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Alternatives of plastic bags by Green Yatra


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Alternatives of plastic bags by Green Yatra

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  3. 3. THE PRESENT CONDITION OF EARTH Water Pollution Air PollutionOzone Depletion Acid Rains Deforestation 3 Global warming
  4. 4. Follow the three R’s :REDUCEREUSERECYCLEPlant trees or plants.Use eco-friendly products.Use separate dustbins for degradable and non degradable waste. 4
  6. 6. Why plastic bags are harmful? SOME FACTS*Thousands of marine animals and more than 1 million birds die each yeardue to plastic pollution.*It takes almost 1000 years for plastics to decay and mix with the soil.*Plastic bags are often mistakenly ingested by animals, clogging theirintestines which results in death by starvation. Other animals or birdsbecome entangled in plastic bags and drown or can’t fly as aconsequence. 6
  7. 7. 1. The United Nations Environment Programme estimates that there are 46,000 pieces of plastic litter floating in every square mile of ocean.4. Food stored in plastic bags is not safe and is prone to contamination.6. Plastics with thickness less than 35 microns are the most harmful ones to the nature.8. Even when plastics photo-degrade in landfill, the plastic from single – use bags never goes away, and toxic particles can enter the food chain when they are ingested by unsuspecting animals.5. Greenpeace says that at least 267 marine species are known to have suffered from getting entangled in or ingesting marine debris. Nearly 90% of that debris is plastic. 7
  8. 8. Plastic is one of the key ingredients that causes contamination ofenvironment. Its disposal and production has increased the mortalityrate of living beings. Before it is too late, it is better to take some effectivepreventive measures to reduce plastic pollution.To bring a decline in the usage of plastic, shift to alternatives likepaper, cloth, jute etc.However , plastics that have already been produced must NOT beburnt in order to get rid of it. The chemicals emitted through burningwill contaminate the environment and cause respiratory problems.Disposed plastics can be recycled and used in many different wayssuch as tote bags, wallets, or a pouch.Also, there are bio-degradable plastic bags available that reduce theproblem of plastic pollution. 8
  9. 9. Here are some alternatives of plastic bagsPAPER BAGS CLOTH BAGS(using recycledpaper or newspapers) JUTE BAGS WICKER BASKETS 9
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  11. 11. Paper is a renewable resource since it comes from trees.Paper Bags are 100% reusable.The recovery rate for paper bags is four times greater than plastics.Paper bags are easy to make and are easily available. 11
  12. 12. However, it is best to use paper bagsmade out of OLD NEWSPAPERS andRECYCLED PAPER. 12
  13. 13. Stack two sheets of newspapers on top of each other. Fold a flap 1.25" down from the top. Fold a flap 2" up from the bottom. Then measure off and make vertical folds in the places shown in the diagram. The front and back panels are 4.5" wide, the side gussets are 3" wide, and youll need a 0.5" flap for gluing the bag together. Put glue on the outside of the 0.5" tab and bring the left-most panel over to form the body of the bag, aligning the cut edge of the panel with the folded edge of the flap. Add a little more glue to make sure the outermost sheet of newsprint gets tacked down, too. 13
  14. 14. Upend the bag so the 2" flap is now up. Fold the short sides inward as if you were wrapping a present. If it seems easier, you could also lay the bag on its side and crease those folds against the table.Put glue on both flaps and fold them inwardto form the bottom of the bag. Standing thebag upright and pressing down from theinside will help to secure them. Cut a piece of chipboard to 4" x 2.5" and glue it to the bottom of the bag to reinforce it and hide the flaps. 14
  15. 15. Punch holes in the rim of the bagand string some thread through theholes to form handles. Your own Paper Bag Is ready for Use. 15
  16. 16. Causes pollution: Paper production causes air pollution as itemits green house gases. Moreover, a lot a trees have to becut down for paper production.Consumes energy: Paper production consumes lot of energy.Consumes water: It uses 3 times the amount of water it takes tomake plastic bags.Bio-degrading difficulties: Environmental ProtectionAgency(EPA) has stated that in landfills, paper doesn’t degradeall that much faster than plastics. 16
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  18. 18. HOW JUTE BAGS ARE MADE? Jute fibre comes from the stem and ribbon(outer skin of the jute plant. The fibres are first extracted by retting. The retting process consists of bundling jute stems together and immersing them in slow running water. There are two types of Retting: stem and ribbon. At normal temperature of 34° C, it generally takes 8-10 days to complete retting. 18
