St Lawrence Seaway bypass, govt subsidies Current mayor of Montreal, Tremblay, in Montreal is concerned with the power of central city of MontrealIn Montreal the provincial government of Quebec is perceived by some to be the “national” government, and the federal government is looked at with distrust (40)
“It is not considered very polite to say so, but Montreal is a city that attempted to commit suicide and it nearly succeeded” (Warn). Elaborate on Montreal’s French connection and still the influence… vieuxcarre area and so on….
“In Montreal, old suburbs on the Island have mostly developed as wealthy Anglophone havens (particularly on the west end of the island), while the central city has been home to a majority of francophone, immigrant, and poorer families. However, suburbs such as St-Léonard and St-Laurent have long been home to immigrant families… Exurbs on the North and South shores of the St. Lawrence River are overwhelmingly middle class and francophone.”
“a life near everything” and “don’t put a bridge between you and your family” highway 40 is to be built to complete the A25 expressway and is set to open this year with an expected toll of C$2.40 There are six current employment sub centers, 4 on the island of Montreal creating 182,000 jobs in the Central Business District alone and 2 off the island
In the late 1800’s an urban planning theory comparing cities to the vascular system was made popular Biggest impact of Transit on Montreal, it is an island. across the St Lawrence River and Riviere des Prairies that flank the city Montreal is largely regarded to have one of the best dual transportation system; both in research and updates Only 8 bridges on/off islandThe center city, which holds the business district and the working class suburbs have all been developed with high density housing accordingly
The main objectives of the Metro in Montreal were to ease downtown traffic, regain downtown visibility and to not change the shape of the downtown The creation of the Metro resulted in business growth both downtown and in some of the older suburbs of the city, utilizing the North-South Line The one negative impact that happened was with an emphasis on the North-South Line of the Metro, although the working class was given a new cheaper form of transit but this did limit the marketable areas to live for the working class
However the city growth is slower than the outlying areas with a commuting population of 3.6 million and on average 1.84 million cars In a recent sample of 31,997 people in the 186 square km or 72 square miles Montreal, the mean commuting distance is 14.52 minutes with a minimum of .1 minutes and a maximum of 88.69 minutes The mean amount of bridges that this sample used is .35, with a minimum of 0 and maximum of 1; with number of vehicles at mean 1.83, min 0, max 8 and mean daily trips at 2.84, minimum at 2 and maximum at 21One point is significant to this studyThe mean number of vehicles per household, 1.83For a city the density of Montreal, the number of cars per household suggests most people live outside city center which would be nearly impossible to house so many vehicles. In comparison to the other major Canadian cities of Toronto and Vancouver congestion costs actually rank third at C$249 versus C$271 and C$260 respectively
Singapore is often referred to as the “Freedom of the World” due to the fact that its central power is an established democracy that allows citizens to freely partake in various religious customs, careers, and leisure pastimes.
Over time Singapore would develop a Constitution and outline the positions of President, the Cabinet, Parliament, and various ministries.
Singapore’s government structure is an intricate distribution of leadership ranging from the President to the Prime Minister, and Minister’s of various ministries. A ministry consist of a headquarters and a number of departments and board entities.
In some cases the members of Parliament can be appointed as Ministers of State to aid ministers in their functions over each department. Singapore operates with the use of a statutory board. These boards cannot be staffed by civil servants, but business professionals and directors within the fields. The boards possess greater independence and flexibility . The board members consist Chairman, Deputy Chairman, not less than 10-25 members at a time and act in the best interest of the people and their needs.
Singapore’s government structure has sustained a prosperous economy and since 2000 has amounted to $373 billion in trade. Singapore is the 15th largest trader with the United States. With trade agreements with New Zealand and China, the workforce has had 2.2 million employees and has been sustained by departments that specialize in free market and economy management. The government’s organization aims to only support and manage the country’s resources (trades, investments, stocks, social services), while allowing entities to maximize their profit. Thus equaling to an economy free of government corruption.
Singapore has a uniquely connected transit system that allows for more than 52.4% of Singaporeans to commute to work and school daily. This percentage excludes foreigners. The transit makes on average 5.308 million trips a day.
