ce                         rien            ticesFi Exp         rac Wi-                       e       P   est etter5BABfor ...
AbstractThe internet revolution has created tremendous demand for internet experience for the users. Usersare increasingly...
ContentsOverview                                                     03Wi-Fi Experience                                   ...
OverviewThe mobile Internet revolution has resulted in a dramatic disruption to the encumbered wireless industry in decade...
Wi-Fi ExperienceOperators and service providers are going to increasingly rely on Wi-Fi and similar unlicensed-spectrum te...
Challenge of Deploying Wi-FiAs end users become further immersed in the Web, demand for bandwidth is soaring as users want...
Wi-Fi enabled device managementMany web applications and content, such as Youtube videos, are sponsored by third parties s...
Best Practices for Wi-Fi OffloadThe changing dynamics in the telecoms market require operators and network providers to eq...
Operators place strict requirements on making both device and user authentication to ensure integrity and security of then...
2. SecurityWi-Fi access was often controlled by the physical MAC address, associated with SSIDs and static WEP keys. These...
3. InterworkingWhat mix of Wi-Fi network that allows a user to remain on the Wi-Fi network, even when moving? Deploying Wi...
4. Content, Extend Value Added ServiceOnce Wi-Fi is everywhere, one can roam seamlessly and can be mobile using Wi-Fi, to ...
5. Delivering Best ExperienceOperators are careful in flat rate data plans. Instead, operators have reverted to tiered buck...
Better Wi-Fi Experiences with Greenpacket ICMPGreenpacket’s Intouch Connectivity Management Platform (ICMP) is a comprehen...
Scenario: Heterogeneous Access NetworkAndy is walking downtown in Montreal, where both 3GPP (ie 3G/HSPA) and non-3GPP acce...
Scenario: Session Persistence and Inter-System MobilityAfter a while, Andy leaves the café and heads over to parking lot a...
ConclusionWi-Fi is clearly on top of the list for operators and service providers looking to increase cellular capacity. T...
Wi-Fi Your Network to More Bandwith!Simplicity is the key and helping to strengthen the adoption of Wi-Fi offloading as an ...
References1.   3GPP TS 23.234 V9.0.0 (2009-12)2.   3GPP TS 23.402 V8.03.   Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Met...
About Green Packet     Greenpacket is the international arm of the Green Packet Berhad group of companies which is listed ...
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5 Best Practices For A Better Wi-Fi Experience

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The internet revolution has created tremendous demand for internet experience for the users. Users are increasingly bringing their internet on the go. Today, Wi-Fi is embedded in virtually every mobile Internet device and common hotspot services have formed to fill the gap in ensuring effective coverage for today’s service providers worldwide that offer smartphones. In a recent report by Cisco, wired devices will account for 46% of IP traffic, while Wi-Fi and mobile devices will account for 54% of IP traffic by 2015.

Even as cellular networks are evolving from today's 3G technology to LTE that brings promise of capacity leaps (by account of nearly 4 times), the overall data traffic projection is expected to increase by an annual CAGR of 32% from 2010 to 2015; outpacing LTE network deployments. LTE networks will fill up very quickly. Until then, network operators have to cope with the consumption of over the top wireless broadband service.

The following sections of this paper present a deep dive into the impact of Wi-Fi deployment for operators looking into data offloading and the best practices to emulate. Wi-Fi as we know is vendor neutral and cost effective alternative to operators building high bandwidth data networks which do not suffer from licensing constraints. Wi-Fi as a complementary technology can help ease traffic by 20% with substantial impact of freeing up spectrum. Leveraging this, cellular operators have emerged competitively in the video market share (against cable based operations) by increasingly rolling out IPTV services to its broadband service to remain relevant in the digital age and differentiating their service. By delivering multiple service bundles of voice, data, video, contents similar to quad-play can create “stickiness” and improve the overall user experience. Additionally, key aspect of Wi-Fi offloading and adoption in business models are discussed.

