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Week 6: Open data


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Slide deck for 7/30/12 class on open data for the course Technology in the Public Sector, Northwestern University, Summer 2012.

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Week 6: Open data

  1. 1. Week 6: Open data  Technology  in  the  Public  Sector  Northwestern  University  MPPA  490  Summer  2012  -­‐  Greg  Wass   1
  2. 2. Fiscal crisis motivates transformation $2,650 $2,550 $2,450 $2,350 $2,250Millions ($210) ($537) ($453) ($659) $2,150 $2,050 Revenue $1,950 Expenses $1,850 $1,750 FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 2
  3. 3. The transparency imperative¨  Public trust in government at an all-time low? A 2010 study by the University of Illinois at¨  Fiscal crisis: most states and local governments still in a financial crisis brought Chicago called Cook on by the recession County a “dark pool of political corruption,”¨  Difficulty meeting service demands with revealing that nearly 150 declining/stagnant revenues contractors, employees and politicians have been¨  New capabilities available through web- convicted on corruption based, mobile and social networking technologies charges since 1957.¨  New demands for open government, --from an October 2011 Government Technology collaboration, and shared services magazine article by Brian Heaton 3
  4. 4. The circle of public trust 4
  5. 5. The open government movement ¤  Data must be: A 2007 working group of 30 open government ¤  Complete advocates in ¤  Primary Sebastopol, CA, ¤  Timely developed the ¤  Accessible 8 Principles of Open Government Data. ¤  Machine processable These principles have ¤  Non-discriminatory access become the de facto ¤  Non-proprietary formats starting point for ¤  License-free evaluating openness in government records.Source: 5
  6. 6. The open government movement (cont’d)¤  Washington, DC¤  San Francisco¤  Baltimore¤  Chicago¤  Portland¤  New York City 6
  7. 7. Governments globally are using the power of the Internet and Web, including social media, to transform governance, empower citizens and rebuild the social contract between political leaders and citizens. Although the emphasis and details differ from country to country, many central governments are making more information public and easily available on the Web in formats that citizens can access, reuse, mash up, remix, visualize, map and share. Tracking and mapping tools and systems allow citizens to examine government activities and expenditures. Citizen engagement platforms and tools allow governments to reach out and incorporate the perspectives and ideas of citizens in decision-making and policy-making. Still others are building networked relationships between the public and private sectors to solve challenging problems that cannot be addressed by either sector working alone.Excerpt fromThe Future of An increasing number of countries are building transparency and accountabilityGovernment: and driving public and private innovation through the use of information andLessons communication technologies, including social media.Learned fromAround the Right to Information. Several countries – including Indonesia, Mexico, Turkey andWorld, 2011 India – have recently passed legislation guaranteeing the right of citizens to public information and requiring ministries to make information accessible to the public. The Obama Administration has inked an open government partnership with India to exchange best practices and share data. Transparency and Accountability. Tracking systems used in countries such as India, Kenya and Brazil allow and engage citizens in the monitoring and exposure ofOpen inefficiencies and corruption.Governmentand Open Open Data. Today, 10 countries or more have open data portals. SignificantData, Part 1 initiatives are now established in Australia, Canada, Estonia, Norway, the United Kingdom, the United States and New Zealand. These efforts are designed to make government data accessible in a form that may be used by citizens.
  8. 8. These innovations tap not only emerging information and communication technologies but also the expertise and creativity of individuals, the private sector and the power of collaboration and participation using data and evidence for decision-making. It should be obvious that only those citizens with broadband access and the digital literacy to engage in these types of activities can benefit directly. Thus, countries increasingly must focus on education, broadband access and digital literacy for citizens to gain the benefits of open government and social media use for citizen engagement. Moreover, even in wealthy countries like the United States, as downloading of large datasets increases, older servers are unable to manage such highlyExcerpt from intensive activities, causing computers to crash. Most governments will need to make careful choices about how much data, what types need to be availableThe Future of immediately and in what form. Low- and middle- income countries represent theGovernment: “next frontier” for open government and open data reforms.LessonsLearned fromAround the To this end, the World Wide Web Foundation launched an Open GovernmentWorld, 2011 Data Feasibility Study of the Governments of Chile, Ghana and Turkey to determine in what ways middle- to low-income countries have the capacity to develop and maintain open government data projects. A number of international organizations and foundations have formed a donor collaborative called the Transparency and Accountability Initiative to foster the powerful concepts of transparency and accountability through greater use of networking and information technologies coupled with social media.OpenGovernmentand Open Open government and open data represent an emergent “movement” worldwide although national governments will continue to differ with respect toData, Part 2 their definition and implementation of these ideas. Clearly, sharing best practices and lessons that work as experience accumulates will be key.
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  12. 12. Data visualizations: 311 12
  13. 13. Data visualizations: Viegas/Wattenberg 13
  14. 14. Data visualizations: Look at Cook 14
  15. 15. Open government in Cook County¨ Many residents don’t know what County government is or what it does¨ Many residents don’t know how their tax dollars are collected or spent¨ Historical lack of transparency means many local citizen activists are disengaged and cynical¨ Lack of transparency breeds doubt, skepticism, inefficiency and corruption 15
  16. 16. Open government in Cook County1.  Ordinance: Cook County’s open data ordinance begins making data public. Agency heads partner with Board President and Commissioners to make initial high-value data sets public.2.  Data portal: County launches a single-site portal centralizing data in developer-friendly formats. Data offerings continuously expand.3.  App contests and data camps: County encourages developers and activists to drive new and improved government services through mobile apps and data visualizations.4.  Continuous improvement: County expands data offerings, provides ongoing incentives for developers and activists and opens a conversation about improving our government. 16
  17. 17. Open government timetable March-April Summer 2011 2012 Beyond 2011Enact open Host launch Continue fostering developer data party/ community through data camps, and ordinance App contest contests and conferences Use resulting information to improvePartner with vendor to create single- government efficiency, effectiveness site data portal and fairnessInvest County Expand public data offerings data owners 17
  18. 18. Open data site 18
  19. 19. Open data site architecture 19
  20. 20. “Apps for Metro Chicago” 20
  21. 21. Regional open data site 21
  22. 22. Results and reactions¤  “The Cook County open data website ¤  “( appears to was launched on-time and it has deliver what public-sector technologists been a reliable platform for the long have said could be possible—a truly County to deliver information to regional clearinghouse where all public citizens and for potential use by data is available for free in one entrepreneurs developing place.”—Government Technology, May applications. The shared platform 2012 with the State of Illinois and the City of Chicago keeps costs down and ¤  “Yesterday, Cook County released an promotes consistent approaches for unprecedented amount of data on their data sharing.”—TechAmerica, The website. It’s exciting to see both the City Cloud Imperative: Better of Chicago and Cook County creating Collaboration, Better Service, Better new, innovative ways to inform and Cost, Feb 2012 engage with citizens about important local issues including public safety, economic development and especially government spending.”—Illinois PIRG, Sep 2011 22
  23. 23. Next steps¤ Big Data¤ More use of open data for research and analysis¤ Expanding 23