Singapore’s transportation consistently links the country to many places of the world through two bridges. Transportation by sea has provided Singapore with one of the busiest ports in the world, Port of Singapore. Roughly, Port of Singapore transports around 393-448 of cargo yearly. Port of Singapore is also ranked as the best port in Asia. Outside of land and sea transportation, Singapore serves more than 185 cities around the world through its Singapore Changi Airport. The airport handles 64 million passengers and connects civilian, military and air force bases.
A large portion of Singapore’s economic success is due to commuter tourism. In 2005, the government legalized gambling and allowed the integration of two major casino resorts. In addition to the development of tourism is that of medical tourism. Tourists visit Singapore for medical healthcare. By 2012 Singapore’s medical tourism hub is expected to generate more than $1-3 billion (possibly trillion) in revenue. Singapore’s transportation and commuting has sustained the country with constant supply and demand, cargo from various corners of the world, and tourism. Singapore now has the ability to expand beyond its basic industries and reap the advantages of being a tourism and medical tourism hub for the future.
Centers: Prosperity and Sustainability in the Global City
Montreal<br />Boston<br />Singapore<br />CENTERS<br />Prosperity and Sustainability in the Global City <br />MPPA-452<br />Professor Wass<br />Presented by<br />Molly ChroenosTamira Cole Jabari Paul<br />
Boston<br />City Profile:<br />As the hub of the New England region, Boston is home to over 617,000 residents, many institutions of higher education, some of the world's finest inpatient hospitals, and numerous cultural and professional sports organizations. According to 2010 Census numbers, the population of Boston has increased by 4.8% or 28,453 people, since the year 2000. Of the largest Northeastern cities for which Census data were released, Boston grew the most in the past decade. <br />
The Global Cities Index (2010) reports that in comparison to other global cities, Boston ranks 41 by population, 11 by GDP, and 19 overall.
The Global Financial Centres Index 9 (released March 2011) reports that in comparison to other global financial centers, Boston ranks 12. This reflects a one point increase in rank, since the last Global Financial Centres Index report was released.
An examination of the economic connectivity of 315 cities within the world city network found that among US, EU, and Pacific Asian Cities, Boston ranks 60 in terms of global network connectivity. These findings were reported in a 2005 study done by researchers at the Brookings Institution.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>History</li></ul>Boston, first incorporated as a town in 1630, and as a city in 1822, is one of America's oldest cities, with a rich economic and social history. What began as a homesteading community eventually evolved into a center for social and political change. Boston has since become the economic and cultural hub of New England.<br />
<ul><li>Governance Structure</li></ul>Boston has a strong-mayor and council form of government in which a locally elected council is headed by a mayor, either popularly elected or elected by the council from among its members. In Boston the mayor is elected by local citizens and serves a four year term. Residents also elect 4 citywide council members and 9 district-wide council members, who are responsible for formulating city ordinances, which the mayor enforces. In the strong-mayor and council form of government, the mayor acts as real chief executive of the city or town, with the prerogative to veto actions of the council.<br />
<ul><li>Comparison: Boston, Montreal & Singapore
Boston and Singapore both have governments with separate executive and legislative powers.
The governments of Boston, Singapore, and Montreal all have departments and divisions that provide public services to their citizens.
Boston and Montreal both have council members that represent certain geographic regions of their cities.
The heads of government for Boston, Singapore, and Montreal – both symbolic and real – are all directly elected by their citizenries.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Transportation</li></ul>Boston is New England's leading port; a regional rail, bus, and truck terminal center; and an important air transport center. Boston is a hub from which many highways extend to serve the city to the north, west and south. The mission of the Boston Transportation Department is to promote public safety, manage the city's transportation network, and enhance the quality of life for residents of its city neighborhoods.<br />
The 5 busiest MBTA bus routes carry 17% of all MBTA bus passengers.
Since 1990, Boston’s population has grown about 3%. Auto registrations grew 36% over the same period.
In a recent national survey, parking costs in Boston, at up to $28/day, were second only to New York City.
BTD issued 1,746,744 parking violations in FY2001.
65,830 Resident Parking permits were issued by BTD in the year 2000, a 47% increase from 1990.
There are 38,000 bicycle trips daily in Boston. 20% of these are work trips.
There are approximately 2,735,000 journeys each day ending in Boston, the majority of which also begin in Boston.