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5 Best Practices For A Better Wi-Fi Experience

  1. 1. ce rien ticesFi Exp rac Wi- e P est etter5BABfor www.greenpacket.com WHITEPAPER
  2. 2. AbstractThe internet revolution has created tremendous demand for internet experience for the users. Usersare increasingly bringing their internet on the go. Today, Wi-Fi is embedded in virtually every mobileInternet device and common hotspot services have formed to fill the gap in ensuring effectivecoverage for today’s service providers worldwide that offer smartphones. In a recent report by Cisco,wired devices will account for 46% of IP traffic , while Wi-Fi and mobile devices will account for 54%of IP traffic by 2015. This estimation is not surprising, given the smartphone shipments worldwidehad tripled over the past two years and has surpassed PC shipments.Even as cellular networks are evolving from todays 3G technology to LTE that brings promise ofcapacity leaps (by account of nearly 4 times), the overall data traffic projection is expected toincrease by an annual CAGR of 32% from 2010 to 2015; outpacing LTE network deployments.LTE networks will fill up very quickly. Until then, network operators have to cope with theconsumption of over the top wireless broadband service.The following sections of this paper present a deep dive into the impact of Wi-Fi deployment foroperators looking into data offloading and the best practices to emulate. Wi-Fi as we know is vendorneutral and cost effective alternative to operators building high bandwidth data networks which donot suffer from licensing constraints. Wi-Fi as a complementary technology can help ease traffic by20% with substantial impact of freeing up spectrum. Leveraging this, cellular operators haveemerged competitively in the video market share (against cable based operations) by increasinglyrolling out IPTV services to its broadband service to remain relevant in the digital age anddifferentiating their service. By delivering multiple service bundles of voice, data, video, contentssimilar to quad-play can create “stickiness” and improve the overall user experience.Additionally, key aspect of Wi-Fi offloading and adoption in business models are discussed. Wi-Finetworks are not devoid of shortfalls. However, it can be strategically positioned to address andresolve interworking, security, authentication methods between networks and create additional valuewherever the business model fits. A common denominator to benchmark the user experience isattributed to the performance of the network and the promise of service levels, rather than strictemphasis on the technology that is delivering the experience. Likewise, common to operators arethe operation indices that govern the effectiveness of strategic go to market and network planningwhich contribute to the formulation of business models. It need not be strictly defined by a singletechnology. Hence, marrying Wi-Fi technology together with 3G can bring new growth in injectingvalue to their business.1 Source: Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2010–20152 Source: Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2010–2015WHITEPAPER
  3. 3. ContentsOverview 03Wi-Fi Experience 04 - Evolution of experiences - Challenge of Deploying Wi-FiBest Practices for Wi-Fi Offload 07 1. Authentication 2. Security 3. Interworking 4. Monetizing Content, Extend Value Added Service 5. Delivering Best ExperienceBetter Wi-Fi Experiences with Greenpacket ICMP 12 - Scenario: Heterogeneous Access Network - Scenario: Seamless Connectivity 3G - Wi-Fi - Scenario: Session Persistence and Inter-System Mobility - Scenario: Wi-Fi locatorConclusion 15Wi-Fi Your Network to More Bandwith! 16References 17WHITEPAPER
  4. 4. OverviewThe mobile Internet revolution has resulted in a dramatic disruption to the encumbered wireless industry in decades.Operators and service provider is experiencing a decoupling of revenue per user (ARPU) by the measure of exponentialdata growth. As a result, it is willing operators and service providers to quickly go in search of a sustainable solution tosupport this traffic.By cellular standards Wi-Fi is a simple technology that lacks in many aspects without power control, access networkawareness, limited mobility, unmanaged handover capability and minimal quality of experience (QoE). It is less attractivethan that of 3G, but Wi-Fi’s cost effectiveness and simplicity has led to mass deployment of the technology. Additionally,Wi-Fi is widely available in most devices today and leverages on unlicensed spectrum.Hype surrounding 4G technologies such as LTE and WiMAX can easily sideline how useful Wi-Fi is. However, Wi-Fi isgoing to contribute a major role in the future of wireless data services and it isn’t going away anytime soon asdemonstrated by tier 1 operators such as AT&T taking an offload strategy via Wi-Fi. Another compelling reason Wi-Fi willremain important is attributed to its unique ability to provide consistent wireless indoor coverage. On the other hand,LTE and WiMAX are better performing at giving users coverage which includes seamless handoffs over wide areas.Wi-Fi gives the flexibility to operators to scale network bandwidth wherever the business fits. Today, operators are movingaway from the flat rate “all you can eat” buffet plans. It is instrumental to equip the network to deliver a differentiatedproduct portfolio of advanced applications and personalized content as well as leveraging on partner’s users (roaming)allow operators to adopt new business models. The shift from injecting value in the network to extracting additional valuefrom the network allows operators to grow new revenue streams. 01WHITEPAPER
