"Great Man" Theories
leaders are simply born with the
necessary internal characteristics such as
charisma, confidence, intelligence, and
social skills that make them natural-born
assumes that the capacity for
leadership is inherent – that great leaders
are born, not made.
that people inherit certain
qualities and traits that make them better
suited to leadership. Trait theories often
behavioral characteristics shared by
courage are all traits that could
potentially be linked to great leaders.
Focus on particular variables related to the
environment that might determine which particular
style of leadership is best suited for the situation.
According to this theory,
No leadership style is best in all situations.
Success depends upon a number of variables,
including the leadership style, qualities of the
followers and aspects of the situation.
Leaders choose the best course of action based
upon situational variables. Different styles of
leadership may be more appropriate for certain
types of decision-making.
For example, in a situation where the leader is the
most knowledgeable and experienced member of a
group, an authoritarian style might be most
appropriate. In other instances where group
members are skilled experts, a democratic
style would be more effective.
Based upon the belief that great leaders
are made, not born. Consider it the flip-side
of the Great Man theories.
People can learn to become leaders
through teaching and observation.
Margaret Thatcher (Brief Bio.)
• Born to Margaret Hilda Roberts and Alfred Roberts
on 13 October
• Her father owned two grocery shops.
• Her father was active in local politics and the Methodist church, and
brought up Margaret as a strict Wesleyan Methodist.
• He came from a Liberal family but stood—as was then customary in
local government—as an Independent.
• Her extracurricular activities included the piano, field hockey, poetry
recitals, swimming and walking.
• She applied for a job at ICI, but was rejected after the personnel
department assessed her as "headstrong, obstinate and dangerously
Member of Parliament (1959–1970)
Education Secretary and Cabinet Minister (1970–1974)
Leader of the Opposition (1975–1979)
Prime Minister (1979–1990)
Margaret Thatcher on Socialism
These brief exchanges took place during Margaret Thatcher's last
speech in the House of Commons on 22 November 1990.
These leaders encourage
contributions from group
members and help group
relevant and committed to
process. In participative
leader retains the right to
allow the input of others.
as transactional theories,
focus on the role of
and group performance.
leadership on a system of
theories are often used in
rewarded; when they
Also known as transformational theories, focus
upon the connections formed between leaders
and followers. It motivate and inspire people by
helping group members see the importance
and higher good of the task.
These leaders are focused on the performance
of group members, but also want each person
to fulfill his or her potential. Leaders with this style
often have high ethical and moral standards.
an extreme form of transactional leadership, where
leaders have a lot of power over their people.
Staff and team members have little opportunity to
make suggestions, even if these would be in the
team's or the organization's best interest.
Autocratic leadership is often best used in crises,
when decisions must be made quickly and without
dissent. For instance, the military often uses an
autocratic leadership style; top commanders are
responsible for quickly making complex decisions,
which allows troops to focus their attention and
energy on performing their allotted tasks and
leaders work "by the book." They
follow rules rigorously, and ensure that their people
follow procedures precisely.
is an appropriate leadership style for work
involving serious safety risks (such as working with
machinery, with toxic substances, or at dangerous
heights) or where large sums of money are involved.
organizations where employees do routine tasks (as
transformational leadership because
these leaders inspire enthusiasm in their teams and
are energetic in motivating others to move forward.
This ability to create excitement and commitment is
an enormous benefit.
downside to charismatic leaders is that they
can believe more in themselves than in their teams.
This can create the risk that a project or even an
entire organization might collapse if the leader
leaves. A charismatic leader might believe that she
can do no wrong, even when others are warning
her about the path she's on; and this feeling of
invincibility can ruin a team or an organization.
Democratic leaders make the final decisions,
but they include team members in the
decision-making process. They encourage
creativity, and team members are often
highly engaged in projects and decisions.
Team members tend to have high job
satisfaction and are productive because
they're more involved in decisions.
This French phrase means "leave it
be," and it describes leaders who
allow their people to work on their
leaders may give
their teams complete freedom to
do their work and set their own
deadlines. They provide team
with resources and
advice, if needed, but otherwise
don't get involved.
The downside is that it can be
damaging if team members don't
manage their time well or if they
don't have the knowledge, skills, or
motivation to do their work
Leaders are totally focused on
developing the people on their
teams. This is a participatory style
and tends to encourage good
collaboration. This is the opposite
of task-oriented leadership.
The benefit of this leadership style is
create teams that everyone wants
to be part of. Team members are
often more productive and willing
to take risks, because they know
that the leader will provide support
if they need it.
Servant leaders often lead by
example. They have high integrity
and lead with.
The whole team tends to be
involved in decision making.
However, servant leaders often
"lead from behind," preferring to
stay out of the limelight and
recognition for their hard work.
it's a good way to move ahead in
a world where values are
increasingly important, and where
servant leaders can achieve
power because of their values,
ideals, and ethics.
Task-oriented leaders focus
only on getting the job done
and can be autocratic. They
actively define the work and
structures in place, and plan,
organize, and monitor work.
These leaders also perform
other key tasks, such as
creating and maintaining
standards for performance.
The benefit of task-oriented
leadership is that it ensures
that deadlines are met, and
it's especially useful for team
members who don't manage
their time well.
Leadership functions for enhancing collective
work in teams and organizations. This serves
as reminders that there is no recipe for
Help interpret the meaning of events
Create alignment on objectives and
Build task commitment and optimism
Build mutual trust and cooperation
Strengthen collective identity
Organize and coordinate activities
Encourage and facilitate collective
Obtain necessary resources and support
Develop and empower people
10. Promote social justice and morality
Leading the organization:
- Managing change
- solving problems and making
- taking risks and innovating
- setting vision and strategy
- managing the work
- enhancing business skills and
- Understanding and navigating
Leading the self:
- displaying drive and purpose
- exhibiting leadership stature
- increasing your capacity to
- managing yourself
- increasing self-awareness
- developing adaptability
- developing others
- building and maintaining
-managing effective teams
and work groups