Each day, 927,000 people travel into Boston from the rest of the region. Of these, 70% have destinations outside the Core Neighborhoods.
47% of the 283,000 trips destined for the Core Neighborhoods and beginning outside Boston are by public transportation.
Three out of every ten trips in Boston are pedestrian trips.
57% of Boston’s population, and 79% of its jobs lie within an approximately 10 minute walk of a rapid transit or commuter rail station.
68% of all MBTA rapid transit boardings occur in Boston.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Comparison: Boston, Montreal & Singapore
Boston, Singapore, and Montreal all have major airports, ports, rail, and transit systems.
Boston, Singapore, and Montreal all have at least two public airports.
Boston, Singapore, and Montreal are all among the top transportation centers in their regions. </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Conclusions: Boston
Boston has gone from having a decentralized government (during the colonial period) to a centralized government (in 1822) and now back to government that’s partly decentralized due to urban sprawl.
Boston’s transportation system has been the cause of New England's growth for a substantial period of time.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>References</li></ul>Boston Redevelopment Authority. (2011). Boston 2010 Census: Facts & Figures. Retrieved 2011, from Boston Redevelopment Authority: http://www.bostonredevelopmentauthoritynews.org/2011/03/23/boston-census-facts-figures/<br />City of Boston. (2011). Community Profile. Boston: Department of Housing and Community Development.<br />City of Boston. (2011). Boston.gov. Retrieved 2011, from City of Boston: http://www.cityofboston.gov/<br />Dumas, K. A. (2002). The Transportation Fact Book and Neighborhood Profiles. Retrieved 2011, from City of Boston: http://www.cityofboston.gov/transportation/accessboston/pdfs/front.pdf<br />Encyclopedia Britannica. (2011). EB.com. Retrieved 2011, from Encyclopedia Britannica: http://www.britannica.com/<br />Foreign Policy. (2011). The Global Cities Index 2010. Retrieved 2011, from Foreign Policy: http://www.foreignpolicy.com/node/373401<br />Neufville, R. d. (2006). Planning Airport Access in an Era of Low-Cost Airlines. Journal of the American Planning Association , 347-356.<br />Public Transport Council. (2010). Annual Report 2009/2010. Retrieved 2011, from Public Transport Council: http://www.ptc.gov.sg/_files/PTC_AR09_2010_-_e_version.pdf<br />
Quebec Transports Ministry. (2011). Greater Montréal Area Transportation Management Plan. Retrieved 2011, from Quebec Transports Ministry: http://www.mtq.gouv.qc.ca/portal/page/portal/ministere_en/ministere/plans_transport/montreal_plan_gestion_deplacements<br />Singapore Government. (2011). Singapore Transport Ministry. Retrieved 2011, from Singapore Government: http://app.mot.gov.sg/Default.aspx<br />Taylor, P. J., & Lang, R. E. (2005). The Brookings Institution. Retrieved 2011, from U.S. Cities in the ‘World City Network': http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Files/rc/reports/2005/02cities_taylor/20050222_worldcities.pdf<br />US Department of State. (2011). Background Note: Singapore. Retrieved 2011, from Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs: http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2798.htm<br />Yeandle, M. (2011). Z/Yen Group. Retrieved 2011, from The Global Financial Centres Index 9: http://www.zyen.com/GFCI/GFCI%209.pdf<br /><ul><li>References</li></li></ul><li>Montreal: <br />La Metropole<br /><ul><li> Montreal is the second largest city in Canada and the largest city in the Canadian providence of Quebec
Leadership is elected by popular vote both the city council and mayor
Montreal is the second largest French-speaking city in the industrialized world, behind Paris. </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Montreal was founded as a French fur trading outpost, until the Seven Years War when it fell to Great Britain
It was the capital of the Providence of Canada until 1849 when a Tory mob burned down the Parliament Building</li></ul>GOVERNMENT HISTORY<br />
GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE<br /><ul><li>The head of Montreal’s government is the Mayor; Currently Mayor Tremblay
The City Council is a democratically elected body of 73 members from different neighborhoods throughout the city.
The City Council is a small part of the Montreal Metropolitan Community or MMC; which governs and coordinates policy across the whole Metro area.
