The Daily
Offices
Greenhouse
CaLLiNG
October 6, 2012
What is liturgy?
 Greek: leitourgia
 Two roots
 People (laos)
 Work (ergon)
 Meaning in the ancient world
 Secular u...
Use of the term in the Western
Church
 How we worship together as Church
 Our “common prayer”
 Book of Common Prayer (B...
Spiritual significance
 We share in Christ’s own priestly prayer
 Priesthood of all believers
 A standard of faith
 Ho...
Our “School of Prayer”
 How we learn to pray
 Cf. language acquisition
 Learned socially
 Used individually
Two “routine” components
 Eucharist (previous training session)
 The “daily offices”
Origin of the daily offices
 Jewish practice
 Three daily temple services
 Pattern for individual prayer
 Example: Dan...
Early Church
 Daily prayers at fixed times
 Prayed in common
 Key element = Psalms
 Selected for relevance to time of ...
Early monastics
 Expansion of offices
 Night Vigil
 Psalter prayed sequentially (“In course”)
Expansion of offices
 Inspiration: Seven times a day I praise you
    for your righteous rules. (Psalm 119:164)
 Associa...
Canonical “hours”
1. Matins (Latin = “morning”) – night vigil
2. Lauds (Latin = “praises”) – dawn
3. Prime (Latin = “first...
New elements added
 Antiphons and responsories
 Purpose = Christian understanding of Psalms
 Gospel canticles
 Song of...
Decline in lay participation
 Length
 Practical challenges
 Complexity
 Language barrier
 Unintended result of cleric...
English Reformation
 Move to restore lay participation in the offices
 Reduction in number
 Morning and evening prayer
...
Anglican distinctive
 Offices preserved as integral part of the
Church’s public worship
 Closest parallel = Eastern Chur...
BCP (1979)
 Morning Prayer
 Evening Prayer
 Two additional offices
 Noonday prayer
 Compline (night/bedtime prayer)
Liturgical calendar
 Key structural element of “school of prayer”
 Objectives = completeness and balance
 Two component...
Seasonal calendar
 Original practice
 Each Sunday = celebrate death and resurrection
of Jesus
 Addition of Easter (vari...
Expansion of Easter
 Expand to one week (octave)
 Preceded by Lent
 Goal = 40 days of fasting
 No fasting on Sunday = ...
Expansion of Christmas
 Christmas
 Expand to Epiphany (January 6)
 “12 days of Christmas”
 Preceded by Advent
 4 Sund...
Seasonal calendar today in
Western Church
 Advent
 Start of Liturgical Year in Western Church
 Christmas/Epiphany
 Per...
Seasonal calendar (cont.)
 Lent/Holy Week
 Easter Triduum (the great “three days”)
 Holy Thursday evening-Easter Sunday...
Sanctoral calendar
 Origin in commemoration of local martyrs
 Ancient Roman custom: meal at cemetery
on anniversary of d...
BCP (1979)
 Fixed calendar found on pages 15-30
 Additional material available in Minor
Feasts and Fasts
 Background
 ...
Morning prayer
Rite II
BCP (1979), pp. 75-102
Overall structure
1. Preliminaries (optional)
2. Invitatory and Psalter
3. Lessons and canticles
4. Apostles’ Creed
5. Pra...
1. Preliminaries
Optional
Elements
A. Opening sentences
B. Invitation to confession
C. Confession
D. Absolution
A. Opening sentences (stand)
 One or more verses of scripture
 Purpose
 Place prayer in broader context of the
liturgic...
Example: Advent
B. Invitation to confession
(stand)
 Two forms
C. Confession of sin (kneel)
D. Absolution
 Priest – stand/”you” & “your”
 Other officiant – kneel/ “us” & “ours”
 Wording: priest v. other officiant
2. Invitatory and psalter
Elements
A. Versicle and responses (“preces”)
B. Antiphon & Invitatory
C. Psalm(s)
A. Versicles and responses
(stand)
 Also known as “preces” (Latin = prayers)
 Custom – sign of the cross on lips
B. Antiphon & Invitatory (stand)
 Purpose of invitatory = invitation to worship
 Options
 Psalm 95 “Venite” (Latin: “Co...
