Priciples of the bakeshop

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Week 8 - Priciples of the bakeshop

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Priciples of the bakeshop

  1. 1. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel ” “ No one who cooks, cooks alone. Even at her most solitary, a cook in the kitchen is surrounded by generations of cooks past, the advice and wisdom of cookbook writers. – Laurie Colwin, Cookbook author and American writer (1944-1992) PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP C H A P T E R TWENTY-NINE
  2. 2. 2 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel After studying this unit  You will be able to: – Recognize many of the specialized tools and equipment used in the bakeshop – Recognize and select ingredients used in a bakeshop – Control the development of gluten – Cook sugar correctly – Understand the baking process
  3. 3. 3 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel Formulas  Standard term used throughout the industry for bakeshop recipes; formulas rely on weighing to ensure accurate measuring of ingredients
  4. 4. 4 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel Bakeshop Tools and Equipment  Some are very specialized – Cake and tart pans – Various spatulas for spreading icings – Piping tools and cake combs for decorating
  5. 5. 5 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel Bakeshop Tools (clockwise from center back): cake turntable, cake pans, flan ring, tartlet pans, cannoli form, cake comb, offset spatulas, flat cake spatula, blade for scoring breads, flower nail, rectangular tartlet pans, piping bag and tips, metal spatula, dough cutter, rolling pin, springform pan, copper sugar pot (on cooling rack), nest of round cutters.
  6. 6. 6 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel Ingredients  Flour – Provides bulk and structure to baked goods, thickens liquids and prevents foods from sticking during preparation and baking – Flour is produced when grain kernels are milled or ground – Corn, rice and wheat are the most significant grains used in the bakeshop
  7. 7. 7 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel Wheat Flours  Produced by milling wheat kernels  Contain starch and protein  The innermost part of the kernel is the germ, which contains fat  During milling the kernels are cracked and the bran and the germ are removed – Patent flour is made from the portion of the endosperm closest to the germ – Clear flour is made from the portion of endosperm that is closest to the bran
  8. 8. 8 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel Composition of Wheat Flours  Flour contains 5 nutrients – Fat – Minerals – Moisture  Cannot exceed 15% by government standards, but will vary depending on climatic conditions – Starch  Necessary for the absorption of moisture – Protein  Gluten is the tough rubbery substance created when wheat flour is mixed with water – Lower protein content creates lighter, more tender goods – Higher protein content creates chewier, crisper products
  9. 9. 9 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel Wheat Flours (cont.)  Soft or weak flours – Low in protein – Best for tender products such as cakes  Hard or strong flours – High in protein – Good for producing yeast breads
  10. 10. 10 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel Specialty Flours  Whole-wheat flour – Milled from the entire wheat kernel  Vital wheat gluten – Pure protein extracted from wheat flour  Self-rising flour – All-purpose flour with salt and chemical leavener added  Nonwheat flours or composition flours – Made from grains, seeds or beans – Often do not contain proteins and do not develop  Rye flour – Milled from the rye berry – Comes in four grades or colors  White, medium, dark and rye meal
  11. 11. 11 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel Function of Sugars and Sweeteners  Provide flavor and color  Tenderize products by weakening gluten strands  Provide food for yeast  Serve as a preservatives  Act as a creaming and foaming agents
  12. 12. 12 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel Sugars  Are carbohydrates – Single or simple sugars  Glucose and fructose – Double or complex  Lactose or refined sugar  Most sugar is sucrose made from sugar cane or sugar beets
  13. 13. 13 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel Types of Sugar  Turbinado sugar – Coarse crystals that are light brown in color and have a caramel flavor  Sanding sugar – Large coarse crystals used for decorating cookies and pastries  Granulated sugar – Common table sugar
  14. 14. 14 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel  Brown sugar – Regular refined cane sugar with some of the molasses returned to it  Light or dark  Superfine or castor sugar – Granulated sugar with a smaller-sized crystal; dissolves quickly in liquids and produces light, tender cakes  Powdered (confectioner's) sugar – Finely ground sugar with 3% starch added Types of Sugar (cont.)
  15. 15. 15 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel Liquid Sweeteners  Molasses – Liquid by-product of refined sugar  Corn syrup – Extremely viscous and less sweet than honey or refined sugar  Honey – Created by honeybees – A strong sweetener consisting of fructose and glucose  Maple syrup – Made from the sap of sugar maple trees
  16. 16. 16 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel Simple Sugar Syrups  Light syrup – Boil 2 parts water with 1 part sugar  Medium syrup – Boil 1½ parts water with 1 part sugar  Heavy syrup – Boil equal parts water and sugar
  17. 17. 17 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel Cooked Sugars  Used to make caramel sauce, meringues, buttercream, candy and other confections  Unstable and susceptible to recrystalization – Use clean saucepan – Use an interferent – Brush down sides of pan with cold water
  18. 18. 18 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel Stages of Cooked Sugar
