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    1. 1. Romeo and Juliet
    2. 2. The play’s the thing Wherein I’ll catch the conscience of the king. (Shakespeare, Hamlet)Catching the conscience, raising the consciousness, alertingan audience to the awareness of what it means to behuman, fallible, vulnerable, subject to the twists and knotsof life – these are all reasons for play-going, play-reading,play-acting.The performance aspect of a play heightens ouridentification with the characters and their moraldilemmas. The choices – or lack of choices – facingcharacters become ‘real’ to us in the unfolding of thedrama, and inform our understanding of the characters onstage, of the people who fill our lives, and, ultimately, ofourselves.
    3. 3. The ‘public’ themes have a private face, and the‘private’ concerns of ordinary people have auniversal resonance.What do you think is meant by this comment?
    4. 4. Prior KnowledgeWhy might someone of your age empathise withthe play’s main characters?Have we seen similar themes, characters andevents in modern fiction?
    5. 5. High School MusicalDisneys High School Musical made use ofRomeo and Juliets plot, placing the two younglovers in rival high school cliques instead offeuding families
    6. 6. What does the story of ‘Romeo and Juliet’ mean to us?What do you think of these statements made by people when asked thatquestion?· Intensity and passion (young love which doesn’t last)· Youth· It has cultural relevance (we all know young people from different ethnicgroups whose parents want to either arrange a marriage, or prevent arelationship)· The division and opposition of generations (the conflict between parentsand children)· Girls finding their independence and standing up for themselves· Gang warfare· Young people having to carry the burden of ancient quarrels· Universal theme of love and passion
    7. 7. Baz LuhrmannRomeo + Juliet (1996)
    8. 8. Setting Verona + MexicoAlthough the film isnt set against an Elizabethan backdrop, thesocial, religious and political aspects of Shakespeares timecertainly influenced the play.Pearce explains the process: "When we started to describe thecreated world we considered Shakespeares views on Verona. Inthe research we found that he was not historically orgeographically accurate in his depiction of Verona. ToShakespeare and to Elizabethan audiences, Verona was a hot,sexy, violent, Catholic country.So we needed to find a place that exists in an equivalent wayfor our audience. It didnt necessarily have to be naturalistic butwe wanted it to ring true.
    9. 9. MexicoThere are textual facts in Romeo and Juliet connectedwith Elizabethan society that exist in Mexico. For instance,during Shakespeares time religion was involved in politicsand there was a very small percentage of great wealthwith a large population of poor. It was violent and peoplewere openly armed.Baz Luhrmann interpreted all of these Elizabethan thingsin the context of the modern created world. In fact, muchof this occurs in modern-day Mexico,
    10. 10. However…. This isn’t Mexico.Baz Luhrmann’s Romeo + Juliet is set in an non-naturalist setting.As mentioned earlier, even to an Elizabethanaudience Verona was a foreign and mysterioussetting.Having considered why the play is so popular to thisday, why do you think both Shakespeare andLuhrmann chose to divorce their setting from theiraudiences everyday reality.
    11. 11. A Play for All Shakespeare’s AudienceDuring an interview, Luhrmann explains:"Ive always wanted to do Romeo and Juliet. The themes itexplores, the tragedy that is born of a prohibited love in a world oflearned hate is one of those primary myths that appeals to all people.Romeo and Juliet, like all of Shakespeares plays touched everyonefrom the street sweeper to the Queen of England. Everything thats inthe movie is in the play. Violence, murder, lust, love, poison, evendrugs that mimic death - its all in there.
    12. 12. "He is just such an extraordinary storyteller" saysLuhrmann. "What I really loved is that he had thisdilemma in terms of audience. He had to knock deadthose people selling pigs, the prostitutes and the noblesbecause they were all in the same theatre. They had tohave a different experience of the material but enjoy itequally.“"Thats what is so phenomenal about it - everyone canexperience his work albeit in different ways. Thats anincredible accomplishment. Everyone, from a child to anadult can have a very rich experience from Romeo andJuliet and I think thats why its still performed and whyits worth doing. Shakespeare had an amazing genius forcapturing who we are and revealing it to us. My job is justto re-reveal it."
    13. 13. Structure The PrologueWhat information is provided in the prologue? Summarise the informationgiven with reference to the text.What do you think is the function of the prologue?What effect do you think this information has on the audience?http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/romeo-and-juliet-prologue/9892.htmlConsider this idea of fate: ‘the star-crossed lovers’. The pair are destined todie tragically as is revealed immediately in the prologue. What then mightbe said about the structure of the play?
    14. 14. The Prologue The Sonnet Rhythm Come in and have a cup of coffee, Kate.There is a weak syllable followed by a stressedsyllable. Syllables are weak or stressed in words,such as in the work technique or defeat.