  19. 19. After the retting process, stripping process begins. In the strippingprocess, non-fibrous matter is scraped off.The jute fibre then extracted is leftfor drying under the sun.The raw jute obtained, is then manufacturedto make several products. Pictures of jute Fibres left for drying under the sun. 19
  20. 20. Jute bags are manufactured through the followingprocesses in the jute mills or factories manufacturingjute products.1. CARDING: It is the process of converting input material into sliver of desired density. It is done in two stages: Breaker Card: After piling, the hard barky root portions of jute reeds are cut and their soft and pliable portions are manually fed to a card, called the Breaker card. Finisher Card: splits the fibres longitudinally into finer elements. DRAWING: By the process of drawing, the card slivers 2. are made more thin with improved parallelization and thereby more suitable for spinning. Thinning (attenuation) of sliver and improvement of fibre parallelization are progressively done with the help of 2 or 3 drawing passages. 20
  21. 21. Spinning:  In the spinning frame, the sliver delivered from the last (finisher) drawing frame is3. further elongated by drafting to the specified linear density of the final yarn and is finally twisted to form the yarn. Each of the jute spinning frame has 3 simultaneous and essential functions namely drafting, twisting and winding. Generally flyer spinning frames are used for spinning of jute yarn. Weaving: It is basically the process of4. interlacement of the warp and the weft and is carried out in the loom for fabric manufacturing. The looms used in the jute industry for producing conventional products are shuttle looms, though shuttle-less looms are also used for producing finer fabrics for value added products. 21
  22. 22. FINISHING: It consists of a sequence of steps to convert the ex-loom5. Fabric into final sellable products. The sequence of processes are: Damping, Calendaring, Lapping, Cutting, Sewing, Safety stitching, Branding, Bundling and Bailing. 22
  23. 23. ADVANTAGES OF JUTE• Jute bags are eco-friendly.• Jute is 100% bio-degradable and decomposable.• One hectare jute plants consume over 15 tons of carbon dioxide and release about 11 tons of oxygen.• Jute is cheap and cost-effective• Jute bags are recyclable and reusable. 23
  24. 24. Some more advantages• Jute industry supports an estimated 5 million people in the poorest regions on earth.• When discarded, jute totally decomposes putting valuable nutrients back into the soil.• Jute is a rain fed crop which means it doesnt need harmful pesticides and fertilizers to grow. 24
  25. 25. SOME DISADVANTAGES• Jute has decreased strength when wet.• It becomes subject to microbial attack in humid climates.• It becomes yellow in sunlight.• It has poor crease resistance, brittleness and fibre shedding. 25
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  27. 27. Cloth bags offer an Earth-Friendly alternative to plastic and paper bags.Many countries like Ireland have made a leap towards using cloth bags.Cloth bags reduce the amount of waste you generate, which can ultimatelyend up in landfills.In addition, manufacture of cloth bags uses less energy, produces fewerGreenhouse gases and uses less potable water. 27
  28. 28. Cloth bags are ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY.Cloth bags are STRONG and DURABLE.Cloth bags are EASILY AVAILABLE and are COST EFFECTIVE. 28
  29. 29. Cotton or hemp carry bags are made from renewablenatural fibers unlike propylene plastic bags that aremade from fossil fuels.Cloth bags are woven from thread made of plant fibresand since cloth is a plant by-product, cloth bags areultimately bio-degradable. 29
  30. 30. Cloth bags are thicker which makes them strong enoughto be used again and again. Some cloth bags have acardboard inserted in the base that adds additionalstability. In general cloth bags are capable of holdinglarger items.Cloth bags are more durable than paper or plastic bagsand they do not lose integrity even if they become wet. 30
  31. 31. Cloth bags are easily available in a variety of colors,designs and shapes.Cloth bags are affordable and since they can bereused, they are cost effective. 31
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  33. 33. Wicker is hard woven fibre formed into rigid material, usuallyused for baskets or furniture.Wicker is often made of material of plant origin.Materials used can be any part of a plant, such as the coresof cane or whole thickness of plants as with willow switches.Other popular materials include reed and bamboo. 33
  34. 34. Low in costWidely available: wicker baskets are availableIn a variety of colors and sizes.Durable and strong Bio-Degradable: since they are made of plant material. 34
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