  5. 5. Wi-Fi ExperienceOperators and service providers are going to increasingly rely on Wi-Fi and similar unlicensed-spectrum technologies tooffload the surge in data traffic. Even though Wi-Fi offloading is a solution that will resolve data congestion, there areseveral aspects that must be examined to ensure a seamless mechanism for mobile providers to transfer data from theirbroadband networks to Wi-Fi.End users should not need to manually authenticate their handsets or be asked to log on to a Wi-Fi network. Instead,user data should be transparently pushed from the carrier to the device, with the carrier integrating and interacting withback-end network without triggering activity by the end user. A user’s sentiment would be best described as: “I dislikewhen my iPad constantly prompts me to join a Wi-Fi network. This is not user-friendly and disruptive”Evolution of experiencesMany if not all smartphones now come with built-in Wi-Fi. Wi-Fi has matured over the years and demonstrated it is asecure technology that even supports Quality of Service (QoS).Wi-Fi is now capable of carrying up to 300Mbps3 (the older version of Wi-Fi started at 11Mbps, which is similar to whatan LTE performance4 is capable today). Initially, Wi-Fi was regarded as a poor cousin to the cellular network in terms ofperformance. It was at best suited to burst data applications such as email and web surfing (delay tolerant applications).By comparison, 3GPP networks at that time could support operator services such as MMS, video calls and internetaccess (restricted to operator services). The advancement of Wi-Fi now allows a multitude of concurrent applications(video streaming, voice, FTP, internet access) to be supported with improved performance similar or better than 3GPPat times at a lower cost per bit.Operators are beginning to acknowledge the powerful performance of these extremely fast, inexpensive Wi-Fi networksand widely available chip sets. With the appropriate suite of wireless network protocols and realistic view of Wi-Fiexpectations, consumers can continue to use their smartphones or feature phones as conventional phones (such asSMS, calls) and not just to access data.3 IEEE 802.11n networks support rated theoretical bandwidth under best radio conditions. Wireless N routers and network adapters must run in a channel bonding mode.4 Verizon 4G LTE advertised DL speeds of 12Mbps (averaging 10Mbps). Actual speeds achieved in network 02 provides lower than theoretical speeds, but significantly faster than older 3G technology. Verizon, launched its LTE service in December 2010, has wired up 38 major U.S. cities, from Los Angeles to New York, as well as 60 airports for 4G LTE access.WHITEPAPER
  6. 6. Challenge of Deploying Wi-FiAs end users become further immersed in the Web, demand for bandwidth is soaring as users want to take the Internetexperience with them, on the move. Expectations of quality of experience (QoE) are demanded for seamless andalways-on access to services. For operators, this equates to continuously scale network bandwidth across multipledimensions while supporting the lowest total cost of ownership to meet the challenge.The Wi-Fi solution lies not in voice-centric mobile devices but challenged by the new wave of data-consuming deviceslike tablets, e-readers, personal navigation devices which lack control over distribution and contributes to the disruptionsto traditional pricing models. Such measures involve several areas that require assessment in:Wi -Fi User Authentication and AccountingRoaming between networks is complicated such that the roamed network has no access to the encryption keys used toauthenticate the user. The emulation of roaming ability through the use of EAP, ideally SIM-based is supported in Wi-Fidevices these days. Other issues pertaining to accounting and is unclear and how much operators should charge eachother for access.Wi-Fi Data SecurityThe credibility of tunneling data through unsecured WLAN is challenging to enforce restrictions to data streams andcontent access when using Wi-Fi hotspot.Wi-Fi QoSTraditionally, Wi-Fi lacked control on quality of service. It was based on a best effort service level which pales incomparison to 3GPP well structured QoS. Increasingly, operators and service providers are seeking methods to makeintelligent decisions about keeping data flows on preferred networks (e.g., such as VoIP, on 3G/LTE even when Wi-Fi isavailable) and segregate those non revenue generating bulk IP traffic which makes its way to the internet.Wi-Fi Congestion ControlCongestion control over Wi-Fi is defined at the MAC level. Wi-Fi networks are designed as such that, it follows a randomaccess mechanism. As a consequence, if the number of users connecting to the same access point increases, the QoSexperience degrades. Once the channel load is past roughly 90%, the throughput starts to drop as a result of increasedre-tries, even though the channel stays at the same utilization rate (roughly 99%). Therein, lies the issue of usersexperiencing full Wi-Fi coverage, but unable to connect to Wi-Fi. 03WHITEPAPER