    15. 15. Iambic PentameterTry this one yourself: I went to town to see a girl I love.
    16. 16. Iambic Feet Come in/ and have/ a cup/ of cof/feeThe weak/stressed pattern is called an iambicfoot. The sentence above is made up of 5 iambicfeet. These 5 beats are called pentameter
    17. 17. Now try to identify the weak/stressed syllablesin this line and break it down into feet: Shall I compare thee to a summers day?
    18. 18. Shakespeare and Iambic PentameterShakespeare uses iambic pentameter a great deal inhis poetry and in his plays.Sometimes he exploits the rhythm to create specialeffects or to draw attention to certain words.Try these lines from Macbeth. She should have died hereafter; There would have been a time for such a word.
    19. 19. RhymeRhythm and rhyme can be used to create sound images. Readthe poem below and consider what image is being created.Faster than fairies, faster than witches,Bridges and houses, hedges and ditches;And charging along like troops in a battle,All through the meadows, the horses and cattle:All of the sights of the hill and the plainFly as thick as driving rain;And ever again, in the wind of an eye,Painted stations whistle by.
    20. 20. RhymeRhythm and rhyme can be used to create sound images. Read the poembelow and consider what image is being created.From a Railway CarriageFaster than fairies, faster than witches,Bridges and houses, hedges and ditches;And charging along like troops in a battle,All through the meadows, the horses and cattle:All of the sights of the hill and the plainFly as thick as driving rain;And ever again, in the wind of an eye,Painted stations whistle by.Now pick out all the rhymes.
    21. 21. RhymeRhythm and rhyme can be used to create sound images. Read the poembelow and consider what image is being created.From a Railway CarriageFaster than fairies, faster than witches,Bridges and houses, hedges and ditches;And charging along like troops in a battle,All through the meadows, the horses and cattle:All of the sights of the hill and the plainFly as thick as driving rain;And ever again, in the wind of an eye,Painted stations whistle by.Now pick out all the rhymes.
    22. 22. Shakespeare’s sonnetsShakespeare’s sonnets are made up of:• 14 lines• In three quatrains (a quatrain has four lines)• Followed by a couplet• Each quatrain has an a b a b rhymeIn his sonnets Shakespeare sets out to:• explore a chosen topic or theme in the three quatrains• and the couplet provides a conclusion or a twist on the theme.
    23. 23. The PrologueStep 1: Break it down into its 3 quatrains andcouplet.Step 2: Identify its rhyming scheme.Step 3: Write a brief description of what eachquatrain is about.Step 4: Has Shakespeare drawn your attention usingrhythm and rhyme to any words in particular?
    24. 24. The PrologueA1 Two house holds, both alike in dignity,B2 In fair Verona, where we lay our scene,A3 From ancient grudge break to new mutiny,B4 Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean.C5 From forth the fatal loins of these two foesD6 A pair of star-crossd lovers take their life;C 7 Whose misadventured piteous overthrowsD 8 Do with their death bury their parents strife.E9 The fearful passage of their death-markd love,F 10 And the continuance of their parents rage,E 11 Which, but their childrens end, nought could remove,F 12 Is now the two hours traffic of our stage;G 13 The which if you with patient ears attend,G 14 What here shall miss, our toil shall strive to mend.
    25. 25. Real Life LoveIn Romeo and Juliet, Shakespeare creates a world ofviolence and generational conflict in which twoyoung people fall in love and die because of thatlove. What is so striking about this play is that,despite its extraordinary setting, it has become thequintessential story of young love. BUT!Do you agree with his representation of young love?
    26. 26. Characterisation1. We first hear of Romeo from Benvolio in lines 118 on page 27.What impression are we given of him from what Benvolio says.Romeo comes across as melancholy and insular.• He hides from Benvolio, rather than converse with him: ‘And gladly shunned who gladly fled from me’ (1.i.129). He has been seen, ‘With tears augmenting the fresh morning’s dew’. In other words he cries early in the morning and adds to the mornings moist air.• Montague also describes how, ‘Away from light steals home my heavy son’. Dark and light are recurring motifs in the play and are symbolic of joy and love and death and despair. ‘Heavy son’ reveals how Romeo is burdened with his thoughts.It all seems rather dramatic and immature to react in such a fashion merelybecause a girl does not return his admiration.
    27. 27. Characterisation3. Love vs Hate: We meet Romeo on page 29. He appears to bein a right state.• What do his comments reveal about love and hate?O me, what fray was here? Yet tell me not, for I have heard it all. Here’s muchto do with hate, but more with love.’These lines from Romeo seem to foreshadow later events in the play as thefamilies feud will result in the destruction of the two young lovers. Thecomment seems to suggest that they cannot be separated; to hate is to feelpain ‘brawling love’ and so often people relish in hate ‘loving hate’.• There is a literary technique used here, what is it and what effect do you think it has?The use of oxymoron here suggests that Romeo is confused. The ‘chaos’ hedescribes, ‘feather of lead’, ‘bright smoke’ and ‘cold fire’ add to the sense ofconfusion. It also works to create a sort of nightmare state in which Romeobelieves himself to be in because of his love for Rosaline.
