Week 5: Public safety

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Slides for week 5 of the course Technology in the Public Sector, Northwestern University, Summer 2012

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Week 5: Public safety

  1. 1. technology in the public sectorweek 5: public safety and criminal justice IT Northwestern University MPPA 490 Summer 2012 - Greg Wass 1
  2. 2. Criminal justice functions Major technology issues• Police 1. Need more data sharing• Judicial across jurisdictions and• Corrections functions – “The system of ‘need to know’ should be replaced by a system of ‘need to share.’” The 9/11 Commission ReportPolicy questions 2. How to use modern data• How do we prevent crimes science for predictive before they happen? policing• Where should we 3. Extending community spend/invest public funds? policing via mobile apps 2
  3. 3. 1. Need more data sharing across jurisdictions andfunctions 3
  4. 4. The big picture1. Case flow and decision points from crime (police) to trial (judicial) to incarceration (corrections) to reentry (social services)2. Interaction among multiple agencies and levels of government 4
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. Data sharing standards: JXDM and NIEM• “The Global Justice Extensible Markup Language (XML) Data Model (Global JXDM) and Global Justice XML Data Dictionary (Global JXDD) are the result of an effort by the justice and public safety communities to produce a set of common, well- defined data elements to be used for data transmissions.”• “Perhaps the most widely recognized and important standard of the day is the National Information Exchange Model (NIEM). ...NIEM is seen by many in the justice information- sharing community as the key standard and foundation for exchanging information across multiple domains and disciplines.”Source: “Global Justice XML Data Model,” U.S. Department of Justice; Government Technology’s Digital Communities 7
  8. 8. 2. How to use modern data science for predictivepolicing 8
  9. 9. Predictive policing……is a multi-disciplinary, law enforcement-based strategy thatbrings together • advanced technologies • criminological theory • predictive analysis • tactical operations…that ultimately lead to results and outcomes of • crime reduction (and crime prevention) • management efficiency • safer communitiesSource: Dr. Craig Ushida, National Governors Association Cybercrime and Forensic Sciences Executive Policy Forum, June 2011 9
  10. 10. Predictive policing (cont’d)• Universities and technology companies – Developing computer programs based on private sector models of forecasting consumer behavior• Police agencies – Use computer analysis of information (crimes, environment, intelligence) – Predict and prevent crime• The idea – Improve situational awareness (tactically /strategically) to create strategies to police more efficiently and effectivelySource: Rand Corporation, National Institute of Justice, and National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center, 2012 10
  11. 11. How does it work in real life?With situational awareness and anticipation of human behavior,police can identify and develop strategies to prevent criminalactivity – By repeat offenders – On repeat victims – By locations or types of targetsPolice use their limited resources – To work proactively – Using effective strategies to prevent the activityBUT - The effectiveness of the strategies must be measurable – Reduced crime – Higher arrest rates for serious/stranger offenses – Broader social and justice outcomes and impactsSource: Susan C. Smith, National Governors Association Cybercrime and Forensic Sciences Executive Policy Forum, June 2011 11
  12. 12. PredictivePolicing:A ModelSource: Rand Corporation, National Institute of Justice, and National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center, 2012 12
  13. 13. What questions can predictive policing answer? 13
  14. 14. A “blended theory” of crime• Criminals and victims follow common life patterns; where those patterns overlap can lead to crimes – Geographic and temporal features influence the where and when of those patterns• Criminals make rational decisions using factors such as area & target suitability, risk of getting caught, etc.• Can ID many of these patterns and factors; can steer criminals’ decisions through interventions• Best fits ―”stranger offenses” like robberies, burglaries, and thefts – less so vice and relationship violence 14
  15. 15. Some prediction methodsSource: Rand Corporation, National Institute of Justice, and National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center, 2012 15
  16. 16. Hot spot analysis / crime mappingSource: Rand Corporation, National Institute of Justice, and National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center, 2012 16
  17. 17. Regression analysisSource: Rand Corporation, National Institute of Justice, and National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center, 2012 17
  18. 18. Possible pitfalls Goal is to be as accurate as possible in predicting purse snatchings…e.g., do 99%+ of future purse snatchings (green triangles), land in hot spots (red and yellow areas)Source: Rand Corporation, National Institute of Justice, and National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center, 2012 18
  19. 19. Is the data complete and correct?Source: Rand Corporation, National Institute of Justice, and National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center, 2012 19
  20. 20. Is the result actionable?Source: Rand Corporation, National Institute of Justice, and National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center, 2012 20
  21. 21. Civil liberties / privacy concernsCivil liberties scholars: – Have concerns over privacy and civil rights issues – Question how the police can use technology and knowledge to better fight crime without eroding civil liberties – Note that it must be constitutional – Encourage involvement of community advocates and leaders fromthe beginning to help alleviate concerns of privacy rights violations• History has shown that serious legal consequences follow when appropriate consideration is not given to privacy rights• Transparency, auditing and due diligence are criticalSource: Susan C. Smith, National Governors Association Cybercrime and Forensic Sciences Executive Policy Forum, June 2011 21
  22. 22. Civil liberties / privacy concerns (cont’d)• Supreme Court has ruled that standards for what constitutes reasonable suspicion are relaxed in high crime areas (i.e., “hot spots”) – What constitutes a high crime area is a completely open question• Issue minor in comparison to civil and privacy rights issues raised by profiling (i.e., “hot people”) – What do we do with a prediction of re-offending that, while much better than chance (~80% accurate), is still far from definitive?Source: Rand Corporation, National Institute of Justice, and National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center, 2012 22
  23. 23. What practitioners sayMany crime analysts are already practicing predictive policing – Marginal improvements can be made and are areas of opportunity – There is a demonstrated gap between crime analysts and management – Often, analyst recommendations do not make it to the street-level copDepartments need officers / staff that – Cares and places value on data and information – Are trained (at their level) how to respond to the data/informationThere is a need for better data sharing and interoperabilityThere is a need to incorporate nontraditional data, likedemographics and building foreclosures for more sophisticatedanalysisCrime Analyst potential is relatively untapped and undervaluedSource: Susan C. Smith, National Governors Association Cybercrime and Forensic Sciences Executive Policy Forum, June 2011 23
  24. 24. 3. Extending community policing via mobile apps 24
  25. 25. City of Boston mobile appsSource: Public Technology Institute 25
  26. 26. Map / List / Add Photo / Track DetailSource: Public Technology Institute 26
  27. 27. City of San Francisco Spot Crime AppTMSource: Public Technology Institute 27
  28. 28. Miami-Dade County self-service appsSource: Public Technology Institute 28
  29. 29. Source: Public Technology Institute 29
  30. 30. Chicago Clear MapSource: Public Technology Institute 30
  31. 31. Other topics• Fusion centers “A fusion center is an effective and efficient mechanism to exchange information and intelligence, maximize resources, streamline operations, and improve the ability to fight crime and terrorism by analyzing data from a variety of sources.”• GIS integration “GIS in the mobile environment provides field personnel with the ability to capture new information, geocode it, and send it back so that incident command can visualize incident progress. As such, it is strategically important that GIS become an integral part of any common operating picture IT infrastructure.”Sources: U.S. Department of Justice; ESRI 31

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