  7. 7. Wi-Fi enabled device managementMany web applications and content, such as Youtube videos, are sponsored by third parties such as advertisers, andare thus free to end users. Operators must find new and innovative ways of generating additional revenue for carryingthis extra traffic on their networks. Furthermore, application and content providers have restricted access to networkcapabilities that can improve QoE and strengthen relationships with end users. Principles of smart algorithm involved inseamless mobility, device management, policy management, traffic management as such to bring adjustments intobusiness models to drive profitability. Core Network Core Network Transport Transport Network Network Macro Radio Wi-Fi Radio Network Network CONVENTIONAL OFFLOAD User Data SignallingFigure 1: Wi-Fi Offload Data FlowSource: Modified from Real Wireless Ltd. 2010 04WHITEPAPER
  8. 8. Best Practices for Wi-Fi OffloadThe changing dynamics in the telecoms market require operators and network providers to equip their networks tosupport service and application awareness, advanced QoS and traffic optimization to meet the challenge of beingvalue-added service providers. Some of the Wi-Fi practices that operators can emulate include:1. AuthenticationWi-Fi networks are supported by a multitude of authentication methods. For Wi-Fi network to be mobile and facilitateseamless coverage, the user device (UE) must seamlessly move from network to network and authenticate without theuser being aware. 802.1x and EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) standards is used extensively in WLAN as a basisfor negotiating solid authentication. Which EAP authentication is used for what networks? The choice of EAPimplementation is dependent on the operators. There are several EAP-based5 authentication variants ratified in Wi-FiAlliance including EAP-SIM, EAP-AKA, EAP-IKEv2, EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS, EAP-PEAP. Home Authentication IP Server (RADIUS) Client WLAN RADIUS Access Point UDP IP 802.1x RADIUS EAP AuthenticationFigure 2: EAP authentication5 The list is not exhaustive. There are many methods defined in the IETF Internet draft. 05WHITEPAPER
  9. 9. Operators place strict requirements on making both device and user authentication to ensure integrity and security of thenetwork is not compromised, when incorporating Wi-Fi as part of the mobile services strategy. Home and small officeapplications are sufficiently supported with EAP-PSK, while enterprise-level security can benefit fromEAP-TLS/EAP-TTLS. The security of the Transport Layer Protocol (TLS) is strong, with the use PKI (public keyinfrastructure) to secure mutual authentication between the client to server and vice-versa.Systems lacking strong password policies can easily be compromised with dictionary attacks technique. It recovers thepassword key by iteration mechanism with a list of common words by trying each word from a dictionary and encodingit the same way the original plaintext was encoded. EAP-IKEv2 and EAP-TTLS with password-based authentication canbe vulnerable to plaintext attacks. In the EAP-TTLS, the EAP message is encapsulated within an encrypted andauthenticated in Tunneled Transport Layer Security (TTLS) tunnel. The passwords are transmitted unencrypted, thus theattacker uses the plaintext and EAP encrypted version in the authenticated tunnel to further derive password key.Even with server-authenticated tunnel that secures both the authentication method and the user’s identity, tunnelingprotocol can be susceptible to Man in the Middle attacks - a rogue client assumes the identity of the client and server tointercept communication. These threats arise a result of either clients cannot or do not authenticate to the server (mutualauthentication/session key management).Fortunately, these vulnerabilities can be minimized and mitigated with pre-shared key and challenge-response commonmechanism implementation such as EAP-SIM, EAP-AKA. Theoretically, a cipher stream with longer key length can bemanipulated to lower the probability of successfully decrypting the cipher stream. Consequently, it makes the processof disclosing information harder to achieve.The advantage of EAP-SIM/EAP-AKA is strong in WLAN networks, where the flexibility of interworking WLAN allows forseamless authentication using SIM card credentials. Both trusted and un-trusted non-3GPP networks can be securelyauthenticated to the WLAN networks by inheriting the same subscriber provisioning, authentication and serviceauthorization. The primary issue of preventing unauthorized users from using the network is important. Thecombination of passwords, client certificates, shared key encryption can provide mutual authentication for addedsecurity and flexibility of different variants of EAP implementation on the carrier and operator practices wherever theirbusiness needs fit. 06WHITEPAPER
  10. 10. 2. SecurityWi-Fi access was often controlled by the physical MAC address, associated with SSIDs and static WEP keys. Thesemeasures reduced accidental connections and discouraged (but did not reliably prevent) unauthorized use of Wi-Fiembedded device in wireless LANs. Adding to that, data packet that is broadcast over the network is available to everynode in the network. How can operators ensure confidentiality of data packet?802.1x and EAP authentication used in WPA and WPA2 have now replaced older static WEP keys with user basedaccess control to authenticate and authorize user device (UE) to the network. To enhance the mutual authenticationmethods in EAP, advanced encryption such as AES 128 bit encryption, IKEv2, MS-CHAP, MS-CHAPv2 can beintroduced to strengthen the security of data packet that traverses the transport layer.Secure IP communication can be achieved with Internet Protocol Security (IPsec), a protocol suite which providesauthenticating and encrypting each IP packet of a communication