Example of antiphons
Use of antiphon
 Beginning/end (thematic “bookends”)
 Beginning + each break + end
C. Psalm(s) (stand or sit)
 Two approaches to selection
 Lectionary (“psalms appointed”)
 Sequential recitation (“in co...
Psalm(s) appointed
 Office lectionary
 BCP (1979), pp. 934-1001
 Facing pages
 Year 1 on left
 Year 2 on right
 Litu...
Psalm(s) appointed (cont.)
 Example:
 Morning prayer = left of asterisk
 Psalms 146 & 147
 Evening prayer = right of a...
Psalms appointed (cont.)
 Parentheses = may be excluded
 Typically “imprecatory” material
 Example:
Psalm(s) appointed (cont.)
 Example of omitted material:
Psalms in course
 30-day cycle (indicated in Psalter)
 BCP, pp. 581-808
 Sequential portions of approximately equal
len...
Methods of recitation
 Direct recitation
 In unison
 Antiphonal recitation
 Verse-by-verse alternation (within congreg...
Conclusion of Psalm(s)
Christian understanding of
Psalms
 Christ
 King
 Bridegroom
 Church
 Bride
 Jerusalem
Praying the Psalms
 Material not relevant to our current situation
 We pray with others
 Imprecatory material
 Focus o...
3. Lessons and canticles
Lessons
 Reader (stand)
 Celebrant should not be reader
 People (sit)
Lectionary
 Readings
 Old Testament
 New Testament (other than Gospel)
 Gospel
 Sundays and feasts
 Use Eucharistic ...
Assignment of readings
 Single daily office
 May use all three readings (or less)
 Both morning and evening prayer
 Op...
Canticles (stand)
 Placement
 After first two readings
 Custom: sign of the cross for “Gospel
canticles”
 Song of Zech...
Canticles - selection
8. The Song of Moses
9. The First Song of Isaiah
10.The Second Song of Isaiah
11.The Third Song of I...
Canticles - selection
16.The Song of Zechariah
17.The Song of Simeon
18.A Song to the Lamb
19.The Song of the Redeemed
20....
Canticles – selection (cont.)
 Suggested assignment = BCP (1979)
pp. 144-145
4. Apostles’ Creed (stand)
5. Prayers (stand or kneel)
Elements
A. Salutation and Lord’s Prayer
B. Suffrages
C. Collect of the Day
D. Other collects
E. Prayer for mission
F. Int...
A. Salutation and Lord’s prayer
B. Suffrages
 Versicles + responses
 Two options
C. Collect of the day
 Sundays and feasts
 “Proper” to the day
 Other times
 Collect of previous Sunday
D. Other collects
 Sunday – proper (resurrection)
 Monday – renewal of life
 Tuesday – peace
 Wednesday – grace
 Thur...
E. Prayer for mission
 Three options
F. Intercessions/thanksgivings
 From those present
G. Prayer(s) of thanksgiving
 One or both
 General Thanksgiving
 Prayer of St. Chrysostom
6. Conclusion
Elements
A. Versicle and response
• Officiant: Let us bless the Lord
• People: Thanks be to God
• Custom: sign of the cros...
Evening prayer
Rite II
BCP (1979), pp. 115-126
Overall structure
o Same as Morning Prayer
1. Preliminaries (optional)
2. Invitatory and Psalter
3. Lessons and canticles
...
