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Hydrogen 101:  The Basics of a Hydrogen Economy in South Carolina Shannon Baxter-Clemmons SC Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Alliance...
Agenda <ul><li>SC & Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Background </li><...
South Carolina & Hydrogen:  A Natural Fit <ul><li>SC has a 50+ year history of hydrogen research </li></ul><ul><li>A Harva...
SC has many existing hydrogen strengths <ul><li>Multi-level  governmental support  of hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Long-exis...
Multi-Level Governmental Support <ul><li>National Support :  Rep. Bob Inglis and Sen. Lindsey Graham chair House and Senat...
Strength in Research <ul><li>Hydrogen production and storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Savannah River National Laboratory </li...
SC’s Unique Hydrogen Markets <ul><li>Focused on feasible near-term applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portable application...
Columbia Activities and Demonstrations <ul><li>In 2007, the City of Columbia unanimously passed a resolution to become a l...
Aiken Activities and Demonstrations <ul><li>$10 million Center for Hydrogen Research opened 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>SC’s fi...
SC’s coordinated manufacturing system could attract more private investment <ul><li>SC has vast network of manufacturing r...
Everybody Needs Energy World US
Economic Growth Takes Energy Source: UN and DOE EIA PPP = Purchasing Power Parity - A rate of exchange that accounts for p...
Energy Source Distribution
Oil Consumption Source: www.bp.com
The World According to Oil
<ul><li>Hydrogen and fuel cells have the potential to solve several major challenges:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Securi...
Sources of Energy Gasification Steam Reforming Coal Biomass Natural Gas Oil H 2 H 2  is an energy carrier, it stores and d...
Sources of Energy Wind Solar Hydro Nuclear Water Electrolysis
Hydrogen Production Present Near Future Future
Hydrogen Fuel Cell An electrochemical cell in which the energy of the reaction between hydrogen and oxygen, is converted d...
Fuel Cells Compared with Batteries Inside a Fuel Cell Inside a Battery <ul><ul><li>Are scalable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
How Much H 2  is Out There? <ul><li>H 2  is the most abundant substance in the Universe. </li></ul><ul><li>H 2  is the pri...
Qualities of Hydrogen <ul><li>It is tasteless, colorless, odorless and a non-toxic gas </li></ul><ul><li>Lighter than air,...
H 2  Applications in the Near Future <ul><li>Battelle Report identifies key early PEM fuel cell markets: </li></ul><ul><ul...
Battery vs Fuel Cell Forklifts Fuel Cell  Forklift & Refilling Station Battery  Forklift & Charging Station Battery  Forkl...
Cost Advantages <ul><li>PEM fuel cells can provide service at substantially lower total cost than current technologies: </...
The Zero-Emission Sedan of the Future <ul><li>A Reality Today </li></ul>http://automobiles.honda.com/fcx-clarity/
Online Resources & Information <ul><li>DOE Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program –  http://www1.eere...
Economic Development Challenges <ul><li>Do you know the site requirements companies using hydrogen lift trucks will have? ...
Hydrogen Lift Trucks ED Example <ul><li>Hydrogen Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage Type – Depends on Demand </l...
Thank You for Attending!
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Hydrogen 101 September

