Energy Commission Staff    Distributed Energy Resources          Training Seminar                 Technologies      Califo...
Overview    x Feb. 26 request from CPUC staff    x Purpose: Provide technical background to      support CPUC Rulemaking 9...
History    x   First major conference sponsored by EPRI, NREL        and PG&E in 1992        Ä Benefits were hypothesized;...
x   Outgrowth of DG Roundtable was concept for        California Alliance for Distributed Energy        Resources (CADER) ...
Definitions    x Distributed Generation (DG) -- CPUC    x Distributed Energy Resources (DER) --      California Alliance f...
CPUC OIR Definition of DG    x “Generation, storage, or DSM devices,      measures and/or technologies that are      conne...
CADER Definition of         Distributed Energy Resources                     (DER)    x Generates or stores electricity   ...
Distributed Utility                        Definition           A Distributed Utility incorporates           energy-signif...
Todays                                  Tomorrows   Central Utility                         Distributed Utility?        Ce...
Operating               The Distributed Utility                                           Regional                        ...
DU Nodes in an Electric Utility                    Utility System                                    5000 MW              ...
The Distributed Utility Opportunity:              Improved Asset Utilization            PG&E System Load and Percent of Fe...
Characteristics and Applications     of Distributed Energy Resources               Technologies                 Presented ...
Overview     x   Define distributed energy resources (DER)         technologies     x   List potential DER technologies   ...
Why Learn About DER Technologies?     x   DG/DER facilitate competition and expand consumer         choice     x   Provide...
Issues Relevant for Rulemaking Affected by                     Technological Attributes     x   Impact on the safety and g...
Technologies     x Fossil-fuel based distributed generation     x Non-fossil fuel based generation     x Storage technolog...
What Is Different About DER                  Technologies     x   Some technologies are old and deployed         different...
What is Different About              DG/DER Technologies     x   Recent technologies are tailored for         DG/DER marke...
Common Traits in DG/DER                Technologies     x   Mass produced     x   Modular     x   Small (<20 MW)     x   S...
What are Distributed Energy                  Resources?     x   Technologies installed by customers,         energy servic...
CADER’s Definition of           Distributed Energy Resources     x   Generates or stores electricity     x   Located at or...
Economic Advantage From DG/                DER Systems     x   Economic advantages included one or more of the         fol...
Fossil Fuel Technologies     x   Internal-combustion engines         Ä Diesel engines         Ä Natural gas engines     x ...
Commercial Status of DG/DER                    IC Engines    Small                     Micro-                     Fuel Cel...
Benefits of Fossil-Fuel Based             Distributed Generation     x Dispatchable     x Can be used for baseload or peak...
Deployment Issues of Fossil-Fuel          Based Distributed Generation     x Air and noise emissions (except fuel cell)   ...
Renewable Energy Technologies     x Photovoltaics     x Solar-dish Stirling     x Small wind systems     x Large wind syst...
Small Wind Turbines are Different     x Large Turbines (300-750 kW)        • Installed in “Windfarm” Arrays               ...
Modern Small Wind Turbines:         High Tech, High Reliability, Low Maintenance                                          ...
Commercial Status of DG/DER                    Photovoltaic   Dish-                  Small                         Large  ...
Benefits of Renewable Based            Distributed Generation     x No/low noise or air pollution     x Independent of fos...
Deployment Issues of Renewable          Based Distributed Generation     x   Intermittent availability (unless used with s...
Storage Technologies     x Batteries     x Modular pumped hydro     x Superconducting magnetic energy storage       (SMES)...
Cryostat Assembly     Diagram     courtesy of     American     Superconductor                          DG Seminar on R..98...
Storage Provides Solutions to Power Quality Problems                     Transients   Voltage           Interrup-         ...
Benefits of Storage Technologies     x   Multiple Uses:         Ä Load management         Ä Power quality         Ä Dispat...
Storage As a Distributed Energy                     Resource     x Storage type and size varies     x Determining factors ...
Benefits of Storage Technology as a            Distributed Energy Resource (cont’d)     x   Provide auxiliary services on ...
Impact of DG/DER Technology Deployment     x   Empower customers by providing a choice     x   Provide missing or expensiv...
Most Likely Users of DG in Next Five Years               IC        Small and   Storage            Fuel           PV       ...
Differences in Technical Attributes That Require                 Attention in Rulemaking                   Summary of Tech...
Auxiliary Technologies Essential for                Integration of DER to the Grid     x   Power electronics and power con...
