¤  Emergency Management ¤  Tax Maps ¤  GeodemographicsSource: Thad Wasklewicz, University of Memphis
  20. 20. Use of GIS for public participation ¤  Most information used in policymaking has a spatial component (address, zipcode, latitude/longitude) ¤  Extending the use of spatial information to all relevant stakeholders can lead to better policymaking ¤  This information can be analyzed and visualized spatially – and the resulting output (mainly maps) can persuasively convey ideas and persuade people of the importance of those ideas.Source: Renee Sieber, “Public Participation Geographic Information Systems,” Association of American Geographers (2006)
  21. 21. GIS in economic developmentSource; Esri
  22. 22. GIS in economic developmentSource; Esri
  23. 23. GIS in planning and development ¤ Land Use/Zoning ¤ Emergency Preparedness ¤ Population Forecast ¤ Market Analysis ¤ Property Tax Assessment ¤ TransportationSource; Esri
  24. 24. GPSTracking public assets
  25. 25. What is GPS? ¤  Global positioning system ¤  A worldwide radio-navigation system of 21+ satellites and ground stations ¤  Uses satellites as reference points, which gives every square meter on the planet a unique address ¤  Has become the most common method for field data collection in GPSSource: Jennifer Broush, “GIS/GPS for Real and in the Movies,” 4/11/2003 slide presentation.
  26. 26. What is GPS?
  27. 27. How does GPS work? ¤  Location / navigation / tracking / mapping / timing ¤  Triangulation from satellites – measure the distance using time travel constant ¤  Where are the satellites in space (known by the government, and stored on the GPS receiver) ¤  Correction of delays experienced by the signal traveling from the satellite (atmosphere)Source: Jennifer Broush, “GIS/GPS for Real and in the Movies,” 4/11/2003 slide presentation.
  28. 28. GPS in transportation analysis ¤  Use of truck GPS data to analyze construction impacts / truck speeds ¤  Identify truck bottlenecks: delay, stops and speed on specific routes ¤  Quantify travel between economically important areas ¤  Explore ramp performanceSource: Edward McCormack, University of Washington, 9/16/2010
  29. 29. GPS in aviation, auto safety ¤  National PNT (positioning, navigation and timing) and GPS capabilities are critical to the U.S. transportation system. ¤  The FAA NextGen system will rely on GPS for navigation, surveillance and performance metrics. ¤  GPS provides the backbone for advanced navigation systems crucial for safety applications (such as IntelliDriveSM), communications and logistics.Source: Research and Innovative Technology Administration, Senate Appropriations Committee Staff Briefing, 2/26/2010
  30. 30. NYS traffic data viewer ¤  Enables views of statewide traffic counts – a determining variable in Federal Aid funding ¤  Includes critical asset information such as bridges and hospital locations for emergency route planningSource: James Pol, “The New Analytics for Transportation Management,” USDOT, 5/17/2012
  31. 31. MassDOT bus tracker ¤  All MassDOT buses are equipped with GPS ¤  Publishes transit data through the open-source General Transit Feed Specification ¤  Partnership with NextBus provides real-time bus arrival predictions for every bus stop ¤  MassDOT Real-Time XML Feed available to third-party developers for applications ¤  50+ independent apps use MassDOT dataSource: James Pol, “The New Analytics for Transportation Management,” USDOT, 5/17/2012
  32. 32. Speed Bump crowdsourcing app ¤  Helps residents improve their neighborhood streets ¤  As they drive, the mobile app collects data about the smoothness of the ride ¤  Data provides the City with real-time information it uses to fix problems and plan long term investments ¤  Residents use Street Bump to record “bumps” which are identified using the device’s accelerometer and located using its GPS. ¤  Bumps are uploaded to the server for analysis ¤  Likely road problems are submitted to the City via Open311, so they get fixed (e.g. potholes) or classified as known obstacles (e.g. speed bumps)Source: James Pol, “The New Analytics for Transportation Management,” USDOT, 5/17/2012
  33. 33. The Digital CityIntelligent transportation, utility and water solutions
  34. 34. Intelligent utility networks §  Advanced electric meter management systems §  Network automation and analytics best practices §  Power generation optimization §  Utility company networked revitalization services §  Customer operations transformation assistanceSource: IBM
  35. 35. Advanced water management §  Strategic water information management of natural, utility, and enterprise water systems §  Smart water infrastructure solutions (e.g. smart levees, smart storm water management) §  Smart water meter management and asset management solutionsSource: IBM
  36. 36. Intelligent transportation systems §  Road user charging and tolling practices §  Integrated fare management systems §  Transport information management systems §  Innovations in telematics, GPSSource: IBM
  37. 37. Intelligent transportation systemsSource: James Pol, “The New Analytics for Transportation Management,” USDOT, 5/17/2012