    28. 28. For Romeo, love causes the, ‘Mis-shapen chaosof well-seeming forms’Why might this comment seem relevant later inthe play?Again, we could interpret this line as a form of foreshadowing.The ‘well-seeming forms’ are Romeo and Juliet, whose love iswarped through the hate of others.
    29. 29. Act 1: ii Romeo’s Broken HeartFrancesco Petrarch (1304-74) was responsible forestablishing certain ideas about love-relationships.He wrote more than 300 sonnets addressed to anidealized lady named Laura, with whom he hadnever even had a conversation.These sonnets were enormously popular, and poetsin Shakespeares day were still using Petrarchssonnets as models.One key Petrarchan notion is that the lovers lovefor a beautiful woman is not returned and he suffersas if from a bad flu (freezes and burns).
    30. 30. “Yeah but that was back in the day……..” Or is it???Do you know of any popular songs about beingcrazy in love with someone who didnt know youexisted?
    31. 31. Romeo• Could we describe Romeo as a Petrarchan lover?• Please provide examples from the text to support your answers.
    32. 32. Romeo• Could we describe Romeo as a Petrarchan lover?There is no other woman as beautiful than Rosaline: ‘The all-seeing sun/Ne’er saw her match since first the worldbegun’(1.ii.93-94).Rosaline is out of Romeo’s reach, in fact even Cupid’s powers arepowerless on her and she does not return his love:‘From love’s weak childish bow she lives uncharmed’1.i.210‘Out of her favour where I am in love’ 1.i.167
    33. 33. CharacterisationBenvolio and Mercutio’s efforts at makingRomeo see sense further strengthens oursuspicions that Romeo is rather immature andegocentric.
    34. 34. HomeworkYou should complete the questions on:• Act 1: III• Act 1: IVWe will go over the answers as a class onWednesday.
    35. 35. Act 1.iii Characterisation1. What kind of character is the nurse? Go girl, seek happy nights to happy days’ (1.iii.107).2. What does Juliet’s reply at the end of the scene tell us about her? Juliet: ‘I’ll look to like, if looking liking move./ But no more deep will I endart mine eye/Than your consent gives strength to make it fly’ (1.iii.97- 99).3. Language: Lady Capulet’s attitude towards Paris.
    36. 36. Act 1.IV Theme1. Language: Examine Romeo’s speech (107 – 113) noting the reference to fate. Does this add to our picture of Romeo’s character? Explain the image in the last two lines of this speech.I fear too early, for my mind misgivesSome consequence, yet hanging in the stars,With this bright night’s reveals, and expire the termOf a despised life closed in my breast,By some vile forfeit of untimely death.But he that hath the steerage of my courseDirect my suit. On lusty gentlemen. (1.IV.107 -113)
    37. 37. Act V1. What important plot developments take place in this scene?2. This scene is full of contrasts. Can you identify any of these?
    38. 38. Act V Structure and ThemeThis is an important scene in revealing the theme oflove and hate. The two emotions are presented injuxtaposition through the soliloquies of thecharacters Tybalt and Romeo.Activities on page 74 - 75Love, hate and fateJuliet – Has she stuck to her word? Juliet: ‘I’ll lookto like, if looking liking move./ But no more deepwill I endart mine eye/Than your consent givesstrength to make it fly’ (1.iii.97- 99).
    39. 39. Love, Hate and Fate LOVEExplain Romeo’s speech on first sighting Juliet (Act1.V.45-52).‘O she doth teach the torches to burn bright’ (…)‘Light a rich jewel in an Ethiop’s ear; (…) ‘Sheshows a snowy dove trooping with crows’ (…) For Ine’er saw true beauty till this night’
    40. 40. Love, fate, hate HateLook at the comments of Tybalt. How do they contrastwith that of Romeo’s?DISSONANCE - harsh sounds that are frequentlyintroduced for poetic effect - b, d, p, k, hard g (like "God,"not "George")For example. black cat‘What dares the slave/Come hither, covered with an anticface,/To fleer and scorn at our solemnity? (…) To strikehim dead I hold it not a sin.’
    41. 41. JulietBack to the Petrarchan sonnet…..We discussed how Romeo was a Petrarchanlover.Can the same be said of Juliet?Please find evidence from the text to supportyour answers.
    42. 42. Act 1Take an opportunity to look over the whole of act one. Anumber of key themes have been introduced: Youth and Age Love Hatred FateFor each of these themes make a list of occasions when:• People talk about it, directly or indirectly• People’s actions tell you something about it• The language in the play contains images that refer to it.