Technology Mix Affects Grid Impacts     x Source of capacity on the grid affects safety,backup and cost       Ä 5 MW diese...
Next Steps for Assessing Impact of               Various Technologies     x Better understand impact of DG/DER       syste...
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DG Technologies

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  • CADER = California Alliance for Distributed Energy Resources CADER is an outgrowth of the April 25-26, 1996 Distributed Generation Roundtable sponsored by the Energy Commission in partnership with private industry. Participants in the Roundtable developed a Blueprint For Action, with the primary recommendation calling for the formation of a public/private collaborative to advance the Blueprint For Action. The Energy Commission led the creation of the collaborative. Kicked-off in October 1996 with Eric Wong as Chair. They formed four working committees to address key issues and barriers to DER development and deployment. (Siting and Environmental, Modeling and Planning, Regulatory &amp; Market Incentives, and Technology Characterization.) Note that the CADER definition excludes DSM, but we will talk about it briefly when we talk about specific DER technologies. Refer to the diagram on the next page for description of “near load center” and “may be grid-connected or remote”. 1) Customer value: cogeneration for thermal needs; Differentiation of customers needs for power quality (some customers need very “electrically clean” power, free from harmonics and momentary blips.) 2) Distribution system benefits: ability to defer or forego T and D upgrades; contribute to meeting peak demand; and prevent “lumpy” T&amp;D investments. 3) Back-up or emergency power: One of the objectives of our outage survey that we performed after the August 10, 1996 western states power outage was to find out whether respondents had back-up power supplies and whether they had been contacted about purchasing a back-up power supply. 15 of the 40 commercial customers who experienced the August 10 outage had back-up supplies (1 handled normal operations; 10 handled critical functions; 4 did not know the capacity.) 10 of the 51 industrial customers who experienced the August 10 outage had back-up supplies (1 handled normal operations; 5 handled critical functions; 4 did not know the capacity.) 19.7 percent of commercial and 11.5 percent of industrial customers had been contacted about purchasing back-up supplies or other means of increasing the reliability of their service. Losses from the outage were up to $5 million. 4) Social or environmental value: renewable such as wind, PV, or solar. SCE study: PV can defer replacement of older 4-kV dist. lines in resid. neighborhoods; avoids tearing up streets and saves T&amp;D costs.
  • CADER = California Alliance for Distributed Energy Resources CADER is an outgrowth of the April 25-26, 1996 Distributed Generation Roundtable sponsored by the Energy Commission in partnership with private industry. Participants in the Roundtable developed a Blueprint For Action, with the primary recommendation calling for the formation of a public/private collaborative to advance the Blueprint For Action. The Energy Commission led the creation of the collaborative. Kicked-off in October 1996 with Eric Wong as Chair. They formed four working committees to address key issues and barriers to DER development and deployment. (Siting and Environmental, Modeling and Planning, Regulatory &amp; Market Incentives, and Technology Characterization.) Note that the CADER definition excludes DSM, but we will talk about it briefly when we talk about specific DER technologies. Refer to the diagram on the next page for description of “near load center” and “may be grid-connected or remote”. 1) Customer value: cogeneration for thermal needs; Differentiation of customers needs for power quality (some customers need very “electrically clean” power, free from harmonics and momentary blips.) 2) Distribution system benefits: ability to defer or forego T and D upgrades; contribute to meeting peak demand; and prevent “lumpy” T&amp;D investments. 3) Back-up or emergency power: One of the objectives of our outage survey that we performed after the August 10, 1996 western states power outage was to find out whether respondents had back-up power supplies and whether they had been contacted about purchasing a back-up power supply. 15 of the 40 commercial customers who experienced the August 10 outage had back-up supplies (1 handled normal operations; 10 handled critical functions; 4 did not know the capacity.) 10 of the 51 industrial customers who experienced the August 10 outage had back-up supplies (1 handled normal operations; 5 handled critical functions; 4 did not know the capacity.) 19.7 percent of commercial and 11.5 percent of industrial customers had been contacted about purchasing back-up supplies or other means of increasing the reliability of their service. Losses from the outage were up to $5 million. 4) Social or environmental value: renewable such as wind, PV, or solar. SCE study: PV can defer replacement of older 4-kV dist. lines in resid. neighborhoods; avoids tearing up streets and saves T&amp;D costs.
  • It is not enough to say how much capacity will be added, but what kind of technology, its ownership and the motivation behind its installation will drive the benefits.
