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- 1. 1 CONVERSION OF MEASUREMENT Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
- 2. 2 Temperature Temperature • is a measure of how hot or cold an object is compared to another object. • indicates that heat flows from the object with a higher temperature to the object with a lower temperature. • is measured using a thermometer. Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
- 3. 3 Temperature Scales Temperature Scales Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings • are Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin. • have reference points for the boiling and freezing points of water.
- 4. 4 A. What is the temperature of freezing water? 1) 0°F 2) 0°C 3) 0 K B. What is the temperature of boiling water? 1) 100°F 2) 32°F 3) 373 K C. How many Celsius units are between the boiling and freezing points of water? 1) 100 2) 180 3) 273 Learning Check
- 5. 5 A. What is the temperature of freezing water? 2) 0°C B. What is the temperature of boiling water? 3) 373 K C. How many Celsius units are between the boiling and freezing points of water? 1) 100 Solution
- 6. 6 • On the Fahrenheit scale, there are 180°F between the freezing and boiling points and on the Celsius scale, there are 100°C. 180°F = 9°F = 1.8°F 100°C 5°C 1°C • In the formula for the Fahrenheit temperature, adding 32 adjusts the zero point of water from 0°C to 32°F. TF = 9/5 TC + 32° or TF = 1.8 TC + 32° Fahrenheit Formula
- 7. 7 • TC is obtained by rearranging the equation for TF. TF = 1.8TC + 32 • Subtract 32 from both sides. TF - 32 = 1.8TC ( +32 - 32) TF - 32 = 1.8TC • Divide by 1.8 = °F - 32 = 1.8 TC 1.8 1.8 TF - 32 = TC 1.8 Celsius Formula
- 8. 8 Solving A Temperature Problem A person with hypothermia has a body temperature of 34.8°C. What is that temperature in °F? TF = 1.8 TC + 32° TF = 1.8 (34.8°C) + 32° exact tenth's exact = 62.6 + 32° = 94.6°F tenth’s Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
- 9. 9 The normal temperature of a chickadee is 105.8°F. What is that temperature on the Celsius scale? 1) 73.8°C 2) 58.8°C 3) 41.0°C Learning Check
- 10. 10 3) 41.0 °C TC = (TF - 32°) 1.8 = (105.8 - 32°) 1.8 = 73.8°F = 41.0°C 1.8° Solution
- 11. 11 A pepperoni pizza is baked at 455°F. What temperature is needed on the Celsius scale? 1) 423°C 2) 235°C 3) 221°C Learning Check
- 12. 12 A pepperoni pizza is baked at 455°F. What temperature is needed on the Celsius scale? 2) 235°C TF - 32° = TC 1.8 (455 - 32°) = 235°C 1.8 Solution
- 13. 13 On a cold winter day, the temperature is –15°C. What is that temperature in °F? 1) 19°F 2) 59°F 3) 5°F Learning Check
- 14. 14 3) 5°F TF = 1.8 TC + 32° TF = 1.8(–15°C) + 32° = – 27 + 32° = 5°F Note: Be sure to use the change sign key on your calculator to enter the minus – sign. 1.8 x 15 +/ – = –27 Solution
- 15. 15 The Kelvin temperature scale • has 100 units between the freezing and boiling points of water. 100 K = 100°C or 1 K = 1°C • is obtained by adding 273 to the Celsius temperature. TK = TC + 273 • contains the lowest possible temperature, absolute zero (0 K). 0 K = –273°C Kelvin Temperature Scale
- 16. 16 Temperatures TABLE 2.5
- 17. 17 What is normal body temperature of 37°C in Kelvins? 1) 236 K 2) 310. K 3) 342 K Learning Check
- 18. 18 What is normal body temperature of 37°C in kelvins? 2) 310. K TK = TC + 273 = 37°C + 273 = 310. K Solution

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