1. Preliminaries
Optional
Elements
A. Opening sentences (stand)
• Not seasonal
A. Invitation to confession (stand)
B. Confession (kneel)
C. Absoluti...
2. Invitatory and psalter
Elements
A. Versicle and responses (“preces”)
B. Invitatory
• No antiphon
A. Psalm(s)
A. Versicles and responses
(stand)
 Custom: sign of the cross at versicle
B. Invitatory (stand)
C. Psalm(s) (stand or sit)
 Same as Morning Prayer
3. Lessons and canticles
Lessons
(reader stands/people sit)
 Same as Morning Prayer
Canticles (stand)
 Selection
 The Song of Mary
 The Song of Simeon
4. Apostles’ Creed (stand)
Same as Morning Prayer
5. Prayers (stand or kneel)
Elements same as Morning
Prayer
A. Salutation and Lord’s Prayer
B. Suffrages
C. Collect of the Day
D. Other collects
E. Pr...
A. Salutation and Lord’s
prayer
 Same as Morning Prayer
Suffrages
 Versicles + responses
 Two options
C. Collect of the day
 Same as Morning Prayer
D. Other collects
 Sunday – proper (resurrection)
 Monday – peace
 Tuesday – aid against perils
 Wednesday – protectio...
E. Prayer for mission
 Three options
F. Intercessions/thanksgivings
 Same as Morning Prayer
G. Prayer(s) of thanksgiving
 Same as Morning Prayer
6. Conclusion
Same as morning prayer
Noonday
BCP (1979), pages 103-107
Basic structure
 Opening versicle and response
 Custom: sign of the cross at versicle
Basic structure (cont.)
 Psalm
 3 options
 Lesson
 3 options
 Lord have mercy
 Lord’s Prayer
Basic structure (cont.)
 Versicle and response
 Collect
 4 options
 Intercessions
Basic structure (cont.)
 Closing versicle and response
 Custom: sign of the cross at versicle
Compline
BCP (1979), pp. 127-135
Basic structure
 Opening sentence
 Versicle and response
 Custom: sign of the cross at versicle
 Confession and absolu...
Basic structure (cont.)
 Versicle and response
 Psalm (4 choices)
 Lesson (4 choices)
Basic structure (cont.)
 Versicles and responses and Lord have
mercy
 Lord’s Prayer
Basic structure (cont.)
 Versicle and response
 Collect
 4 options
 Other collects
 2 options
Basic structure (cont.)
 Intercessions and thanksgivings
 Song of Simeon with proper antiphon
 Used as “bookends”
Basic structure (cont.)
 Closing versicle and response
 Closing sentence
 Custom: sign of the cross
Liturgy of the Daily Office - Fr. Stephen Gauthier
Liturgy of the Daily Office - Fr. Stephen Gauthier
Liturgy of the Daily Office - Fr. Stephen Gauthier
Liturgy of the Daily Office - Fr. Stephen Gauthier
Liturgy of the Daily Office - Fr. Stephen Gauthier
Liturgy of the Daily Office - Fr. Stephen Gauthier
Liturgy of the Daily Office - Fr. Stephen Gauthier
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Liturgy of the Daily Office - Fr. Stephen Gauthier

  1. 1. The Daily Offices Greenhouse CaLLiNG October 6, 2012
  2. 2. What is liturgy?  Greek: leitourgia  Two roots  People (laos)  Work (ergon)  Meaning in the ancient world  Secular use  A work undertaken for the common good  Religious use  Word used in Greek Bible for temple service (Luke 1:23)
  3. 3. Use of the term in the Western Church  How we worship together as Church  Our “common prayer”  Book of Common Prayer (BCP)
  4. 4. Spiritual significance  We share in Christ’s own priestly prayer  Priesthood of all believers  A standard of faith  How the Church has understood Scripture  “How we pray is how we believe” (Latin: lex orandi, lex credendi)  Especially characteristic of the Anglican tradition
  5. 5. Our “School of Prayer”  How we learn to pray  Cf. language acquisition  Learned socially  Used individually
  6. 6. Two “routine” components  Eucharist (previous training session)  The “daily offices”
