DEFINATION Localized environmental health problems such as inadequate household water and sanitation and indoor air pollution. City-regional environmental problems such as ambient air pollution, inadequate waste management and pollution of rivers, lakes and coastal areas. Extra-urban impacts of urban activities such as ecological disruption and resource depletion in a city’s hinterland, and emissions of acid precursors and greenhouse gases. Regional or global environmental burdens that arise from activities outside a city’s boundaries, but which will affect people living in the city.
MOST DANGEREOUS PART OF URBAN DEVELOPMEN T POLLUTION ?
Plastic shopping bags are among the most ubiquitous consumer items on Earth. Their light weight, low cost, and water resistance make them so convenient for carrying groceries, clothing, and other routine purchases that its hard to imagine life without them.
•Weighing just a fewgrams and averaging a fewmillimeters in thickness,plastic bags might seemthoroughly innocuous—wereit not for the sheernumber produced.•Factories around theworld churned out awhopping 4-5 trillion ofthem in 2002, rangingfrom large trash bags tothick shopping totes toflimsy grocery sacks.
Compared with paper bags, producing plastic ones uses LESS ENERGy and wATER AND GENERATES LESS AIR POLLUTION AND SOLID wASTE. Plastic bags also take up less space in a landfill. But many of these bags never make it to landfills; instead, they go airborne after they are discarded— getting caught in fences, trees, even the throats of birds, and clogging gutters, sewers, and waterways. To avoid these impacts, ThE BEST ALTERNATIVE IS TO cARRy AND RE-USE yOUR OwN DURABLE cLOTh BAGS.
Plastic bags start as crude oil, natural gas, or other petrochemical derivatives, which are transformed into chains of hydrogen and carbon molecules known as polymers or polymer resin. After being heated, shaped, and cooled, the plastic is ready to be flattened, sealed, punched, or printed on. The first plastic “baggies” for bread, sandwiches, fruits, and vegetables were introduced in the United States in 1957. Plastic trash bags started appearing in homes and along curbsides around the world by the
A quarter of the plastic bags used in wealthy nations are now produced in Asia. Each year, Americans throw away some 100 billion polyethylene plastic bags. (Only 0.6 percent of plastic bags are recycled.) The Irish have been known to call the ever-present bags their “national flag”; South Africans have dubbed them the “national flower.”
COULD YOU IMAGINE THE RESULTS OF URBAN POLLUTION?
Think twice about taking a plastic bag if your purchase is small and easy to carry. Keep canvas bags in your home, office, and car so you always have them available when you go to the supermarket or other stores. Ask your favorite stores to stop providing bags for free, or to offer a discount for not using the bags. Encourage your local politicians to introduce legislation taxing or banning plastic bags.
PAPER BAGSA paper bag or papersack is a preformedcontainer made of paper,usually with an opening onone side. It can be one layerof paper or multiple layers ofpaper and other flexiblematerials.Paper bags are readilyrecyclable. Plastic or water-resistant coatings or layersmake recycling moredifficult.
CANVASS BAGS They are maufactured from natural, dyed,colored, bleached fabricranging from 4 Oz to 28 OZ 100% cotton . Thecanvas bags are used as canvas promotional bags, canvas shopping bags, canvas laundry bags, drawstring bags, canvas giveaway bags,canvas trade show bags, canvas carry bags, canvas wine bags etc.
JUTE BAGS an eco-friendly option instead of poly and paper bags as polybag are made from petroleum and are non-biodegradable and manufacturing paperbagsrequires large quantities of wood. Jute has none of these problems and istherefore being used widelyfor these purposes although higher cost does place jute
•these can be used for picnic outings.•They can also be used to bring lunch to work orschool, and often include insulated linings tokeep food fresh and beverages cool.•There are others designed to carry several foodor specialty items. For instance, if you areshopping for bottles of different wines, thereare picnic totes that are compartmentalized tosafely hold several bottles at once.•Other bags are designed to hold a large amountof food items and include pockets foraccessories such as your wallet, keys, and ID.•They might have insulated pockets for itemsthat you wish to keep cold on your way home
ThE VARIOUS OThER ALTERNATIVES:•Use biodegradable bags made from fabrics.•Ladies can fold a cotton bag or two in to their purses which canbe used to quench their sudden urge for shopping.•Nylon bags can be used and reused several times.•Donate old news papers and magazines to small scaleinstitutes that cut these old papers in to paper bags andpackets.•Use a wicker basket. ( They can make a fashion statementtoday.)•Educate the local retailers on the ill effects of use of plastics.•Insist your local retailers to use plastic bags of thicker varietyif at all he has to use.•Offices can distribute canvas bags as New Year gifts instead ofdiaries and other sweet nothings.•Better still buy a foldable shopping trolley. When you can buy astroller for your new born this is not impossible you see.•The common man is already burdened with spiraling prices, so
GOALS TO PREVENT EARTH Cleanly converting nonrecyclable materials into energy through direct combustion or after conversion into secondary fuels; Reducing societal consumption of non- renewable fuels ; Development of alternative, green, low-carbon or renewable energy sources;