Gestalt bender report


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Gestalt bender report

  1. 1. (Bender-Gestalt test)
  2. 2. History  a psychological test first developed by child neuropsychiatrist Lauretta Bender  The test is used to evaluate "visual- motor maturity", to screen for developmental disorders, or to assess neurological function or brain damage.  Bender first described her Visual Motor Gestalt Test in an 1938 monograph entitled: A Visual Motor Gestalt Test and Its Clinical Use.
  3. 3.  The test has been used as a screening device for brain damage. Bender herself said it was "a method of evaluating maturation of gestalt functioning children 4-11's brain functioning by which it responds to a given constellation of stimuli as a whole, the response being a motor process of patterning the perceived gestalt."
  4. 4.  It measures perceptual motor skills, perceptual motor development, and gives an indication of neurological intactness. It has been used as a personality test and a test of emotional problems.  The impetus for the clinical use of the Bender Gestalt came in the late 1930s when Max L. Hutt, an Instructor at the Educational Clinic of City College of New York became interested in developing a non-verbal projective personality test
  5. 5.  The Bender-II contains 16 figures versus 9 in the original. The new or revised scoring system for the Bender-II was developed based on empirical investigation of numerous scoring systems.
  6. 6. Purpose  The Bender Gestalt Test is used to evaluate visual maturity, visual motor integration skills, style of responding, reaction to frustration, ability to correct mistakes, planning and organizational skills, and motivation. Copying figures requires fine motor skills, the ability to discriminate between visual stimuli, the capacity to integrate visual skills with motor skills, and the ability to shift attention from the original design to what is being drawn.
  7. 7. Precautions  The Bender Gestalt Test should not be administered to an individual with severe visual impairment unless his or her vision has been adequately corrected with eyeglasses.  Additionally, the test should not be given to an examinee with a severe motor impairment, as the impairment would affect his or her ability to draw the geometric figures correctly. The test scores might thereby be distorted.
  8. 8.  The Bender Gestalt Test should never be used in isolation. When making a diagnosis, results from the Bender Gestalt Test should be used in conjunction with other medical, developmental, educational, psychological, and neuropsychological information.  Finally, psychometric testing requires administration and evaluation by a clinically trained examiner. If a scoring system is used, the examiner should carefully evaluate its reliability and validity, as well as the normative sample being used.
  9. 9. Description  The Bender Gestalt Test is an individually administered pencil and paper test used to make a diagnosis of brain injury.  There are nine geometric figures drawn in black. These figures are presented to the examinee one at a time; then, the examinee is asked to copy the figure on a blank sheet of paper.  Examinees are allowed to erase, but cannot use any mechanical aids (such as rulers).
  10. 10.  The average amount of time to complete the test is five to ten minutes.  One method requires that the examinee view each card for five seconds, after which the card is removed. The examinee draws the figure from memory.  Another variation involves having the examinee draw the figures by following the standard procedure. The examinee is then given a clean sheet of paper and asked to draw as many figures as he or she can recall.  Last, the test is given to a group, rather than to an individual (i.e., standard administration).
  11. 11. Administration  Administration of the Bender-Gestalt II consists of two phases:  Copy Phase ○ Examinee is shown stimulus cards with designs and asked to copy each of the designs on a sheet of paper  Recall Phase ○ Examinee is asked to redraw designs from memory
  12. 12.  Motor and Perception supplemental tests screen for specific motor and perceptual abilities/difficulties.  Kit consists of Examiner’s manual, 16 stimulus cards, observation form, motor test, and a perception test
  13. 13.  Materials needed: Two pencils with erasers, 10 sheets of drawing paper, and a stopwatch (not included in test kit).  Administer test on a table, seated across from the examinee if possible  Supply one pencil and one sheet of paper (vertically in front of examinee)  Show the stimulus cards to the examinee one at a time (aligned with the top of drawing paper)
  14. 14.  Administer stimulus cards in the correct numeric sequence and do not allow examinee to turn or manipulate them.  Copy Phase:  Inconspicuously measure how long the examinee takes to complete the items – record time in minutes and seconds  Document your observations – carefully note the examinee’s approach to drawing each design
  15. 15.  Recall Phase:  Administered immediately following the copy phase  Examinee is given a new sheet of paper an asked to draw as many of the designs that were previously shown.  Motor Test:  2 – 4 minutes  Draw a line between the dots in each figure without touching the borders  Perception Test:  2 – 4 minutes  Circle or point to a design in each row that best matches the design in the box
  16. 16. Results/Scoring  Angular difficulty: This includes increasing, decreasing, distorting, or omitting an angle in a figure.  Bizarre doodling: This involves adding peculiar components to the drawing that have no relationship to the original Bender Gestalt figure.  Closure difficulty: This occurs when the examinee has difficulty closing open spaces on a figure, or connecting various parts of the figure. This results in a gap in the copied figure.
  17. 17.  Cohesion: This involves drawing a part of a figure larger or smaller than shown on the original figure and out of proportion with the rest of the figure. This error may also include drawing a figure or part of a figure significantly out of proportion with other figures that have been drawn.  Collision: This involves crowding the designs or allowing the end of one design to overlap or touch a part of another design.  Contamination: This occurs when a previous figure, or part of a figure, influences the examinee in adequate completion of the current figure. For example, an examinee may combine two different Bender Gestalt figures.