session. IPsec also includes protocols for establishingmutual authentication between agents (either a host to host, network to host or network to network) and negotiation ofcryptographic keys to be used during the session. IPsec provides data security at the IP packet level, which is one ofthe most complete, secure, and commercially available, standards-based protocols developed for transporting data. Thesecurity features of IPsec include authentication (which establishes the integrity of data stream, no tampering in transit),integrity (through the use of secret-key based or public-key based algorithms to protect data) and confidentiality (theexchange of data encryption key distribution).Through the use of IKE (Internet Key Exchange protocol), the host must be able to verify the identity of its peer, prior toallowing IPsec traffic to be passed over each router/firewall/host. IKE is used to establish a shared security policy andauthenticated keys for services. Wi-Fi Wholesale Issues pertinent to roaming on the carrier’s network create Wi-Fi opportunities for wholesale models to enable and extend services to their end-users to roam onto combined networks (eg: cable companies and mobile carrier). One such example*, Deutsche Telekom signed a deal with iPass to create a carrier Wi-Fi market that essentially wholesale Wi-Fi access for operators . *Source : http://telecoms.cbronline.com/news 07WHITEPAPER
  11. 11. 3. InterworkingWhat mix of Wi-Fi network that allows a user to remain on the Wi-Fi network, even when moving? Deploying Wi-Finetworks include considerations on how well the networks interwork. Operators are striving to achieve a balancebetween coverage, capacity, QoS and QoE.How to ensure seamless handoff and traffic management? Which standards enable seamless switching from hotspot tohotspot or perhaps even a handoff between a cellular and Wi-Fi network? For most parts, the 3GPP iWLAN standard forinterworking between 3GPP networks and Wireless LAN is helping cellular operators tackle the issue of data offloading.Together with ANDSF, the inter-system mobility between 3GPP networks and non-3GPP networks (ie: WLAN, WiMAX,CDMA) policies and priorities can control the conditions for which a device (UE) connects to which wireless network toensure seamless handoff on the basis of Mobile IP support.However, many operators have not implemented automatic traffic offloads between their networks. Likewise, manyconsumers don’t take the time and effort to move between 3G/4G and Wi-Fi, even when they know Wi-Fi is availableand represents a cheaper alternative to cell connections. Why is that so? The UI of the connection manager whichmanages the UE connectivity can at times be confusing and difficult to manipulate with a multitude of settings for differentaccess technologies. To add to the confusion, users fumble with connectivity without awareness and control over thephysical connectivity.Until a time when operators formally adopt the approach, consumers should be guided to see a change in the way theirhandsets navigate around networks, by directing the smartphones to Wi-Fi wherever practical. As such, intelligentconnection client that interworks with multiple access technologies play a role in managing device (UE) connectivity.All of these processes should be transparent to the user while unifying the authentication, provisioning and billing &charging mechanism.Consequently, that should bring savings in the volume of data bytes consumed and, thus the amount they pay theiroperators each month (users are now careful to monitor the tiered data plans rather than unlimited data plans). By freeingup limited bandwidth, the setup has the potential to benefit both operators and consumers. Less congested6 networksshould help operators reduce churn and optimize operating costs while consumers at the same time could experiencefaster connections and lower service fees. All these could help operators remain on top of their business and keepsubscribers happy through their innovative offerings.Other assessments include maximizing its existing infrastructure to reduce service delivery costs and drive new revenuecreation. The savings on delivery cost is not discussed in this paper. In a previous whitepaper “Operators Can Save $14million Yearly Through Data Offloading”, a TCO Study describes in detail how offloading congested networks throughWi-Fi contribute to reduced service delivery costs.6 Congestion effects exclude transmission backhaul that may impact the quality of carrier’s network. 08WHITEPAPER
  12. 12. 4. Content, Extend Value Added ServiceOnce Wi-Fi is everywhere, one can roam seamlessly and can be mobile using Wi-Fi, to access internet on the go in manymore places. When users cannot find a Wi-Fi network in range, they fall back on the cellular network. More and morecities, shopping malls and communal developments are adding Wi-Fi access to attract usage from consumers. Wi-FiAlliance is already defining the standards and framework to encourage the setup of infrastructure to make seamlessroaming and authentication happen, and having those networks in more places makes — finding networks everywhereand making Wi-Fi more usable. Wi-Fi Offload Wi-Fi offload has been an important part of traffic management for operators such as AT&T and Telefonica. Both operators have city-dwelling iPhone users that have had less than satisfactory 3G experience. In a recent interview with Fierce Wireless CEO of Telekom Austria, said that the company was prepared for the continued growth in mobile data traffic, but suggested