Production of greenhouse tomatoes inMorocco•Present situation•Comparison of 4 locations(Bir Jdid, Oulidia, Essaouira, Agadir)•Future steps to improve quality and productionBy: Peter Klapwijk, Director Green Q B.V.
Morocco, present situation• > 5000 ha tomatoes under plastic• Large scale companies , professional organisation and management• Low cost, low tech focus• Production level tomatoes 250 -300 ton/ha• First quality 60-65%• Growing in the soil• Excelent growing climate
Strong Weak• Climate • Water ? (rain?)• Infra structure • Still growing in the soil• Good design and • Production level per m2 organisation of nurseries • Sensitive on climate• Low cost labour • Sensitive on nematodes• Crop protection • High use of water chemicals• Growers are experienced and fertilizers per produced kg professionals
Conditions for profitableinnovation& improvementNew methods of production must be :• Economic feasable• Technical reliable and controlable• To the community and market: environmental sustainable methods and a clean product
Various actions to improve• Substrate, irrigation, recirculation• Greenhouse structures light transmission• Positioning of the plants heating• Heating + Ventilation• Cooling / humidification
Substrate, Irrigation,Recirculation• Better crop management• Saving on fertilizers• Less sensitive for nematodes• Better control fruit quality• Yearly costs € 2.- / M2 +Benefits• Increase production 25%• Saving water 30% per kg product = + 25% production!!!!• Saving 30% fertilizersFirst logic step is traditional Morocco greenhouse + substrate (“Traditional +”)
Greenhouse structureslight transmission• October-March: 1% light =1% production• Light transmission glass greenhouse 70- 75%• Light transmission modern plastic greenhouse 60-65%• Light transmission average “Agadir greenhouse” 45-50% (pollution with dust….)• High tech, “semi-closed” “Desert greenhouse”More efficient use of surface gives 20%higher yield !!
Heating +controled ventilation• “Active” management of the greenhouse climate.• Heating +controled ventilation will give better control of plantload and higher winter production.• Better control on climate is better control on quality of plants and fruits.• “Active growing” gives better forecast and control on the production planning and financial result
Lightlevel• Agadir best light conditions in winter (October-March).• Other locations slightly less, but still very good light conditions for winter production.• Light levels are limited: all efforts made to increase light transmission through greenhouse cover will increase production and quality in winter month’s.• At all locations greenhouse tomatoes can be grown, but every location needs small adjustments regarding: -Variety choice -Crop planning Greenscheduler (date of sowing, planting, stem density, yield forecast……..)
Day temperatures• Agadir warmer in winter• Bir Jdid and Oulidia warmer in May-October Measures has to be taken regarding:-Quality tomatoes in late spring / early summer (end)-Propagation young plants in summer-Generative steering in autumn (fruitsize!)• Measures like fogging system, screen (white wash roof)……….• Essaouira has the best temperature conditions to grow greenhouse tomatoes! cool day temperatures
Night temperatures• Essaouira warmest nights in winter (investments in heating capacity.)• Cool nights in Bir Jdid in spring and autumn is advantage for quality of tomatoes (fruitsize !!!).• Cool nights in Bir Jdid heating system is a must to produce high quality greenhouse tomatoes.• At all locations investments in a simple small capacity heating system should be considered
Night temperatures• In winter and spring night temperatures can fall down to levels:< 15° Essaouira. C< 10° Agadir, Oulidia. Bir Jdid close to 5 ° C C………….= TOO COLD AT SUNRISE !!!!Quality and production can be improved if greenhouse is heated with aspiral growth pipe near the crop.• Many problems with fruit quality (shape, color, cracks, botrytis) are related to too cold temperatures in early morning.• Sufficient heating in night and early morning high quality production in winter months close to 1.0 kg / m2/ week are guaranteed.
Night temperatures in Morocco simple low capacity heating system growth pipes.•Capacity relative low.•Based on night temperatures in winter.•Heat up +/- 18° at sunrise. C Growth Pipes (spiral)•Movable (automatic) ventilation withwindows required in case of heating Modern plastic greenhouse Rail pipe
Rain in Morocco• Most rain is in October-April. Peak in November / December• Rain water is the best water for all crops!!!!!!!• Agadir relative dry +/- 700 mm rain. 700 l/m2.• Oulidia relative wet +/- 850 mm rain. 850 l/m2.• The average light level in growing season is +/- 1500 J/cm2/day.• An adult tomato crop will need +/- 3-7 l/m2/day in this period (average 5)• Depending on crop planning total 800-1200 l/m2 irrigation water is required (year round = 1600 l/m2 .• At all locations a considerable part of the required water can be supplied via collecting rain water from the greenhouse roof via a gutter system.• Additional supply of irrigation water is needed, even in the rain season.
Climate summarized• Climate at all locations is suitable for cultivation of greenhouse tomatoes.• At all locations a small capacity heating system will improve growing conditions in winter and spring considerable.• Rainfall is considerable at all locations but not covering 100%. Collection and strorage of rain water should be considered.• Additional supply of irrigation water is needed at some moments
Comparisation of differentgrowing concepts with Greenscheduler• Principles:• Average Morocco west-coast climate circumstances• Small beef tomato (150 g) grafted on rootstock• Planting begin August• First flowering begin September• First harvest begin November• Last harvest medio June
Greenscheduler calculates with: crop density global radiationflowerspeed artificial fruit light size
Greenscheduler InputBlue is the light curve from Morocco west-coastYellow is desired light for the crop
The GreenScheduler Lightconditions BalanceVarietyCrop density planning Load and production Result
5 different growing conceptsType greenhouse Brutto production Percentage class 1 nett production Increase nett production1.Traditional 29 kg 60% 17.5 kg2.Traditional “+” 29 kg 75% 22 kg 25%(+substrate)3.Modern plastic, 33 kg 80% 26.5 kg 50%substrate, simpleheating system4.Glass, 43 kg 85% 37 kg 110%Substrate,Heating5.”Semi- closed” 86 kg 85% 73 kg 400%Interplant, 12 monthSubstrate,Cooling+heating
Production graphs Traditional Modern plastic with ventilation, substrate, simple heating system Glass with heating,ventilation,substrate
Production planning of the “semi closed”greenhouse
With “active” crop management and high tech tools inHolland and USA:“Semi Closed” Greenhouses produced 100 kg/m2
Morocco “traditional growing” “high tech” growing”Morocco “traditional growing”: Morocco “high tech” growing:• Climate is excellent • Better use of climate• Companies are professional • More efficiency on water,• Centre of tomato producers fertilizers, chemicals and• Strong competitor in the utilisation surface tomato producers match • Lower risk on diseases• Production system is “passive” • Higher production and can be more efficient • Better fruit quality • Cleaner product • Stronger market position • “Active” management of the greenhouse climate
“Active” management of the greenhouseclimate can be very profitable Radiation CO2 (plant) temperature Feeding humidity Water
Conclusions• Marocco west-coast is excellent for growing greenhouse tomatoes because of moderate climate conditions.• First step to improve is soil substrate = + 25%• Next step “Active” management of greenhouse climate” will further increase production and quality potential modern greenhouses are required (ventilation, heating).• Various concepts of growing could be succesfull in Morocco, but have to be tested• All concepts could slightly vary in detail at different locations.• Green Q / Improvement Centre can be your partner in this process of development and modernization