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How to obtain a high tomato yield
100 kg per m2 per year or more ?
Ep Heuvelink
Horticultural Supply Chains, www.hpc.wur.n...
Yield development (Netherlands)
Sweet pepper
Cucumber
Tomato
+ 96%
+ 117%
+ 34%
Sweet pepper
Cucumber
Tomato
0
20
40
60
80...
What factors are important for high yield ?
Greenhouse technology (e.g. light transmission)
Cultivation techniques (e.g. h...
Also important is:
High education level of growers
Moderate climate:
winters not too cold, summers not too hot
North
North...
Obtain high light transmissivity of the greenhouse
1% more light ≈ 1% more yield
Greenhouse transmissivity in 1980 ≈ 65%
n...
Cultivation techniques
High wire system; same plant almost year-round
Long season, up to 50 weeks; no production gaps
Cultivation techniques
Stonewool + drippers; better control of root environment
Extra stems in summer (2.5 plants m-2 → 3....
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0
Leaf Area Index
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
Fractionlightintercepted
y = 1 - e -k LAI
Influence of Leaf Ar...
Measured LAI throughout the season for tomato
(measurements at modern commercial farms)
0
1
2
3
4
5
50 100 150 200 250
Day...
Effect of cultivar on tomato yield (Spring crop)
40% yield increase since 1950, mainly because of higher light use efficie...
Greenhouse climate
Modern climate computers make
more accurate control possible
Important factors:
temperature, CO2, humid...
• Heating
→ boiler + hot water pipes
• Cooling
→ vents in roof
→ fog cooling
→ roof cooling
Production techniques in moder...
Fruit weight (dry mass) and
fruit growth period (FGP) tomato
Temperatuur (oC) Gewicht (g) Uitgroeiduur (d)
17 4.8 74
19 4....
High temperature stress (tomato)
No effect on total growth
Poor fruit set
Cause: bad pollen, poorly released 0
4
8
12
16
C...
Greenhouse climate: CO2
Natural gas for heating: flue gasses for CO2
Pure CO2
Source: E. Nederhoff
Rule of thumb for CO2 effect:
For each 100 ppm increase in CO2 % increase in growth can be
calculated as
1500 × 1000
CO2 ×...
Greenhouse climate: High humidity
Deficit < 0.2 kPa (<1.5 g/m3) or RV >94% at 25°C
Too low Ca in leaves ĉĉ> smaller leaves...
Greenhouse climate: Low humidity
Deficit > 1 kPa (>7.5 g/m3) or RH < 70% at 25°C
Water stress in plant
Stomata close
Cell ...
New trends: semiĉclosed greenhouse
AirAir--conditioned (active cooling) so vents more closedconditioned (active cooling) s...
In the Netherlands: Winter: 80% diffuse radiation
Summer: 60% diffuse radiation
Advantages of diffuse radiation:
More even...
Control Low diffuse High diffuse
Haze 0% 30% 70%
Transmission 83% 83% 80%
New trends: Diffusing cover materials
Experiment...
Diffuse light: 9% higher cucumber production
(crop planted in March)
0
25
50
75
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 ...
Conclusion: main reasons for high tomato yield
Almost yearround cultivation
(high wire system, extra stems in summer, root...
Thank you for your attention
The following colleagues contributed to this presentation:
Menno Bakker, Silke Hemming, Leo M...
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How to obtain a high Tomato yield - Ep Heuvelink

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How to obtain a high Tomato yield - Ep Heuvelink