The City ultimately reports to both the government of the Providence of Quebec and the Federal Government. </li></li></ul><li>HISTORY OF MMC<br /><ul><li>MMC was set up in 1971 as the local government
At the onset, the MMC, represented only 71% of the city
Montreal is a highly fragmented city, even with the implementation of the MMC, with 111 local municipalities and 17 regional administrators and this makes it prone to be usurped by the providential government of Quebec </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>The Quiet Revolution took place in the late 1960’s. The French Speaking population of Quebec wanted autonomy from the Federal Government
The Canadian government has favored the growth of other Canadian cities due to the semi autonomous Quebec government </li></ul>CONFLICT<br />
A merger of Montreal occurred in 2000 under the leadership of the PartiQuébécois. It included 28 municipalities <br />15 municipalities on the island and 1 around Longueil were de-merged in 2006<br />Most of the resistance to this merger came from the suburban areas<br />MERGER<br />
2007 Transportation Plan<br />City Wide Marketing Campaign<br />The new bridge, to benefit the east-west corridor which currently has one bridge to enter city center <br />RECENT GOVERNMENT ACTION<br />
TRANSPORTATION & COMMUTES<br /><ul><li> Montreal’s transit is land based
Primary means of transportation:</li></ul> 1. Cars<br /> 2. Metro<br /> 3. Rail<br /> 4. Bus <br /> 5. Air<br /> 6. Bicycle <br /><ul><li> Montreal has been said to have one of the most researched Metro Systems
Has an dual transportation policy; emphasizing both rail and motor vehicle transit </li></li></ul><li>MONTREAL: METRO<br /><ul><li>Researched and Planned in 1950’s and 1960’s
The main objectives of the Metro was to ease downtown traffic, regain downtown visibility and to not change the shape of the downtown
Resulted in business growth both downtown and in some of the older suburbs of the city</li></li></ul><li>COMMUTING STUDY<br />By Manaugh, Kevin, Miranda-Moreno, Louis & El-Geneidy, Ahmed. (2009, July). The effect of neighbourhood characteristics, accessibility, home-work location, and demographics on commuting distances. Paper presented at the 89th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board at McGill University, Montreal.643.<br />
Main Factors Affecting Centers in Montreal<br />Government Structure <br />Semi-Autonomous but still controlled by Federal Government <br />Constant push and pull of French Speaking Quebec, Largely French Speaking Montreal and Federal Government <br />Political Past <br />Still recovering from loss of business post-Quite Revolution<br />CONCLUSIONS: Montreal<br />
Montreal: <br />Affected by Cultural and Political Happenings vs. Poor Policy or Ineffectual Government <br />CONCLUSIONS<br />
Boudreau, Julie-Anne, Hamel, Pierre, Jourve, Bernard, and Keil, Roger. (2007). New State Spaces in Canada. Urban Geography, 28:1, pp.30-53. <br />Filion, Pierre, Bunting, Trudi, Pavlic, Dejan & Langlois, Paul. (2010). Intensification and Sprawl. Urban Geography, 31:4, 541–569. DOI: 10.2747/0272-36126.96.36.1991<br />Manaugh, Kevin, Miranda-Moreno, Louis & El-Geneidy, Ahmed. (2009, July). The effect of neighbourhood characteristics, accessibility, home-work location, anddemographics on commuting distances. Paper presented at the 89th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board at McGill University, Montreal.<br />Rothblatt, Donald N. (1994). North American Metropolitan Planning. Journal of the American Planning Association, 60:4. doi: 01944363<br />Warn, K. (2002, Oct 31). One was for work, the other for play: MONTREAL v TORONTO. Financial Times , pp. 04-04. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/249358530?accountid=12861<br /> <br /> REFERENCES<br />
SINGAPORE: <br />FREEDOM OF THE WORLD<br /><ul><li> Singapore is considered a</li></ul> parliamentary republic with a <br /> unicameral government <br /><ul><li> This government structure establishes </li></ul> a democracy <br /><ul><li> Leadership is elected by popular vote </li></ul> and consists of a Cabinet led by a <br /> Minister and President <br /><ul><li> Singapore’s government structure has</li></ul> sustained low crime and corruption<br />