  • DG Technologies

    1. 1. Energy Commission Staff Distributed Energy Resources Training Seminar Technologies California Energy Commission, Sacramento Jairam Gopal, Judy Grau, Pramod Kulkarni and Ean O’Neill April 13, 1999 DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 19991
    2. 2. Overview x Feb. 26 request from CPUC staff x Purpose: Provide technical background to support CPUC Rulemaking 98-12-015 x Feb. 22, 1999 Assigned Commissioner’s Ruling Ä Cost, current and projected status assumptions x Let’s keep this interactive and informal DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 19992
    3. 3. History x First major conference sponsored by EPRI, NREL and PG&E in 1992 Ä Benefits were hypothesized; few installations at that time Ä Emphasis was on utility perspective x April 25-26, 1996: DG Roundtable sponsored by Energy Commission Ä Public/private partnership to analyze barriers and develop blueprint for action Ä www.energy.ca.gov/CADER/documents/CADER_exec_summ.html DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 19993
    4. 4. x Outgrowth of DG Roundtable was concept for California Alliance for Distributed Energy Resources (CADER) x CADER focuses on identifying barriers, developing recommendations, and implementing solutions Ä Interconnection Ä Market Assessment and Technology Characterization Ä Communications Ä Regulatory and Legislative DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 19994
    5. 5. Definitions x Distributed Generation (DG) -- CPUC x Distributed Energy Resources (DER) -- California Alliance for Distributed Energy Resources -- CADER x Distributed Utility (DU) - - Distributed Utility Associates DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 19995
    6. 6. CPUC OIR Definition of DG x “Generation, storage, or DSM devices, measures and/or technologies that are connected to or injected into the distribution level of the T&D grid.” x Located at customer’s premises on either side of meter x Located at other points in distribution system, such as utility substation DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 19996
    7. 7. CADER Definition of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) x Generates or stores electricity x Located at or near a load center x May be grid-connected or isolated x Has a greater value than grid power: Ä Customer value Ä Distribution system benefits Ä Back-up or emergency power Ä Social or environmental value DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 19997
    8. 8. Distributed Utility Definition A Distributed Utility incorporates energy-significant distributed generation, storage and feeder-specific DSM/CEE in its T&D system to augment central station plants and optimizes T&D asset utilization.© Distributed Utility Associates, Used with Permission 8
    9. 9. Todays Tomorrows Central Utility Distributed Utility? Central Generation Central Generation Wind Remote Loads Genset Fuel Cell Customer Battery PV Customers Efficiency© Distributed Utility Associates, Used with Permission 9
    10. 10. Operating The Distributed Utility Regional Dispatch Transmission Line Energy Value Information Distribution Substation Smart Communication Controller & Control Links ~ Genset Wind Photovoltaic Battery CentralGenerating Station Distribution Line Electric Power Factory Town Remote Load Monitoring & Control Lines 10© Distributed Utility Associates, Used with Permission
    11. 11. DU Nodes in an Electric Utility Utility System 5000 MW Distribution Planning Areas 150 MW Distribution Substations 50 MW Distribution Feeders 10 MW Customers 1/3 Industrial 1/3 Commercial 1/3 Residential11 1 MW 100 kWSeminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 1999 DG 5 kW © Distributed Utility Associates, Used with Permission
    12. 12. The Distributed Utility Opportunity: Improved Asset Utilization PG&E System Load and Percent of Feeder Maximum Load 100 90 PG&E 80 Electric Generation Asset Utilization 70 Load 60 Factor 50 Typical Feeder Percentage (%) 40 30 Distribution 20 Asset Utilization PG&E System 10 Typical Feeder 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percentage of the Year (%) 12© Distributed Utility Associates, Used with Permission
    13. 13. Characteristics and Applications of Distributed Energy Resources Technologies Presented by: Pramod Kulkarni Energy Technologies Division DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199913
    14. 14. Overview x Define distributed energy resources (DER) technologies x List potential DER technologies x Present characteristics, attributes and impacts x Understand DER role in deregulated market x Discuss cost and deployment issues DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199914
    15. 15. Why Learn About DER Technologies? x DG/DER facilitate competition and expand consumer choice x Provide services in an unbundled electric service x Technology characteristics have a bearing on one level and nature of competition on the distribution grid. x Rulemaking deployment: easy for one technology and could be detrimental to another x Rule benefiting one customer class may not be best for another using the same technology DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199915
