Logic: Aristotle’s invention It had been the dream of mathematicians and philosophers since the time of Aristotle, who invented the science of logic (ca 300 BC), to find a foolproof way of expressing and solving logical problems. Aristotle developed the theory of the syllogism (a structured logical argument) and defined deductive reasoning in terms of a set of rules and laws (which were later added to in the Middle Ages).
Greek Power Point1.4 Segment 5
<ul><li>WHAT IS GOOD </li></ul><ul><li>THINKING ? </li></ul>Logic
The SCIENCE of REASONING Logic 2. If he loves me then he gives me flowers. He gives me flowers. So he loves me. INVALID 3. Beckham is famous. Beckham is a soccer player. Therefore, Beckham is a famous football player. INVALID 4. If it rains, the streets will be wet. If the streets are wet, accidents will happen. Therefore, accidents will happen if it rains. VALID <ul><li>Someone is sick. Someone is unhappy. So someone is unhappy and sick. </li></ul><ul><li>INVALID </li></ul>
<ul><li>FALLACIES of REASONING </li></ul><ul><li>1. Ad Hominem Circumstantial </li></ul><ul><li>2. Ad Hominem Tu Quoque </li></ul><ul><li>3. Ad Populem (Appeal to Belief) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Burden of Proof </li></ul><ul><li>5. Appeal to Ridicule </li></ul><ul><li>6. Bandwagon </li></ul><ul><li>7. Division </li></ul>
<ul><li>AD HOMINEM CIRCUMSTANTIAL </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: </li></ul><ul><li>Lumpy can’t possibly be right about his plan to help the poor because he’s never known what it’s like to be hungry. </li></ul>
<ul><li>AD HOMINEM </li></ul><ul><li>TU QUOQUE </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: </li></ul><ul><li>“ That hypocrite of a cop who gave us a ticket for speeding was completely in the wrong for doing so because I saw that very same officer breaking the speed limit herself just yesterday!” </li></ul>
<ul><li>APPEAL TO BELIEF </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: </li></ul><ul><li>Obviously the earth is spherical– everyone knows that! </li></ul>
<ul><li>BURDEN of PROOF </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: </li></ul><ul><li>Joe B: “I think we should provide money to the flood victims in New Orleans.” </li></ul><ul><li>Lumpy: “But that’s not a good idea since we’re starving ourselves.” </li></ul><ul><li>Joe B: “But how can you possibly against helping others?” </li></ul>
<ul><li>APPEAL to RIDICULE </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Whaddya mean senior privileges should be taken away? That’s completely wack !” </li></ul>
<ul><li>BANDWAGON </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: </li></ul><ul><li>Hazing the freshman together isn’t a big deal. Anyway, you should do it if only because if you don’t, the team won’t ever trust you ever again. </li></ul>
<ul><li>DIVISION </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: </li></ul><ul><li>That ball is green; therefore the atoms that make up the ball are also green. </li></ul>
12 Angry Men Teleplay by Reginald Rose Directed by Sidney Lumet
12 Angry Men Teleplay by Reginald Rose Directed by Sidney Lumet . Logic Ethics Politics
12 Angry Men Teleplay by Reginald Rose Directed by Sidney Lumet
TASK : Watch the film 12 Angry Men and identify each example of fallacious reasoning used to proclaim the accused boy guilty.
NOW… MAD 40 on ONE of the Theban plays: How does it reflect Greek ideals in content and in form? Insert slide at outset informing them of this Name: ________________________________ The Ancient Greeks Mad 40 Essay Question: What roles do the manifestations and interrelationships of Order and Chaos play in establishing Sophocles’ deeper point(s) or theme in any ONE of the Theban plays. Reminder: Ensure your essay includes an introduction, thesis statement, topic sentences for each paragraph, and a conclusion. Proofread your work carefully before submitting it.
Name: ____________________________________ Quarterly Presentations At the start of each quarter (approximately), two groups will present separately on a historical time period pertaining to a work of literature the class will be reading during that quarter. Read the following expectations carefully. They address the intellectual, artistic, technological, and public speaking goals your group will incorporate into the project’s planning and presentation. Be sure to PLAN AHEAD as these presentations will occur regardless of any other major assignments assigned to you. THE STAKES You will receive two test grades for your presentation: one for the depth of your knowledge and another for the creativeness and elegance of the presentation. DURATION Your group’s presentation will last for two full class periods. DUE DATE:QUARTERTWOGroup 1: Nov. 17 and 18Group 2: Nov. 21 and 22QUARTERTHREEGroup 3: Jan. 19 and 20Group 4: Jan. 23 and 24QUARTERFOURGroup 5: Nov. 17 and 18PhilosophicalFocusGroup 1: MedievalGroup 2: RenaissanceGroup 3: RomanticGroup 4: VictorianGroup 5:ModernTextsGroup 1: Merchant of Venice Group 2: The Inferno Group 3: A Tale of Two Cities (setting)Group 4: A Tale of Two Cities Group 5: West Side Story INTELLECTUAL GOAL Your group will conduct detailed research to understand and teaching the following thoroughly: The historical context (time period). The major factors that influenced the thinking of the time period. The influence of the time period on later Western thought and the arts. The philosophical purpose and importance of the time period’s aesthetics regarding FOUR of the following: fine art, sculpture, architecture, dance, mathematics, or music. How the beliefs of the time period are evident in the CONTENT and FORM of the quarter’s literature. (This segment should NOT be the primary focus of your presentation but rather an equal part of the whole.) ARTISTIC GOAL Your group will assemble what it has learned into a multi-media presentation . Some suggestions are to include some or all of the following: Humor Music Sound clips Graphics such as charts, .ani, .jpeg, etc. Video clips Comic strips Etc. Be sure to keep careful records of all sources you use! Your group is NOT required to use PowerPoint ® to assemble your presentation; however, it is an easy-to-use tool your group should at least consider. TECHNOLOGICAL GOAL Your group must ensure any and all technology it uses has been test-run several times for proficiency and efficiency. Technological mishaps waste class time and are completely unacceptable. PUBLIC SPEAKING GOAL Each member of your group is responsible for presenting enthusiastically and clearly. You must take care to speak clearly and to maintain proper posture. Rehearse, rehearse, rehearse. The best way to ensure your presentation is fluid and free from mishaps is to set a due date for yourselves well in advance of the formal deadline in order to rehearse your presentation several times. During trial runs, you will be able to provide each other with feedback and reminders regarding public speaking skills. Taking pride in your appearance exudes confidence. The attire for each member is formal . Boy are required to wear a tie and slacks—a jacket is preferred if you have one. A pantsuit or dress is expected for girls. Pants and shirts must be ironed neatly.
With Thanks To… http://www.historyhaven.com/worldhistory/greek_01.htm