  19. 19. 19 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel Stages of Cooked Sugar Hard crack stage. Soft ball stage. Hard ball stage.
  20. 20. 20 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel SAFETY ALERT – Hot Sugar Syrups  Because sugar can be heated to very high temperatures, sugar syrups can cause severe burns – Do not touch liquefied or caramelized sugar with your bare hands – Allow the sugar to cool completely before touching it
  21. 21. 21 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel Fats  Butter – Prized for its flavor – Melts at a relatively low temperature, 93°F  Margarine – Useful in rolled-in dough – Melts at a slightly higher temperature than butter  Lard – Rendered pork fat – Yields flaky and flavorful pastries  Shortening – Made from animal fats and vegetable fats that are hydrogenated to make them solid  Oil – Liquid – Blends throughout the mixture
  22. 22. 22 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel Thickeners  Starches – Used as thickeners in pastry creams, sauces, custards and fruit fillings – Cornstarch  Must be dissolved in cold water, added to mixture and then heated and cooked  Not good for frozen products – Arrowroot  Can break down if overcooked – Tapioca  Needs to be soaked in cold liquid several hours before cooking  Instant tapioca only needs 20-30 minutes to soak
  23. 23. 23 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel Thickeners (cont.)  Gelatin – Natural product derived from animal protein – Must be bloomed in cold liquid and then dissolved in hot liquid – Available in two forms  Granulated  Sheet or leaf
  24. 24. 24 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel Flavorings  Emulsions – Flavoring oils mixed into water with the aid of emulsifiers  Extracts – Flavoring oils or essential oils and ethyl alcohol
  25. 25. 25 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel Chocolate  Nib – The usable part of the chocolate pod  Chocolate liquor – The liquid that is extracted from the roasted nib  Cocoa butter – The fat part of the liquor  Cocoa powder – The dry product that remains after the cocoa butter has been removed  Conching – A Swiss technique that increases smoothness
  26. 26. 26 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel Factors of Chocolate Quality  Appearance – Color should be even and glossy without any discoloration  Smell – Should be chocolaty with no off-odors or staleness  Break – Should snap cleanly without crumbling  Texture – Should melt quickly and evenly on the tongue
  27. 27. 27 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel Types of Chocolate  Unsweetened – Pure hardened chocolate liquor with no added sugar  Bittersweet and semisweet – At least 35% chocolate liquor with added coca butter, sugar, flavorings and sometimes emulsifiers
  28. 28. 28 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel Types of Chocolate (cont.)  Couverture – High-quality chocolate containing 32% cocoa butter  Milk chocolate – Contains sugar, vanilla, milk solids and possibly other flavoring ingredients  Chocolate chips – Drops of chocolate available in count sizes from 14 to 160 per ounce
  29. 29. 29 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel Types of Chocolate (cont.)  Cocoa Powder – Contains no sweeteners or flavorings and is used primarily in baked goods – Two types  Alkalized  Dutch processed  Cocoa butter – The fat that comes from the cocoa bean  White chocolate – A confectionery product that contains no chocolate solids or liquors  Imitation chocolate and chocolate-flavored coating – Made with hydrogenated vegetable oil instead of cocoa butter
  30. 30. 30 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel Nuts  The edible single-seed kernel of a fruit surrounded by a hard shell  High in fat  Susceptible to rancidity  Should be stored in airtight, nonmetal containers  Peanuts are technically not nuts but legumes
  31. 31. 31 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel Measuring Ingredients  Precise and accurate measurement is extremely important in bakeshop – When measuring ingredients for baking formulas, use weights, even for liquids – Balance scales are often used in the bakeshop
  32. 32. 32 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel Mixing Ingredients  The technique used to mix a product affects its final volume  Distributes ingredients evenly  Activates proteins  Incorporates air to help mixture to rise and develop a light texture  Different methods ensure that ingredients are combined in the proper order to achieve the desired result
  33. 33. 33 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel Mixing Methods  Beating  Blending  Creaming  Cutting  Folding  Kneading  Sifting  Stirring  Whipping
  34. 34. 34 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel The Baking Process  Gases form – Carbon dioxide, air and steam  Gases are trapped – The stretchable protein in the batter or dough captures the gas  Starches gelatinize – At a temperature of 140°F, starches absorb additional moisture and expand  Proteins coagulate – When the dough or batter reaches a temperature of 160°F, gluten and dairy and egg proteins solidify
  35. 35. 35 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel The Baking Process (cont.)  Fats melt – As fat melts it coats the starch granules, moistening and tenderizing the product by keeping gluten strands short  Water evaporates – Steam, which can be used as a leavener, is produced  Sugars caramelize – Adding flavor and color
  36. 36. 36 PRINCIPLESOFTHEBAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e Labensky • Hause • Martel The Baking Process (cont.)  Carryover baking – The residual heat that remains in the product continues the baking process as the product cools  Staling – Changes in texture and aroma caused by both moisture loss and changes in the structure of the starch granules

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