    43. 43. StructureTragedy and ComedyShakespeare often juxtaposes tragedy/love in the playwith comedy.In Act 1: Scene I for instance, there is a punning exchangebetween Benvolio and Mercutio just before Tybalt arrives.Or the contrast between Act 1: Scene i in which Romeo isin a melancholy mood and Scene iii in which the Nurse’srambling stories cannot be silenced.What effect do you think this might have on theaudience?
    44. 44. Act 2:Scene 1Consider both the themes and the structure of theplay.What is the purpose of Mercutio’s crudereferences?To structure:To theme:
    45. 45. Act 2: II The Balcony Scene Shakespeare and sentence structure. ‘He jests at scars that never felt a wound’1. What does Romeo mean by this?2. How would you order the words in this sentence so that it made more sense to you?Identify the predicate and the subject.1. The lion roared2. He writes well3. She enjoys going to the cinema4. The girl in the blue dress arrived late
    46. 46. EchoesTask:Boys - Every time Romeo says the word love, you should echothe word.Girls - Every time Juliet asks a question, you should echo thequestion.What do they notice from this exercise about the type oflanguage that Romeo and Juliet are using here?What is the difference between their choices of language?Why does Romeo choose to say the word love so many times?Why does Juliet ask so many questions?What does this say about their characters?
    47. 47. Dramatic Techniques and Literary TechniquesWhich dramatic technique is used by bothcharacters in the opening of this scene?What is its effect?Assonance: vowel sounds.Read the scene again. What vowel sound isdominant? What emotion is described by the vowelsounds?
    48. 48. Motifs Light and DarkShakespeare uses light and dark imagery in this scene todescribe the blossoming of Romeo and Juliets romance.Light represents the lovers as they see one another in thedarkness of their troubles; darkness also as the shroud ofsecrecy; also light as lightning and therefore transitoryand easily burnt out.Task: Read over the balcony scene discussion and identifyand evaluate any references made to light and dark.
    49. 49. LightJuliet is the light that frees him from the darkness of hisperpetual melancholia. In the famous balcony scene Romeoassociates Juliet with sunlight, "It is the east and Juliet is thesun!" (2.2.3), daylight, "The brightness of her cheek wouldshame those stars/As daylight doth a lamp" (2.2.20-1), andthe light emanating from angels, "O speak again bright angel"(2.2.26).In turn, Juliet compares their new-found love to lightening(2.2.120), primarily to stress the speed at which their romanceis moving, but also to suggest that, as the lightening is aglorious break in the blackness of the night sky, so too is theirlove a flash of wondrous luminance in an otherwise darkworld.
    50. 50. Religious ImageryReligious imagery is also used in this scene. Task: Identify these images.Consider love and religion as a concept.Question: What do you think is the effect of the religious imagery?
    51. 51. Juliet and Romeo The development of CharacterRomeo has noticeably matured in this scene. He has moved away fromthe melodramatic and melancholy expressions of love. His declarationsof love are now in blank verse, which adds realism and a more naturalquality to their love.However, regardless of her youth, Juliet is clearly the more mature ofthe two.Identify examples of Juliet’s maturity in the scene.Romeo: ‘Love goes towards love as school boys from their books, Butlove from love, towards school with heavy looks’ (Act 2. ii. 159-160).What do you understand from this line? What does it reveal aboutRomeo’s character?
    52. 52. Act 2: Scene 3 (2:3) Foreshadowing1. Look closely at Friar Lawrence’s opening speech in this scene. Copy down any words or phrases which include examples of foreshadowing/dramatic irony.2. What effect does Shakespeare have on his audience by using foreshadowing in his play?3. Friar Lawrence’s last line in this scene is a warning to Romeo. Wisely and slow, they stumble those who run fast’ What does this mean? How is it another example of foreshadowing?
    53. 53. Act 2: Scene 3 Character1. Now look for oppositions in his speech. What do these balanced ideas reveal about the Friar’s character?2. Identify the rhyming scheme used by Shakespeare. Having considered the Friar’s character. What does this pattern add?3. When Romeo tells Friar Lawrence that he loves Juliet and not Rosaline, Friar Lawrence says: ‘Young men’s love then lies not truly in their hearts but in their eyes’. What does Friar Lawrence mean by this? Why might his comments continue to resonate with a modern audience?4. Why does Friar Lawrence agree to marry the pair? Is this important to the plot? Why might it be described as ironic?
    54. 54. Homework1. What is your impression of Friar Lawrence in thisscene and why do you think this is?In your answer you should comment onShakespeare’s use of language and structure.2. Read Act 2: Scene 6. In this scene the Friar offersus another view of ‘love’. Look at lines 9 – 15. Whatdo these comments reveal about the Friar?