that pushing data onto Wi-Fi made sense and CEO of Softbank said in recent interview that mobile networks would not be able to cope without Wi-Fi. In Japan 50% of data traffic happens inside the home during peak hours, which makes it ideal to harness Wi-Fi technology. He did also add that "3G and LTE is the way to provide blanket coverage, but Wi-Fi helps to provide a richer experience. *Source : LTE WorldThe key to Wi-Fi networks lies in the unlicensed spectrum with a larger bandwidth and is partly attributed to the abilityto derive value added services. How can operators monetize content? Operators can exercise control and visibility onwhich traffic streams are maintained on the 3G link and which are switched to Wi-Fi. Typically, operators retain revenuegenerating IP traffic like VoIP on 3G link and offloads non-revenue bulk IP traffic like web surfing onto the Wi-Fi network.The secure and managed data offload approach via iWLAN provides the mechanism of allowing operator service andcontent to WLAN hot spots. The iWLAN settings are configured to contain certain Wi-Fi connection settings thatensure which IP stream is tethered back to the 3G network and which will remain on the Wi-Fi network whenimplementing data offload. This gives operator control over the types of content and when to push 3GPP hostedservices such as video messaging, voice calls and ringtones. Other popular applications such as location basedservices can be offered, as the user moves between locations relevant to shopping, traffic updates as such to bemapped onto different network connections.In instances of operator owned Wi-Fi hotspots , the use of Wi-Fi is encouraged where 3GPP network experiences highutilization or suffers from lack of coverage. Wi-Fi usage will count as part of the data plan minutes (eg: $30 plan for200MB data), as more operators are abolishing the flat rate unlimited data plans. With Wi-Fi tethering charge, usersthat consume large amount of data will be charged for excess data once it reaches the data cap. Subsequent chargescan be billed by volume or time. By deducting data plan minutes, Wi-Fi is an economical means to overcomecongestion on 3GPP network and while maximizing revenue channels for charging overages as a result of increasedWi-Fi usage. 09WHITEPAPER
  13. 13. 5. Delivering Best ExperienceOperators are careful in flat rate data plans. Instead, operators have reverted to tiered buckets of data to relieve thepressures of declining ARPU. Even with operators beginning to adopt Wi-Fi networks, finding one Wi-Fi network on thego, however, can be a challenge. The software client on the device (UE) would need to have some intelligence todetermine which network it connects to, in order to map the device (UE) type and service subscription to thecorresponding bearer. Through connection parameterized on context information and by combining knowledge aboutreal-time network levels, applications and devices (past data usage history), gives greater control on traffic management.As an example, the software client should have the ability to turn on/off Wi-Fi radio and roaming algorithms. Theconfiguration of the SSID, W-APN, location, should be prioritized for handover policies and how network connectionsare switched and connected to the corresponding profile based on the active connection. The software client shouldalso be configured to notify when a network is nearby, and trigger automated login with the support of ANDSF whichprovides policy management to manage the way the UE discovers new non-3GPP Access Networks. It also providesmobility policies in order for the operator to guide the UE to select the proper radio technology in any given location atany given time. 10WHITEPAPER
  14. 14. Better Wi-Fi Experiences with Greenpacket ICMPGreenpacket’s Intouch Connectivity Management Platform (ICMP) is a comprehensive connection management solutionthat encompasses functional modules supporting seamless mobility (Mobile IP, EAP-SIM) and data offloading (iWLAN,ANDSF). It is an easy to use single client architecture, where the client is installed on desktops or handheld7 devices(UEs). It is a unique an end to end solution that is heterogeneous across multiple access networks. Generic to mobileconnectivity management, the ICM can be supported in the mobile platforms like Android (2.1, 2.2, 2.3)The ICM is fundamentally designed to complement the native connection manager to enhance the user experience.Native connection manager can at times be complex and non user friendly. By turning Wi-Fi into a viable extension ofmobile broadband, user experience is improved while operators benefit from the lower cost per bit extension. Wi-Fiexhibits characteristics of intermittent burst of data over shorter range, while 3G provides blanket coverage. Marryingboth technologies in addressing the efficiency of network planning significantly impacts the performance and quality ofthe network8.Figure 3: Intouch Connection Manager GUIThe ICM can intelligently manage access network connections over Wi-Fi-3G-LTE-WiMAX. This gives the flexibility ofwhich network to connect to - depending on the subscriber’s location, and automatically connected to best availablenetwork transparently without user intervention with an elegant EAP-based authentication. The ICM monitors thenetwork condition of the active connection and then performs connection switching when required based on the ruleselected for the active profile. In the event that the connection is dropped, it will automatically connect to the nextnetwork in the profile. 117 Handheld devices refers to smartphones, feature phones and tablets.8 Quality of network performance measures related to transmission backhaul links are excluded in this paper.WHITEPAPER