    16. 16. Issues Relevant for Rulemaking Affected by Technological Attributes x Impact on the safety and grid reliability x Reduced use of grid (non-recovered cost) x Degree of back-up support required from the distribution grid x Dispatchability x Determine the benefits of distributed generation to the grid (value) x Require advanced communications and metering for dispatch and control DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199916
    17. 17. Technologies x Fossil-fuel based distributed generation x Non-fossil fuel based generation x Storage technologies DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199917
    18. 18. What Is Different About DER Technologies x Some technologies are old and deployed differently Ä Internal-combustion engines Ä Gas turbines Ä Fuel cells Ä Batteries DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199918
    19. 19. What is Different About DG/DER Technologies x Recent technologies are tailored for DG/DER markets Ä Small wind systems Ä Small fuel cells (proton exchange membrane) Ä Photovoltaic (PV shingles, AC modules) Ä Storage technologies (flywheels, SMES) Ä Micro-turbines DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199919
    20. 20. Common Traits in DG/DER Technologies x Mass produced x Modular x Small (<20 MW) x Support system reliability x Provide economic advantage to end-user, ESP, and/or UDC x Provide customer and UDCs an alternative to standard generation options DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199920
    21. 21. What are Distributed Energy Resources? x Technologies installed by customers, energy service providers (ESP) or a utility distribution company (UDC) at or near a load for an economic advantage over the distribution grid-based option. DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199921
    22. 22. CADER’s Definition of Distributed Energy Resources x Generates or stores electricity x Located at or near a load center x May be grid connected or isolated x Greater value than grid power: Ä Customer value Ä Distribution system benefits Ä Back-up or emergency power Ä Social or environmental value DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199922
    23. 23. Economic Advantage From DG/ DER Systems x Economic advantages included one or more of the following: Ä Load management Ä Reliability Ä Power quality Ä Fuel flexibility Ä Cogeneration Ä Deferred or reduced T&D investment or charge Ä Increased distribution grid reliability/stability DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199923
    24. 24. Fossil Fuel Technologies x Internal-combustion engines Ä Diesel engines Ä Natural gas engines x Micro-turbines x Fuel cells x Stirling engines DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199924
    25. 25. Commercial Status of DG/DER IC Engines Small Micro- Fuel Cell Turbines turbines Commercial Well Well New Well Availability established established industry established Size 50 kW- 1 MW – 25 kW – 1 kW – 5 MW 50 MW 75 kW 200 kW Installed $800 – $700 – $500 – $3000 Cost ($/kW) $1500 $900 $1300 O&M Costs 0.7 – 1.5 0.2 – 0.8 0.2 – 1.0 0.3 – 1.5 (cents/kWh) Fuel Type Diesel, Propane, Propane, Hydrogen, propane, NG, NG, biogas & NG, oil & distillate oil distillate & propane biogas & biogas biogas Typical Duty Baseload Baseload, Peaking Baseload Cycles intermed. Intermed. peaking Baseload DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199925
    26. 26. Benefits of Fossil-Fuel Based Distributed Generation x Dispatchable x Can be used for baseload or peaking x Reliable x Used on either side of meter x Fuel easily available x First to be deployed DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199926
    27. 27. Deployment Issues of Fossil-Fuel Based Distributed Generation x Air and noise emissions (except fuel cell) x Islanding x Interconnection standards x Reduced use of distribution system x May need upgrading of fuel supply system (e.g gas pressure) DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199927
    28. 28. Renewable Energy Technologies x Photovoltaics x Solar-dish Stirling x Small wind systems x Large wind systems x Stirling engines (biomass, LFG) DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199928
    29. 29. Small Wind Turbines are Different x Large Turbines (300-750 kW) • Installed in “Windfarm” Arrays Large: Totaling 1 - 100 MW 300 kW • $1,000/kW; Designed for Low Cost of Turbine Energy Small: • Requires 6 m/s (13 mph) Average 10 kW Turbine Sites x Small Turbines (0.3-50 kW) • Installed in “Rural Residential” On- Grid and Off-Grid Applications • $2,500-5,000/kW; Designed for Reliability / Low Maintenance • Requires 4 m/s (9 mph) Average Sites DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199929
    30. 30. Modern Small Wind Turbines: High Tech, High Reliability, Low Maintenance 10 kW Bergey Turbine x Aerospace Technology x High Reliability - Low Maintenance x Easily Retrofits to Homes & Businesses x Typical Costs: $ 3 / Watt (AC, Installed) x O&M Costs ~ $0.005/kWh x American Companies Lead in Technology and Market Share x Further Advances Coming - DOE Advanced Small Wind Turbine Program: 4 Projects, 8 - 40 kW DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199930