    55. 55. The FeudThe love of Romeo and Juliet is set in a context ofhate.Question: When were we first introduced to thisfeud?Questions: Does the audience know how the feudbegan?Question: Which character reminds us of the feudboth in 1.I and 1.V?
    56. 56. Act 3, Scene 1 (3:1)This scene occurs immediately after themarriage of Romeo and Juliet – which canaccount for Romeo’s wish not to fight Tybalt.Themes: The contrast between love and hate isagain explicit in this scene.
    57. 57. Wordplay Puns• She got fired from the hot dog stand for putting her hair in a bun.• No matter how much you push the envelope, it’ll still be stationery.• Mercutio: That dreamers often lie• Romeo: In bed asleep, while they do dream things true.
    58. 58. Mercutio• Mercutio: Consort? What dost thou make us minstrels? And thou makes minstrels of us, look to hear nothing but discords. Here’s my fiddle stick, here’s that shall make you dance’ (3.I.47- 50).• Mercutio (on being fatally wounded): ‘Ask for me to-morrow, and you shall find me a grave man’ (3.I.100).
    59. 59. THE DOUBLE ENTENDREThe double entendre is a play on words onemeaning of which is lewd:Did you hear about the sleepy bride who couldntstay awake for a second?
    60. 60. LanguageLook at the beginning and the end of the scene.Can you identify where each of these languageforms is used?Blank verse is poetry written in unrhymediambic pentameter.Prose has no rhyming or metric scheme and hasthe qualities of everyday language.
    61. 61. Function of Prose• •To make dialogue more realisticMany short, functional lines like “And I, my lord,” and “I pray you leave me” arewritten in prose to give the play a sense of realism. In some longer speeches,Shakespeare allowed the audience to identify more closely with his characters byusing the everyday language of the time.• •To create comic effectSome of Shakespeare’s low-class comic creations aspire to speak in the formallanguage of their superiors, but do not have the intelligence to achieve this andtherefore become objects of ridicule. For example, the uneducated Dogberry inMuch Ado About Nothing attempts to use more formal language, but keepsgetting it wrong. In Act 3, Scene 5, he informs Leonato that “Our watch, sir, haveindeed comprehended two auspicious persons.” He means “apprehended” and“suspicious”.• •To suggest a character’s mental instabilityIn King Lear, Lear’s verse deteriorates into prose as the play unfolds to suggest hisincreasingly erratic mental condition. We can also see a similar technique atwork in the above passage from Hamlet.
    62. 62. Language used for Dramatic Effect1. Explain how Mercutio tries to upset Tybalt in various ways.2. Consider attitudes towards the lower classes. Why does Tybalt call Romeo ‘villian’ and why does Romeo deny this? He also refers to Romeo as ‘my man’ and Mercutio challenges this. Why?3. Identify whether characters refer to each other as ‘you’ (formal) or ‘thou/thee’ (informal).4. Tybalt usually refers to Mercutio using ‘you’ but chances to ‘thou’ when he accuses him of consorting with Romeo. Why?
    63. 63. Act 3, Scene 1 (3:1) Figurative Language ‘That late thou gavest me, for Mercutio’s soul Is but a little way above our heads, Staying for thine to keep him company. Either though or I, or both, must go with him’ (Romeo 3:1)Explain this image and its effect on the audience.Romeo’s last words in this scene are: ‘O I am fortune’s fool!’ (Romeo 3:1).What does he mean by this? What is the effect on the audienceand how does it help reflect the themes in the play?
    64. 64. PatternsAn elaborate pattern is formed between Romeoand Mercutio. Can you identify this?
    65. 65. PatternsAn elaborate pattern is formed between Romeoand Mercutio. Can you identify this?Antithesis is a counter-proposition and denotesa direct contrast to the original proposition.
    66. 66. HomeworkQuestion: How does Shakespeare use dramatic devices inAct 3 Scene 1 of Romeo and Juliet in order to make it aninteresting, exciting and pivotal scene?
    67. 67. Romeo and Juliet Character Development• Working as a group, you are going to design and create posters for the classroom wall. These posters are going to become very useful revision aids for when you come to write about Romeo and Juliet.
    68. 68. Poster• Your poster should trace the development of Romeo or Juliet through the play.• What are they like at the beginning• Their first meeting• The balcony scene• On finding out he has been banished.( Remember to include DETAILED close analysis ofthe language)
    69. 69. Act 3: Scene 5The key to this scene is in what each characterknows:• Capulet thinks he knows why his daughter is upset (over Tybalt’s death).• Lady Capulet knows as little as her husband.• Juliet knows about her marriage to Romeo, but cannot tell her parents.• Juliet doesn’t know, for some time, about her parent’s plan for her to marry Paris.• The nurse knows, at this point, Juliet’s secrets.Only the audience has a full understanding of what isgoing on. In the scene Juliet speaks ambiguously –with one meaning for the person to whom shespeaks and another to herself and the audience.1. What is this dramatic technique called?2. Find an example and explain both its meanings.