  7. 7. Origin of the daily offices  Jewish practice  Three daily temple services  Pattern for individual prayer  Example: Daniel 6  Pray without ceasing (1 Thessalonians 5:17)  Our “sacred duty” (Latin: divinum officium)  English: “divine office”
  8. 8. Early Church  Daily prayers at fixed times  Prayed in common  Key element = Psalms  Selected for relevance to time of day (“cathedral office”)  Morning = praise and petition  Evening = thanksgiving
  9. 9. Early monastics  Expansion of offices  Night Vigil  Psalter prayed sequentially (“In course”)
  10. 10. Expansion of offices  Inspiration: Seven times a day I praise you     for your righteous rules. (Psalm 119:164)  Associated with specific times of day (Latin: hora = English: “hour”)  “Liturgy of the Hours”  Ultimately 8 “canonical hours”
  11. 11. Canonical “hours” 1. Matins (Latin = “morning”) – night vigil 2. Lauds (Latin = “praises”) – dawn 3. Prime (Latin = “first hour”) – early morning 4. Tierce (Latin = “third hour”) – mid-morning 5. Sext (Latin = “sixth hour”) – noon 6. None (Latin = “ninth hour”) – midafternoon 7. Vespers (Latin = “evening”) – early evening 8. Compline (Latin = “final”) - bedtime
  12. 12. New elements added  Antiphons and responsories  Purpose = Christian understanding of Psalms  Gospel canticles  Song of Zechariah (Benedictus) – morning prayer  Song of Mary (Magnificat) – evening prayer  Song of Simeon (Nunc dimittis) - compline  Scripture readings  Patristic readings  Hymns
  13. 13. Decline in lay participation  Length  Practical challenges  Complexity  Language barrier  Unintended result of clerical obligation to pray offices  Private recitation  “Bundling” of offices/loss of time element
  14. 14. English Reformation  Move to restore lay participation in the offices  Reduction in number  Morning and evening prayer  Shortened and simplified  Purely scriptural elements
  15. 15. Anglican distinctive  Offices preserved as integral part of the Church’s public worship  Closest parallel = Eastern Churches
  16. 16. BCP (1979)  Morning Prayer  Evening Prayer  Two additional offices  Noonday prayer  Compline (night/bedtime prayer)
  17. 17. Liturgical calendar  Key structural element of “school of prayer”  Objectives = completeness and balance  Two components  Seasonal calendar  Fixed dates (e.g., Christmas/Epiphany)  Moveable dates (e.g., Easter/Ascension/Pentecost)  Sanctoral (i.e., “saints”) calendar
  18. 18. Seasonal calendar  Original practice  Each Sunday = celebrate death and resurrection of Jesus  Addition of Easter (variable date)  Special annual celebration of death and resurrection of Jesus rooted in Passover  Addition of Christmas/Epiphany (fixed dates)  Christmas – Western Church  Epiphany – Eastern Church
  19. 19. Expansion of Easter  Expand to one week (octave)  Preceded by Lent  Goal = 40 days of fasting  No fasting on Sunday = 6 weeks x 6 days = 36  Need for 4 more days => “Ash Wednesday”  Followed by Pentecost (Greek = “50”)  7 days x 7 weeks (“a week of weeks”) + 1 = 50  Holy Spirit = “fruit” of the “grain that dies”  Giving of the Law at Sinai = giving of Holy Spirit
  20. 20. Expansion of Christmas  Christmas  Expand to Epiphany (January 6)  “12 days of Christmas”  Preceded by Advent  4 Sundays preceding Christmas Day
  21. 21. Seasonal calendar today in Western Church  Advent  Start of Liturgical Year in Western Church  Christmas/Epiphany  Period from Epiphany to Lent  Anglicans = Epiphany season  Roman Catholics = Ordinary Time (Part I)  “Ordinary” = no distinctive elements  Latin: propria = English: proper  Cf. English “properties”