<ul><li>The history of Singapore’s government dates</li></ul> back to 1819 with Sir Stramford Raffles<br /><ul><li>Due to its founding, Singapore was separated into two different residences between 1819-1826 thus putting the country into the Straits Settlements
By the second World War, the settlements disbanded; in 1954 the First legislative assembly of Singapore was elected as ex-officio members </li></ul>GOVERNMENT HISTORY<br />
GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE<br /><ul><li>The Constitution defines the Government of Singapore </li></ul> as the President and Cabinet of Singapore<br /><ul><li>The Parliament serves as the legislative branch </li></ul> of government<br />* The President has few veto powers in key decision<br /><ul><li>The President must act in accordance to that of the</li></ul> Prime Minister and Cabinet <br /> * The Prime Minister is appointed by the President<br /><ul><li> Ministers may be designated by the Prime Minister to</li></ul> lead various ministries they include:<br />
GOVERNMENT STRUCTURECONTINUED<br />(PMO) Prime Minister’s Office <br />(MINDEF) Ministry of Defence<br />(MOE) Ministry of Education<br />(MOF) Ministry of Finance<br />(MFA) Ministry of Foreign Affairs<br />(MOH) Ministry of Health<br />(MHA) Ministry of Home Affairs<br />(MICA) Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts <br />(MinLaw) Ministry of Law<br />(MOM) Ministry of Manpower<br />*Taken from Ministry of Law, 2006<br />
Singapore’s intricate government structure<br />has allowed for centralized power in the<br />Parliament and specialized departments that<br />oversee the country that has provided <br />Singapore with: <br /> * A competent management skills<br /> * A prosperous economy <br /> * Freedom of political corruption<br />SUSTAINABILITY<br />
TRANSPORTATION & COMMUTES<br /><ul><li> Singapore’s transit is land based
Primary means of transportation:</li></ul> 1. Bus<br /> 2. Rail<br /> 3. Taxi<br /> 4. Air <br /> 5. Cars<br /> 6. Mass Rapid Transit<br /> 7. Light Rail Transit<br /><ul><li> Public transit system is the</li></ul> most important means of <br /> transportation for Singaporeans<br /><ul><li> The system is used for </li></ul> commuting to school and work <br />
THE GLOBAL LINK<br /><ul><li>Singapore is linked to many areas in the </li></ul> world <br /><ul><li> Two bridges link that Singapore to Malaysia </li></ul> 1. The Causeway<br /> 2. The Second Link<br /><ul><li> The Singapore Changi Airport</li></ul> * Central aviation hub for airlines<br /> * Serves a 185 cities and 58 <br /> countries<br />
COMMUTING FOR TOURISM<br /><ul><li> Outside of work and school </li></ul> commuting, Singapore has a <br /> strong tourism industry that<br /> is backed by commuters <br /><ul><li> More than 10.2 million </li></ul> tourists visited Singapore<br /> since 2007<br /><ul><li> Singapore deems the country</li></ul> a medical tourism hub <br />
Singapore’s democratic government has provided a structure of consistency, management and thoroughness that has opened the transport gateway for Singapore’s global link to support its stable economy and tourism. While there are additional factors that prove Singapore’s growth, it is evident that these key areas have given Singapore tremendous prosperity. <br />SUMMARY PERSPECTIVE<br />
Dogra, S. (2005). “Medical tourism takes Singapore by Storm.” Express Healthcare Management (Mumbai). Retrieved 7 August 2011. http://www.expresshealthcaremgmt.com/20050731/medicaltourism01.shtml<br /> Land Transport Authority. (2008). “Public Transport Ridership.” Retrieved on 4 August 2011. http://www.lta.gov.sg/corp_info/doc/Average_Daily_Public_Transport_Ridership.pdf<br /> Ministry of Law. (2007). “Our Organisational Structure.” 3 May 2007, Retrieved on 2 August 2011. http://www.gov.sg/govtlist_Minis.htm<br /> Ministry of Trade and Industry. (2005). “Proposal to integrate resorts.”<br /> Retrieved on 7 August 2011. http://app.mti.gov.sg/data/pages/606/doc/Ministerial%20Statement%20-%20PM%2018apr05.pdf<br /> The Singapore Law System. Singapore Academy of Law. (2011). Retrieved 3 August 2011. link broken<br /> REFERENCES<br />