    70. 70. Point Act III. Scene 5Technique, analysis Evidence and explanationMotifs Antithesis – a balanced contrast - References to a growing ‘dark’ strengthen the impression of impeding tragedy and contrast with earlier images of hope.Theme Juliet fears that she will neverThe lovers are victims of their again see Romeo. Referencesown fate, a destructive force such as this increase thewhich is never far removed sense of foreboding in thefrom the audience’s play.consciousness.ThemeJuliet asks fate to change itsmind.
    71. 71. Act III. Scene 5Point Evidence Technique, analysis and explanationMotifs Juliet: O now be gone; more Antithesis – a balanced light and light it grows. contrast - References to aLight and Dark growing ‘dark’ strengthen the Romeo: More light and light, impression of impeding more dark and dark our woes’ tragedy and contrast with (35-36) earlier images of hope.Theme O god, I have an ill-divining Juliet fears that she will neverThe lovers are victims of their soul!/ Me thinks I see thee, again see Romeo.own fate, a destructive force now thou art so low,/ References such as thiswhich is never far removed As one dead in the bottom of increase the sense offrom the audience’s a tomb’ (III.5.54-56) foreboding in the play andconsciousness. increase the audiences sympathy for Juliet through the use of dramatic irony.Theme Be fickle, fortune;/For then I Her futile requests lead theJuliet asks fate to change its hope thou wilt not keep him audience to feel yet moremind. long,/But send him back. sympathy for Juliet
    72. 72. Point Evidence Technique, analysis and explanationCapulet shows great affection for Earth hath swallowed all my Here earth has been personified.his daughter and hopes that she hopes but she, / She is the It may be suggesting thatwill have a good future. hopeful lady of my earth. Capulet’s other children have Act I.2.15-16 died.He believes that she grieves over Sir Paris, I will make a desperate Capulet believes that his daughterthe death of her cousin, Tybalt tender/ Of my child’s love. I think will obey his authority and do asand marrying Paris will make her she will be ruled. he asks of her.happy. Act III.4.12-13He is angry when Juliet refuses to Hang thee young baggage, Baggage is an Elizabethan word formarry Paris. disobedient wretch! a shameless or promiscuous Act III.5.160 woman. The hard constants used in this Capulet informs Juliet that if she line add to Capulet’s anger at this refuses to marry Paris she can point. ‘hang, beg, starve, dies in the Capulet unwittingly in his refusal streets’ to listen to Juliet sets the lovers Act III.5.193 fate.Capulet grieves over his ‘Death lies on her like an A simile is used here to suggestdaughter’s death. untimely frost/ Upon the that Juliet’s death is sudden and sweetest flower of all the field’ brings a chill. The audience is (28 – 29) encouraged to feel sympathy for Act IV.5 Capulet, who only strived to do the best by his daughter. As rich shall Romeo by his lady lie, / Poor sacrifies of our emnity The use of the word ‘our’ reveals
    73. 73. Juliet’s Character DevelopmentStudy these short extracts from the scene:Lines 60 - 64, 116 – 123, 205 – 211, 234-241How do you think Juliet has changed from thegirl we met in Act 1: Scene 3?
    74. 74. Act 4: Scene 31. Which of the following is not one of Juliet’s anxietiesabout taking the potion?• Romeo will not receive word of the plan in Mantua.• She may suffocate in the foul air of the tomb.• The mixture may not work at all.• Friar Lawrence may be concealing his role in her marriage.2. Why is this ironic?3. What is revealed about Juliet’s character through her soliloquy?4. What is the effect of the use of rhetorical questions? – On the audience – Reveals about Juliet’s character
    75. 75. Rhetorical Questions• The question "Can you do anything right?" is asked not to gain information about the ability of the person being spoken to, but rather to insinuate that the person always fails.• They can suggest dialogue or an internal conflict.
    76. 76. Act V Scene 11. What news does Balthasar bring Romeo?2. What do you think Romeo means when he says, “I defy you, stars!”? (line 24) Hint: Think back to the Prologue.3. Who does Romeo visit before he leaves? Why? What does he purchase?4. Why doesn’t the apothecary want to give it to Romeo? Why does he consent?5. What poison does Romeo say he gave to the apothecary? Why does he think it is poison?