  15. 15. Scenario: Heterogeneous Access NetworkAndy is walking downtown in Montreal, where both 3GPP (ie 3G/HSPA) and non-3GPP access (WLAN) are available.First, Andy makes a voice call to his friend with his smartphone that is also Wi-Fi enabled. The smartphone by default willpage and scan to establish connectivity to the 3GPP network under adequate 3GPP coverage. After a while, Andyterminates the call. Next, he attempts to access the internet over 3G while waiting for his lunch at the café. However,a stronger Wi-Fi network is detected.Triggered by this, the ICM will perform a cell selection/re-selection of the available access networks. The ANDSF client,then requests for a list of access networks available in the vicinity. Generally, network selection is managed by theconnection manager at the point of cell selection/re-selection. The ICM search and prioritize the best availableconnection based on pre-defined requirements such as signal strength and operator policies. ANDSF help define thepolicies and priorities that can control the conditions for which a device (UE) connects to which wireless network.As policy-based dynamic data offload the ANDSF client pulls geo location and connection state of the device (eg: cell ID,pre-configured policies and time configurable connection policy) to set offloading in motion from 3G to Wi-Fi. Based onthis information, PCRF dynamically modifies the connection policy rule acting as a policy management point.By selectively triggering the connection of device (UE) to a given threshold or the preferred available access networktypes based on inter-system mobility policies, the network load can be balanced or spread out to the availability ofnetwork radio resource at the point where congestion is likely to occur.Scenario: Seamless Connectivity 3G - Wi-FiAs indoor cellular indoor coverage is weaker than Wi-Fi, the ICM will trigger a connection to the Wi-Fi network basedon its configured policies. While Andy is enjoying his lunch at his favorite café, he catches up on financial marketsand emails.The seamless connection to the Wi-Fi is achieved with by invoking the iWLAN client to establish a WLAN connection tothe PDG through EAP-SIM/EAP-AKA authentication, and establishment of IPsec tunnel to PDG/TTG for networkhandover between 3G communication to Wi-Fi ( these are transparent to the Andy, without any user intervention). iWLANsettings relevant to the connection includes IP address, authentication type and W-APN. The seamless authenticationand connectivity is assured with support for EAP-based authentication. With secure IP tunneling between the UE andPDG, it mitigates the risk of attacks from external IP networks over unsecured shared infrastructure.The interworking mechanism of iWLAN allows the carrier to push wall-garden operator services and content to WLANhotspots and ensure common subscriber provisioning, authentication, billing & charging, and service authorization ofGSM/3G services are maintained with ease of integration towards backend systems. 12WHITEPAPER
  16. 16. Scenario: Session Persistence and Inter-System MobilityAfter a while, Andy leaves the café and heads over to parking lot and thus Wi-Fi connectivity becomes weaker. The Wi-Finetwork is disconnected either via manual user disconnect or network handover based on availability. The ICM will triggera ‘Disconnect’ to the PDG to ensure IPsec tunnel tear down or terminated when Wi-Fi network is unavailable and fallbackon 3G link. While walking to his car, Andy stream mobile TV for sports update scores on his smartphone.With mobility settings enabled by the ICM, the ICM will trigger the Mobile IP client to establish a Mobile IP tunnel to theHome Agent. Session persistence is maintained across Wi-Fi and 3G communication networks for the duration of theservice by keeping alive between one IP networks to another while in handoff - without causing applications usageinterruption. It is the Mobile IP (MIP) client that handle session persistence between different networks by supportingeither Make Before Break and Break Before Make scenarios. When the UE moves between locations, the ICM will triggerthe MIP Client to establish a Mobile IP tunnel within the WLAN IPsec Tunnel between the PDG and UE endpoints toenable mobility function.It is the Rule Manager which defines the handover policies on how network connections are switched. By default,the ICM Rule Manager includes connection policies relating to signal strength, user preset priorities or operator definedpriorities and device specific policies.Scenario: Wi-Fi LocatorAndy again, starts a new application on his smartphone upon reaching a suburban neighborhood which he is unfamiliar.This time, he utilizes the Google map and GPS to guide directions to his friend’s place. The connectivity is establishedover the roaming cellular 3G network. The ICM upon detecting a Wi-Fi network switches from 3GPP to Wi-Fi.ICM supports advanced feature of Wi-Fi locator that can be configured multiple connection profile (eg: Office, Home,Cafe, Airport) to support varying settings according to location based-settings, mobility settings and roaming settings toallow users to log onto both operator managed Wi-Fi networks and public Wi-Fi networks.With no tedious, manual configuration of the UE, users can automatically access and be authenticated to Wi-Fi hotspotsusing credentials embedded within each phone over highly secured and encrypted connections. This ensures end to endsecurity for the user and operator. 139 The Mobile IP client registers its location with the Home Agent Server which is located at the home operator core network.WHITEPAPER