  1. 1. How to obtain a high tomato yield 100 kg per m2 per year or more ? Ep Heuvelink Horticultural Supply Chains, www.hpc.wur.nl/uk Ep.heuvelink@wur.nl Plant Sciences Group, Wageningen University 1st Agriconference on Tomatoes from Morocco 9 December 2009, Agadir, Morocco
  2. 2. Yield development (Netherlands) Sweet pepper Cucumber Tomato + 96% + 117% + 34% Sweet pepper Cucumber Tomato 0 20 40 60 80 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year Yield(kgm -2 ) +107% +94% +125% Cucumber Tomato Sweet Pepper Tomato in Morocco (Kwantitatieve Informatie voor de Glastuinbouw (KWIN 2008))
  3. 3. What factors are important for high yield ? Greenhouse technology (e.g. light transmission) Cultivation techniques (e.g. high wire system, rootstocks) Modern cultivars Greenhouse climate control (temperature, CO2, humidity, supplementary light) Most recent developments (semi~closed greenhouses, diffuse light)
  4. 4. Also important is: High education level of growers Moderate climate: winters not too cold, summers not too hot North Northsea sea
  5. 5. Obtain high light transmissivity of the greenhouse 1% more light ≈ 1% more yield Greenhouse transmissivity in 1980 ≈ 65% nowadays ≈ 78% represents about 20% yield increase Large glass panes, small construction parts, white !
  6. 6. Cultivation techniques High wire system; same plant almost year-round Long season, up to 50 weeks; no production gaps
  7. 7. Cultivation techniques Stonewool + drippers; better control of root environment Extra stems in summer (2.5 plants m-2 → 3.8 stems m-2) Use of grafted plants (cultivar on rootstock) StonewoolStonewool CubeCube & Slab& Slab
  8. 8. 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 Leaf Area Index 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Fractionlightintercepted y = 1 - e -k LAI Influence of Leaf Area Index (LAI) on the fraction of light intercepted by a tomato crop (k = extinction coefficient = 0.8) LAI: mLAI: m22 green leaf area per mgreen leaf area per m22 ground area)ground area)
  9. 9. Measured LAI throughout the season for tomato (measurements at modern commercial farms) 0 1 2 3 4 5 50 100 150 200 250 Day of year LeafAreaIndex(m2 m-2 ) Year 2003 Year 1990 Now much higher than in early nineties, probably because extra side shoots are retained from spring onwards + rootstock?
  10. 10. Effect of cultivar on tomato yield (Spring crop) 40% yield increase since 1950, mainly because of higher light use efficiency
  11. 11. Greenhouse climate Modern climate computers make more accurate control possible Important factors: temperature, CO2, humidity
  12. 12. • Heating → boiler + hot water pipes • Cooling → vents in roof → fog cooling → roof cooling Production techniques in modern greenhouses (1)Greenhouse climate: temperature
  13. 13. Fruit weight (dry mass) and fruit growth period (FGP) tomato Temperatuur (oC) Gewicht (g) Uitgroeiduur (d) 17 4.8 74 19 4.3 63 21 3.2 56 23 2.7 50 Source: A.N.M. de Koning At lower temperature harvest starts later and fruits are more heavy Temperature (oC) Fruit weight (g) FGP (d)
  14. 14. High temperature stress (tomato) No effect on total growth Poor fruit set Cause: bad pollen, poorly released 0 4 8 12 16 Controle Hoge Temp Aantalgezettevruchten perplant 0 20 40 60 80 100 Controle Hoge Temp Levendestuifmeelkorrels (%) Control: 28/22oC D/N; High temp. 32/26oC Source: Sato et al. 2006 Questions like: is 1 h 36oC a problem? Or: Is 1 h 38oC same as 10 h 36oC? Not yet clear ! Control High temp. Control High temp. Viablepollen(%) Numberofset fruitsperplant AlsoAlso tootoo lowlow temperaturestemperatures limit fruit set !limit fruit set !
  15. 15. Greenhouse climate: CO2 Natural gas for heating: flue gasses for CO2 Pure CO2 Source: E. Nederhoff
  16. 16. Rule of thumb for CO2 effect: For each 100 ppm increase in CO2 % increase in growth can be calculated as 1500 × 1000 CO2 × CO2 From 350 to 450 ppm: 12% growth increase From 600 to 700 ppm: 4% growth increase From 1000 to 1100 ppm: 1.5% growth increase But from 350 to 250 ppm: 19% reduction in growth!! Source: E. Nederhoff, 1994
  17. 17. Greenhouse climate: High humidity Deficit < 0.2 kPa (<1.5 g/m3) or RV >94% at 25°C Too low Ca in leaves ĉĉ> smaller leaves ĉĉ> less light interception ĉĉ> less photosynthesis Pollination less optimal (without bumble bees) Higher disease risk (botrytis) Higher risk fruit “disorders” (cracking)
  18. 18. Greenhouse climate: Low humidity Deficit > 1 kPa (>7.5 g/m3) or RH < 70% at 25°C Water stress in plant Stomata close Cell elongation reduced ĉĉ> smaller, thicker leaves Less photosynthesis Reduced water content fruit Blossomĉendĉrot (BER)
  19. 19. New trends: semiĉclosed greenhouse AirAir--conditioned (active cooling) so vents more closedconditioned (active cooling) so vents more closed Too high temperatures can be avoidedToo high temperatures can be avoided Higher COHigher CO22 levelslevels higher yieldshigher yields
  20. 20. In the Netherlands: Winter: 80% diffuse radiation Summer: 60% diffuse radiation Advantages of diffuse radiation: More even distribution of light (horizontally; no shadows) Light penetrates deeper in the crop Lower risk of light saturation Mild micro-climate New trends: Diffusing cover materials
  21. 21. Control Low diffuse High diffuse Haze 0% 30% 70% Transmission 83% 83% 80% New trends: Diffusing cover materials Experiment with cucumber crop: Bleiswijk 2008, Netherlands
  22. 22. Diffuse light: 9% higher cucumber production (crop planted in March) 0 25 50 75 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Weeks Cumulatiefproductie(kg/m2) Hoog diffuus Laag diffuus Controle +9.2% +6.5% Weeks Production(kgmĉ2) Source: T. Dueck High diffuse Low diffuse Control
  23. 23. Conclusion: main reasons for high tomato yield Almost yearround cultivation (high wire system, extra stems in summer, rootstocks) Cultivation out of soil Hightech greenhouses (high light transmissivity, good temperature and CO2 control) High yielding cultivars (breeding) Future developments: semiĉclosed, LED lights
  24. 24. Thank you for your attention The following colleagues contributed to this presentation: Menno Bakker, Silke Hemming, Leo Marcelis, Anke van der Ploeg

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