    77. 77. Foils• In fiction, a foil is a character who contrasts with another character (usually the protagonist) in order to highlight particular qualities of the other character.• The action in Romeo and Juliet involves two carefully balanced groups of characters. For instance, at the head of each of the feuding families is a lord and a lady. Juliet has a cousin and Romeo has a cousin. However, many of these characters also contrast.• Task: Can you identify the pairs and the contrasts? Use a table like the one found on p. 297 of the play to record your pairs.
    78. 78. Survey Homework•http://www.surveymo nkey.com/s/9XDSQVH
    79. 79. Adaptations The Killers Rome and Juliet• http://www.sanjuan.edu/webpages/mikeberr y/resources.cfm?subpage=49094
    80. 80. Act 4: Scene 5 Act 5: Scene 1 The language of Death• We have already witnessed how love is presented through language in the play.• We have also established that many of the characters in the play have a different interpretations of love.• Similarly to love, death is presented as multifaceted.• Task: complete the activities on page 286. This task focused on imagery and should give you a great deal of text to analyse.• Task 2: Return to 4.5. Read through the play as a group of four complete task 2 on page 284.
    81. 81. ROMEO: Why I descend into this bed of death, / Is partly to behold my ladys face;ROMEO: Thou detestable maw, thou womb of death, Gorged with the dearest morsel of the earth, Thus I enforce thy rotten jaws to open, And, in despite, Ill cram thee with more food!
    82. 82. Death and Love• The family tomb becomes a symbol of both birth and death. It is, on the one hand, the womb from which Juliet should emerge alive — and hope be born anew. However, the tomb is also a dark and fateful vortex that consumes life, light, and hope.
    83. 83. Light and DarkIn his final speech, Romeo once again uses lightand dark imagery to describe Juliet as she acts as asource of light in the darkness of the tomb. "herbeauty makes / This vault a feasting presence full oflight."Such images simultaneously make the audience allthe more aware of how close the lovers come tofinding joy — making their end in darkness all themore tragic.
    84. 84. For here lies Juliet, and her beauty makes This vault a feasting presence full of light. Death, lie thou there, by a dead man interrdDeath, that hath suckd the honey of thy breath, Hath had no power yet upon thy beauty: Thou art not conquerd; beautys ensign yet Is crimson in thy lips and in thy cheeks, And deaths pale flag is not advanced there.
    85. 85. METAPHOR a comparison of two unlike things which are connected by one similarity: Her eyes are jewels; You are my sunshine; “All the world’s a stage.”SIMILE a comparison of two unlike things using ‘like’ or ‘as’: She is like a rose; “So are you to my thoughts as food to life.” “Death lies on her like an untimely frost.”PERSONIFICATION is a figure of speech that gives an inanimate object or abstract idea human traits and qualities, such as emotions, desires, sensations, physical gestures and speech: The flowers were suffering from the intense heat; Death smiled; The sun waved to the moon.OXYMORON a figure of speech that combines two contradictory terms: Cruel love; deafening silence; pretty ugly; alone togetherHYPERBOLE deliberate exaggeration of a person, thing, quality, event to emphasise a point external to the object of exaggeration; intentional exaggeration for rhetorical effect: These books weigh a ton; I could sleep for a year; I would rather die than eat that.
    86. 86. Romeo: Why then, O brawling love, O lovinghate,/ O anything of nothing first create! /O heavylightness, serious vanity, / Misshapen chaos ofwell-seeming forms! / Feather of lead, brightsmoke, cold fire, sick health.(Act I, scene 1)Type(s) of figurative language: OXYMORONAnalysis: The oxymorons show contradictions inlove: Romeo “loves” Rosaline but she does not feelthe same.
    87. 87. TragedyShakespeare was a highly educated man and widelyread. He had read Aristotle, who wrote in the 4thCentury BC.Aristotle wrote that the tragic hero in a play had insome way to bring about his own downfall. Hediscussed the concept of hamartia or tragicflaw, which has influences tragedians to this day.For Aristotle, tragedy did not involve accident butwas brought about by some flaw in the character.
    88. 88. TragedyCharacter flaw explained:If a character walked under a ladder and is killed by afalling brick, that may be unfortunate but it is not tragic.It was an accident.Whereas if a character, having been warned not to walkunder a ladder, then insists that nothing will happen tohim and is consequently killed by a falling brick, then thatis tragedy.Basically, a flaw in his character (his unwillingness tolisten to the advice of others) caused his own death.
    89. 89. Romeo and Juliet Tragedy?Are Romeo and Juliet flawed characters.What does Shakespeare suggest is the cause oftheir tragic ends?
    90. 90. Mistakes and MischanceThere are a number of coincidences in theplay, all unfortunate.Working with a partner, list as many of theseunfortunate happenings as you can.
    91. 91. StructurePreviously we have discussed Consider thestructure of the play and Shakespeare’sjuxtaposition of comedy and tragedy, hope anddespair. Why has Shakespeare done this?