    31. 31. Commercial Status of DG/DER Photovoltaic Dish- Small Large Stirling Wind Wind Commercial Well Year Well Well Availability established 2000? established established Size 0.30 kW – 30 kW and 600 watts – 40 kW – 2 MW larger 40 kW 1.5 MW Installed $6,000 – $10,000/ $900 – Cost ($/kW) $10,000 kW (now) $1,100 $400/kW (later) O&M Costs Minimal Varies 1.0 (cents/kWh) Fuel Type Solar Solar and Wind Wind NG (hybrid mode) Typical Peaking Peaking or Varies Varies Duty Cycles Interm. Hybrid mode DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199931
    32. 32. Benefits of Renewable Based Distributed Generation x No/low noise or air pollution x Independent of fossil fuel price changes x Good for very small, modular applications x Could be used on either side of a meter x Coincident with peak demand when solar resource is used DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199932
    33. 33. Deployment Issues of Renewable Based Distributed Generation x Intermittent availability (unless used with storage) x Islanding x Less than 2 MW (100 kW or Less) x Interconnection standards and cost x Will need grid support x New industry, lacks public exposure DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199933
    34. 34. Storage Technologies x Batteries x Modular pumped hydro x Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) x Flywheels x Ultracapacitors DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199934
    35. 35. Cryostat Assembly Diagram courtesy of American Superconductor DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199935
    36. 36. Storage Provides Solutions to Power Quality Problems Transients Voltage Interrup- Harmonic Voltage Disturbance tion Distortion Flicker Energy X X X X X Storage Surge X X Arrestor Filter X X Isolation X Transformer Constant X Voltage Transfomer Dynamic X Voltage Restorer Back-up X Generator DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199936
    37. 37. Benefits of Storage Technologies x Multiple Uses: Ä Load management Ä Power quality Ä Dispatchability Ä Uninterrupted power supply Ä Reliability/Availability Ä Dynamic benefits for the grid DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199937
    38. 38. Storage As a Distributed Energy Resource x Storage type and size varies x Determining factors include: Ä Purpose of use Ä Duration of use Ä Comparative cost DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199938
    39. 39. Benefits of Storage Technology as a Distributed Energy Resource (cont’d) x Provide auxiliary services on either side of the meter x Used by UDC, ESP, ESCo and end-user x Wide range of size and storage duration x Costs will come down faster as core technologies are used for transportation x Batteries and SMES available now DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199939
    40. 40. Impact of DG/DER Technology Deployment x Empower customers by providing a choice x Provide missing or expensive components of an unbundled electrical service x Allow feed-back of electricity to grid x Create safety concerns, real or perceived, for UDC x Provide dynamic benefits to the distribution system x Positive or adverse impact on the T&D System DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199940
    41. 41. Most Likely Users of DG in Next Five Years IC Small and Storage Fuel PV Small Large Engines micro Cell Wind wind turbines Indust. X X X X Comm. X X X X X X Resi- X X X dential UDC X X X X X DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199941
    42. 42. Differences in Technical Attributes That Require Attention in Rulemaking Summary of Technical Attributes Engine Turbine Battery Fuel PV Dish- Genset Genset Cells Stirling Conventional Interface    Electronic Interface    Dispatchability   1  2 Load Following     Intermittency   Peaking Generation       Base Load  Interme diate Duty   2 Note: 1. When charged. 2. With supplement heat from natural g as burner. (Source: NREL) 32 ©1998 Distr ibuted Utilit y Associates DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199942
    43. 43. Auxiliary Technologies Essential for Integration of DER to the Grid x Power electronics and power conditioners Ä Improve power quality Ä Safety x Control, metering and communications Ä Dispatch Ä Billing Ä Safety x Planning and valuation tools Ä Value to grid Ä Capacity needs assessment DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199943
    44. 44. Technology Mix Affects Grid Impacts x Source of capacity on the grid affects safety,backup and cost Ä 5 MW diesel-generation capacity delivers more kWh and is dispatchable compared to 5 MW of PV Ä 5MW diesel adds more pollution than 5 MW fuel cells Ä 5MW of a natural gas engine provides baseload power with little or no backup, but 5 MW of wind requires backup DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199944
    45. 45. Next Steps for Assessing Impact of Various Technologies x Better understand impact of DG/DER systems on the grid through site monitoring x Demonstrate new DG/DER systems x Valuation of DG/DER for system reliability and support DG Seminar on R..98-12-015 / 99-DIST-GEN(1) / Sacramento, CA / April 13, 199945

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