  18. 18.  Omission: This involves failing to adequately connect the parts of a figure or reproducing only parts of a figure.  Overlapping difficulty: This includes problems in drawing portions of the figures that overlap, simplifying the drawing at the point that it overlaps, sketching or redrawing the overlapping portions, or otherwise distorting the figure at the point at which it overlaps.  Perseveration: This includes increasing, prolonging, or continuing the number of units in a figure. For example, an examinee may draw significantly more dots or circles than shown on the original figure.
  19. 19.  Fragmentation: This involves destroying part of the figure by not completing or breaking up the figures in ways that entirely lose the original design.  Impotence: This occurs when the examinee draws a figure inaccurately and seems to recognize the error, then, he or she makes several unsuccessful attempts to improve the drawing.  Irregular line quality or lack of motor coordination: This involves drawing rough lines, particularly when the examinee shows a tremor motion, during the drawing of the figure.  Line extension: This involves adding or extending a part of the copied figure that was not on the original figure.
  20. 20.  Retrogression: This involves substituting more primitive figures for the original design—for example, substituting solid lines or loops for circles, dashes for dots, dots for circles, circles for dots, or filling in circles. There must be evidence that the examinee is capable of drawing more mature figures.  Rotation: This involves rotating a figure or part of a figure by 45° or more. This error is also scored when the examinee rotates the stimulus card that is being copied.  Scribbling: This involves drawing primitive lines that have no relationship to the original Bender Gestalt figure.
  21. 21.  Simplification: This involves replacing a part of the figure with a more simplified figure. This error is not due to maturation. Drawings that are primitive in terms of maturation would be categorized under "Retrogression."  Superimposition of design: This involves drawing one or more of the figures on top of each other.  Workover: This involves reinforcing, increased pressure, or overworking a line or lines in a whole or part of a figure.
  22. 22. Key Principles of Gestalt Systems  Emergence - is the process of complex pattern formation from simpler rules.  Reification – is the constructive or generative aspect of perception, by which the experienced percept contains more explicit spatial information than the sensory stimulus on which it is based. Reification can be explained by progress in the study of illusory contours, which are treated by the visual system as "real" contours.  Multistability (or multistable perception) - is the tendency of ambiguous perceptual experiences to pop back and forth unstably between two or more alternative interpretations.  Invariance - is the property of perception whereby simple geometrical objects are recognized independent of rotation, translation, and scale; as well as several other variations such as elastic deformations, different lighting, and different component features.
  23. 23. Gestalt principles of grouping were introduced in Wertheimer (1923). Through the 1930s and '40s Wertheimer, Kohler and Koffka formulated many of the laws of grouping through the study of visual perception.  Law of Proximity—The law of proximity states that when an individual perceives an assortment of objects they perceive objects that are close to each other as forming a group.  Law of Similarity—The law of similarity states that elements within an assortment of objects are perceptually grouped together if they are similar to each other. This similarity can occur in the form of shape, color, shading or other qualities.
  24. 24.  Law of Closure—The law of closure states that individuals perceive objects such as shapes, letters, pictures, etc., as being whole when they are not complete. Specifically, when parts of a whole picture are missing, our perception fills in the visual gap. Research shows that the reason the mind completes a regular figure that is not perceived through sensation is to increase the regularity of surrounding stimuli.  Law of Symmetry—The law of symmetry states that the mind perceives objects as being symmetrical and forming around a center point. It is perceptually pleasing to divide objects into an even number of symmetrical parts. Therefore, when two symmetrical elements are unconnected the mind perceptually connects them to form a coherent shape. Similarities between symmetrical objects increase the likelihood that objects are grouped to form a combined symmetrical object.
  25. 25.  Law of Common Fate—The law of common fate states that objects are perceived as lines that move along the smoothest path. Experiments using the visual sensory modality found that movement of elements of an object produce paths that individuals perceive that the objects are on. We perceive elements of objects to have trends of motion, which indicate the path that the object is on. The law of continuity implies the grouping together of objects that have the same trend of motion and are therefore on the same path.  Law of Continuity—The law of continuity states that elements of objects tend to be grouped together, and therefore integrated into perceptual wholes if they are aligned within an object.
  26. 26.  Law of Good Gestalt—The law of good gestalt explains that elements of objects tend to be perceptually grouped together if they form a pattern that is regular, simple, and orderly. This law implies that as individuals perceive the world, they eliminate complexity and unfamiliarity so they can observe a reality in its most simplistic form.  Law of Past Experience—The law of past experience implies that under some circumstances visual stimuli are categorized according to past experience.
  27. 27. Gestalt psychologists find it is important to think of problems as a whole. Max Wertheimer considered thinking to happen in two ways:  Productive thinking is solving a problem with insight.  Reproductive thinking is solving a problem with previous experiences and what is already known.
  28. 28. The school of Gestalt practiced a series of theoretical and methodological principles:  Principle of Totality—The conscious experience must be considered globally (by taking into account all the physical and mental aspects of the individual simultaneously) because the nature of the mind demands that each component be considered as part of a system of dynamic relationships.  Principle of psychophysical isomorphism - A correlation exists between conscious experience and cerebral activity
  29. 29. The following methodological principles are defined:  Phenomenon experimental analysis—In relation to the Totality Principle any psychological research should take as a starting point phenomena and not be solely focused on sensory qualities.  Biotic experiment—The school of gestalt established a need to conduct real experiments that sharply contrasted with and opposed classic laboratory experiments. This signified experimenting in natural situations, developed in real conditions, in which it would be possible to reproduce, with higher fidelity, what would be habitual for a subject.