    92. 92. • Identify events in these scenes that warrant hope and despair?• These shifts from hope to despair, reprieve, and new hope, serve to emphasise the tragedy when the final hope fails and both the lovers die at the end.
    93. 93. Structure TragedyAristotle, in his definition of tragedy, stated that atthe end of a tragedy there had to be what he calledcatharsis, a cleansing or purifying of emotions inthe audience after the huge build up to the finalcatastrophic climax.The death at the end of the play provide relief fromthe tensions of the drama.Is there retribution and redemption at the end ofRomeo and Juliet?
    94. 94. RedemptionThe last few lines of the play may seemanticlimactic. However, rather than ending withthe deaths of Romeo and Juliet, it ends with thetriumph of love.Although we have had a variety ofrepresentations of love throughout the play, itfinally demonstrates loves ability to heal oldwounds, and to create piece and harmony.
    96. 96. Answers to questions on drama should address relevantly the central concern(s)/theme(s) of the text and be supported by reference to appropriate dramatic techniques such as: conflict, characterisation, key scene(s), dialogue, climax, exposition, dénouement, structure, plot, setting, aspects of staging (such as lighting, music, stage set, stage directions . . .), soliloquy, monologue . . .1. Choose a play in which a main theme is made clear early in the action.Show how the dramatist introduces the theme and discuss howsuccessfully he or she goes on to develop it.2. Choose a play which explores the theme of love in difficultcircumstances.Explain how the dramatist introduces the theme and discuss how in thecourse of the play he/she prepares you for the resolution of the drama.
    97. 97. 3. Choose a play in which an important part is played by one of thefollowing: crime, punishment, retribution.Show how the dramatist explores the issue and discuss its importanceto your understanding of character and/or theme in the play as awhole.4. Choose from a play a scene which you find amusing or moving ordisturbing.Explain how the scene provokes this response and discuss how thisaspect of the scene contributes to your understanding of the play as awhole.
    98. 98. 5. Choose a play in which the dramatist creates tension at thebeginning or at the end.Explain how the tension is created and discuss how itcontributes to an effective introduction or conclusion to theplay.6. Choose from a play a scene in which tension builds to aclimax.Explain how the dramatist creates and develops this tension,and discuss the extent to which the scene has thematic as wellas dramatic significance.
    99. 99. • Choose a play in which a main theme is made clear early in the action.• Show how the dramatist introduces the theme and discuss how successfully he or she goes on to develop it.• Introduction - William Shakespeare’s play ‘Romeo and Juliet’ is a play in which the main themes of love, hate and fate are made clear early on in the action.• Shakespeare introduces the theme of love through the sonnets structure.( Introduces us to setting, characters and their fate and the dramatists aim).• The themes of hate are also presented through the rhyming scheme and the rhythm. (iambic pentameter and the stress on certain words).• Word choice ……• Theme is developed later in the play…..
    100. 100. Themes LoveIn the play love develops and transforms thecharacters of Romeo and Juliet.For Romeo, love causes the, ‘Mis-shapen chaosof well-seeming forms’What is Romeo like as a character at thebeginning of the play?
    101. 101. Romeo as a Petrarchan LoverRomeo is, at the beginning, a rather tiresome character. He is melancholy with love.He speaks in the elaborate language of love, fashionable at the time of the plays production.He regards Rosaline as beyond all women in beauty:‘The all-seeing sun / Ne’er saw her match since the world begun’Romeo is very much in love with the idea of being in love.Why the, O brawling love, O loving hate,O anything, of nothing first create!O heavy lightness, serious vanity,Misshapen chaos of well-seeming forms,Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health,Still-waking sleep, that is not what it is! (1.1.176-81).‘O me, what fray was here? Yet tell me not, for I have heard it all. Here’s much to do with hate, but morewith love.’ p.29These lines from Romeo seem to foreshadow later events in the play as the families feud will result in thedestruction of the two young lovers. The comment seems to suggest that they cannot be separated; tohate is to feel pain ‘brawling love’ and so often people relish in hate ‘loving hate’.
    102. 102. However, Romeo’s language changes when he meets Juliet.ROMEO:Oh, she doth teach the torches to burn bright!It seems she hangs upon the cheek of nightLike a rich jewel in an Ethiope’s ear,Beauty too rich for use, for earth too dear.So shows a snowy dove trooping with crowsAs yonder lady oer her fellows shows.The measure done, I’ll watch her place of stand,And, touching hers, make blessèd my rude hand.Did my heart love till now? Forswear it, sight!For I neer saw true beauty till this night.The balcony scene suggests a change from shallow affection and lust to abinding love.
    103. 103. JulietLove also changes the character of Juliet.At the beginning she is obedient and subdued:I’ll look to like, if looking liking move.But no more deep will I endart mine eyeThan your consent gives strength to make fly.