  17. 17. ConclusionWi-Fi is clearly on top of the list for operators and service providers looking to increase cellular capacity. The benefits ofimproved user experience and reduced customer churn is rewarding operators by transforming their customer tiers intohigh ARPU potentials. It requires a bit more attention to detail and investment to support a carrier class network thatexperiences very low latency and can handle QoS. These networks must also improve in order to allow seamlessconnectivity and hand-off capability.Wi-Fi Alliance open framework for wireless LAN gives the flexibility to operators to implement the best operationalpractices to fit their business models. Varying protocols and standards like iWLAN, ANDSF, Mobile IP are commonly usedin connectivity, authentication, security, seamless handover, inter-system mobility management and interworking.Wi-Fi has several benefits such as high throughput, ability to deploy many cells in small densely populated areas -complementary to 3GPP based networks, can address critical capacity needs and provide carrier grade infrastructuresupport for:- Data offload in localized wireless hotspots (to reduce congestion)- Market development (cap market position)- Diversified product development (Voice over Wi-Fi)- Decreased churn ( improved user experience)- Staying competitive through roaming partnership which provides free access on roaming partner and essentially turning the city into a cluster of hotspotsSmartphone and tablet users will likely benefit from Wi-Fi offloading as theyll enjoy a much faster rate of service fromhigh-speed Wi-Fi network than the comparable 3G/4G service and traffic offloaded to Wi-Fi doesnt count in the numberof bytes/month in most 3G/4G service plans. Users have the convenience of sending and receiving significantly greaterdata volumes without exceeding limits in their 3G/4G bills. By implementing a common set of standards basedframework, device manufacturers can leverage on interoperable equipment value to developers and operators alike toupgrade to more powerful features. 14WHITEPAPER
  18. 18. Wi-Fi Your Network to More Bandwith!Simplicity is the key and helping to strengthen the adoption of Wi-Fi offloading as an effective model, the fact that mostsmartphones are equipped with automatic log-in capabilities nowadays with Wi-Fi access already configured. Embarkon a journey with Greenpacket to discover how to improve your network through better Wi-Fi management.Free ConsultationIf you would like a free consultation on how you can manage data offloading for an improved Wi-Fi experience, feel freeto contact us at marketing.gp@greenpacket.com (kindly quote the reference code SWP0711 when you contact us). 15WHITEPAPER
  19. 19. References1. 3GPP TS 23.234 V9.0.0 (2009-12)2. 3GPP TS 23.402 V8.03. Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2010–20154. LTE World5. Verizon 4G LTE Network https://www.lte.vzw.com/About4GLTE/VerizonWireless4GLTENetwork/tabid/6003/Default.aspx 16WHITEPAPER
  20. 20. About Green Packet Greenpacket is the international arm of the Green Packet Berhad group of companies which is listed on the Main Board of the Malaysian Bourse. Founded in San Francisco’s Silicon Valley in 2000 and now headquartered in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Greenpacket has a presence in 9 countries and is continuously expanding to be near its customers and in readiness for new markets. We are a leading developer of Next Generation Mobile Broadband and Networking Solutions for Telecommunications Operators across the globe. Our mission is to provide seamless and unified platforms for the delivery of user-centric multimedia communications services regardless of the nature and availability of backbone infrastructures. At Greenpacket, we pride ourselves on being constantly at the forefront of technology. Our leading carrier-grade solutions and award-winning consumer devices help Telecommunications Operators open new avenues, meet new demands, and enrich the lifestyles of their subscribers, while forging new relationships. We see a future of limitless freedom in wireless communications and continuously commit to meeting the needs of our customers with leading edge solutions. With product development centers in USA, Shanghai, and Taiwan, we are on the cutting edge of new developments in 4G (particularly WiMAX and LTE), as well as in software advancement. Our leadership position in the Telco industry is further enhanced by our strategic alliances with leading industry players. Additionally, our award-winning WiMAX modems have successfully completed interoperability tests with major WiMAX players and are being used by the world’s largest WiMAX Operators. We are also the leading carrier solutions provider in APAC catering to both 4G and 3G networks. For more information, visit: www.greenpacket.com.San Francisco · Kuala Lumpur · Singapore · Shanghai · Taiwan · Sydney · Bahrain · Bangkok · Hong Kong Associate MemberCopyright © 2001-2011 Green Packet Berhad. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language, in any formby any means, without the written permission of Green Packet Berhad. Green Packet Berhad reserves the right to modify or discontinue any product or piece of literature at anytime without prior notice.

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