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Hydrogen 101 September

  1. 1. Hydrogen 101: The Basics of a Hydrogen Economy in South Carolina Shannon Baxter-Clemmons SC Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Alliance Scott Greenway Greenway Energy LLC [email_address]
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>SC & Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Background </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen Challenges for Communities </li></ul>
  3. 3. South Carolina & Hydrogen: A Natural Fit <ul><li>SC has a 50+ year history of hydrogen research </li></ul><ul><li>A Harvard study identified hydrogen and fuel cells as a major economic focus for SC </li></ul><ul><li>In 2006, the South Carolina Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Alliance was formed to coordinate and collaborate SC’s hydrogen initiatives with economic development goals in mind </li></ul>
  4. 4. SC has many existing hydrogen strengths <ul><li>Multi-level governmental support of hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Long-existing strength in research </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging strengths in a variety of hydrogen markets </li></ul><ul><li>Long-existing manufacturing expertise encourages economic development and private investment </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination and collaboration through SCHFCA activities </li></ul>
  5. 5. Multi-Level Governmental Support <ul><li>National Support : Rep. Bob Inglis and Sen. Lindsey Graham chair House and Senate Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Caucuses </li></ul><ul><li>State Support : Gov. Mark Sanford formed SC Competitiveness Initiative, identified hydrogen and fuel cell markets as major focus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SC Legislature passed the Hydrogen Infrastructure Development Act in 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community Support : Aiken County funded the $10 million Center for Hydrogen Research; City of Columbia passed a resolution to become a leader in hydrogen and fuel cell innovation </li></ul>
  6. 6. Strength in Research <ul><li>Hydrogen production and storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Savannah River National Laboratory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Center for Hydrogen Research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fuel Cell Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>University of South Carolina; NSF Industry/University Collaborative Research Center; Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Center of Excellence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Automotive Integration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transportation Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S.C. State University James E. Clyburn University Transportation Center </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. SC’s Unique Hydrogen Markets <ul><li>Focused on feasible near-term applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portable applications – Such as ETV fuel cell cameras and emergency responder packs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Off-road applications – Such as USC/Hydrogen Hybrid Mobility fuel cell Segway and Bridgestone hydrogen forklift projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automotive – Federal Transit Administration’s National Fuel Cell Bus Program, Fall 2008 </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Columbia Activities and Demonstrations <ul><li>In 2007, the City of Columbia unanimously passed a resolution to become a leader in fuel cell innovation </li></ul><ul><li>The Greater Columbia Fuel Challenge funds projects of various scales, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portable fuel cell battery packs for ETV cameras </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First responder extended fuel cell power packs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>University of South Carolina professors unveiled two hydrogen fuel cell Segways in 2007 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Aiken Activities and Demonstrations <ul><li>$10 million Center for Hydrogen Research opened 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>SC’s first hydrogen vehicle, a 2007 Chevrolet Silverado truck, unveiled February 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Bridgestone plant deployed 23 hydrogen forklifts in 2008 with plans to create an all-hydrogen forklift fleet by 2009 </li></ul>
  10. 10. SC’s coordinated manufacturing system could attract more private investment <ul><li>SC has vast network of manufacturing resources </li></ul><ul><li>More than 50 statutes provide financial incentives for manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Statewide coordination through the SC Manufacturing Extension Partnership </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled workforce programs with the ReadySC program and SC’s Technical College System </li></ul>
  11. 11. Everybody Needs Energy World US
  12. 12. Economic Growth Takes Energy Source: UN and DOE EIA PPP = Purchasing Power Parity - A rate of exchange that accounts for price differences across countries allowing international comparisons of real output and incomes. US Australia Russia Brazil China India S. Korea Mexico Ireland Greece France UK Japan Malaysia Energy demand and GDP per capita (1980-2002)
  13. 13. Energy Source Distribution
  14. 14. Oil Consumption Source: www.bp.com
  15. 15. The World According to Oil
  16. 16. <ul><li>Hydrogen and fuel cells have the potential to solve several major challenges: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local Pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate Change </li></ul></ul>Benefits of H 2
  17. 17. Sources of Energy Gasification Steam Reforming Coal Biomass Natural Gas Oil H 2 H 2 is an energy carrier, it stores and delivers energy in a usable form. An energy source or energy carrier?
  18. 18. Sources of Energy Wind Solar Hydro Nuclear Water Electrolysis
  19. 19. Hydrogen Production Present Near Future Future
  20. 20. Hydrogen Fuel Cell An electrochemical cell in which the energy of the reaction between hydrogen and oxygen, is converted directly and continuously into electrical energy. Byproducts of the reaction are water and heat. www.microsec.net www.fuelcelltoday.com Fuel Cell Stack Schematic of a Fuel Cell
  21. 21. Fuel Cells Compared with Batteries Inside a Fuel Cell Inside a Battery <ul><ul><li>Are scalable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer longer, continuous runtime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain steady voltage </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. How Much H 2 is Out There? <ul><li>H 2 is the most abundant substance in the Universe. </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 is the primary fuel that powers the stars, including our own sun. </li></ul><ul><li>On Earth, H 2 accounts for more than 70% of everything that exist on the planet’s surface. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Qualities of Hydrogen <ul><li>It is tasteless, colorless, odorless and a non-toxic gas </li></ul><ul><li>Lighter than air, in case of a leak (outdoors), it will dissipate quickly into the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Flammable gas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also flammable: natural gas, gasoline fumes, other volatile compounds that people use on a daily basis </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. H 2 Applications in the Near Future <ul><li>Battelle Report identifies key early PEM fuel cell markets: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Back-up Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lift Trucks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Airport vehicles </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Battery vs Fuel Cell Forklifts Fuel Cell Forklift & Refilling Station Battery Forklift & Charging Station Battery Forklift & Changing Battery Difficulty to Steer During Voltage Fade 5-10 min ~ 8 hr ~ 6 hr ~ 6 hr (no fade) ~ 2 hr (fade) 15-20 min ~ 6 hr (no fade) ~ 2 hr (fade) Run Time Voltage 8 hr Run Time Voltage 6 hr 2 hr
  26. 26. Cost Advantages <ul><li>PEM fuel cells can provide service at substantially lower total cost than current technologies: </li></ul>(the higher cost of the 176-hour fuel cell system results from the cost of hydrogen storage tank rental) Note: The current PEM Fuel Cell tax credit is $3000 / kW, 3 times the amount in this table!
  27. 27. The Zero-Emission Sedan of the Future <ul><li>A Reality Today </li></ul>http://automobiles.honda.com/fcx-clarity/
  28. 28. Online Resources & Information <ul><li>DOE Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program – http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/ </li></ul><ul><li>National Hydrogen Association (U.S.A.) – http:// www.hydrogenassociation.org </li></ul><ul><li>South Carolina ’s Assets: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SC Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Alliance: www.schydrogen.org </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ARC:Hydrogen: http:// www.archydrogen.com / </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater Columbia Fuel Cell Challenge: www.fuelcellchallenge.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NSF Center for Fuel Cells: www.che.sc.edu/centers/PEMFC/index.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SCRA Alternative Energy Programs: www.scra.org/alternative_energy.shtml </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Economic Development Challenges <ul><li>Do you know the site requirements companies using hydrogen lift trucks will have? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you know who to contact for hydrogen infrastructure and dispensing installation? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you aware of the different types of hydrogen delivery and storage options? </li></ul><ul><li>Are your code officials familiar enough with hydrogen to make informed decisions? </li></ul><ul><li>Is your workforce ready to work in environments where hydrogen is present? </li></ul>
  30. 30. Hydrogen Lift Trucks ED Example <ul><li>Hydrogen Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage Type – Depends on Demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gaseous Tube Trailers (6000 psig) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid Hydrogen (Underground Cryogenic Storage) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile Refueler </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Onsite Production (Electrolysis and Natural Gas Reforming) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offset Distances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permitting (Industrial Gas) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen Delivery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tube Trailer Replacement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid Tanker Refueling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indoor Fuel Facility Permitting </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen Safety Training for Workers </li></ul>
  31. 31. Thank You for Attending!

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