  22. 22. Seasonal calendar (cont.)  Lent/Holy Week  Easter Triduum (the great “three days”)  Holy Thursday evening-Easter Sunday  Easter Season  Pentecost  Period until Advent  Anglicans = Season of Pentecost  Roman Catholics = Ordinary Time (Part II)
  23. 23. Sanctoral calendar  Origin in commemoration of local martyrs  Ancient Roman custom: meal at cemetery on anniversary of death  Eucharist at tomb of martyr  Expanded beyond martyrs  First example – Martin of Tours  Expanded beyond local church  Saints of other communities  Date used (4 choices)  Death/burial/transfer of body/dedication
  24. 24. BCP (1979)  Fixed calendar found on pages 15-30  Additional material available in Minor Feasts and Fasts  Background  Collect  Daily collects for special seasons  Advent  Lent
  25. 25. Morning prayer Rite II BCP (1979), pp. 75-102
  26. 26. Overall structure 1. Preliminaries (optional) 2. Invitatory and Psalter 3. Lessons and canticles 4. Apostles’ Creed 5. Prayers 6. Conclusion
  27. 27. 1. Preliminaries Optional
  28. 28. Elements A. Opening sentences B. Invitation to confession C. Confession D. Absolution
  29. 29. A. Opening sentences (stand)  One or more verses of scripture  Purpose  Place prayer in broader context of the liturgical calendar  Selection  Based on season or feast
  30. 30. Example: Advent
  31. 31. B. Invitation to confession (stand)  Two forms
  32. 32. C. Confession of sin (kneel)
  33. 33. D. Absolution  Priest – stand/”you” & “your”  Other officiant – kneel/ “us” & “ours”  Wording: priest v. other officiant
  34. 34. 2. Invitatory and psalter
  35. 35. Elements A. Versicle and responses (“preces”) B. Antiphon & Invitatory C. Psalm(s)
  36. 36. A. Versicles and responses (stand)  Also known as “preces” (Latin = prayers)  Custom – sign of the cross on lips
  37. 37. B. Antiphon & Invitatory (stand)  Purpose of invitatory = invitation to worship  Options  Psalm 95 “Venite” (Latin: “Come”)  Short version (1-7)/long version (penitential use)  Psalm 100 “Jubilate” (Latin: “Be joyful”)  “Christ our Passover” (Romans and 1 Corinthians)  Easter season  Purpose of antiphon = place in broader context of liturgical calendar
  38. 38. Example of antiphons
  39. 39. Use of antiphon  Beginning/end (thematic “bookends”)  Beginning + each break + end
  40. 40. C. Psalm(s) (stand or sit)  Two approaches to selection  Lectionary (“psalms appointed”)  Sequential recitation (“in course”)
  41. 41. Psalm(s) appointed  Office lectionary  BCP (1979), pp. 934-1001  Facing pages  Year 1 on left  Year 2 on right  Liturgical year begins 1 Advent  Is the year starting January 1 odd or even?  Odd = Year 1  Even = Year 2
  42. 42. Psalm(s) appointed (cont.)  Example:  Morning prayer = left of asterisk  Psalms 146 & 147  Evening prayer = right of asterisk  Psalms 111, 112, 113
  43. 43. Psalms appointed (cont.)  Parentheses = may be excluded  Typically “imprecatory” material  Example:
  44. 44. Psalm(s) appointed (cont.)  Example of omitted material:
  45. 45. Psalms in course  30-day cycle (indicated in Psalter)  BCP, pp. 581-808  Sequential portions of approximately equal length for each morning and evening
  46. 46. Methods of recitation  Direct recitation  In unison  Antiphonal recitation  Verse-by-verse alternation (within congregation)  Responsive recitation  Verse-by-verse alternation (minister/congregation)  Responsorial recitation  Congregation responds with antiphon
  47. 47. Conclusion of Psalm(s)
  48. 48. Christian understanding of Psalms  Christ  King  Bridegroom  Church  Bride  Jerusalem
  49. 49. Praying the Psalms  Material not relevant to our current situation  We pray with others  Imprecatory material  Focus on our own sinful nature
  50. 50. 3. Lessons and canticles
  51. 51. Lessons  Reader (stand)  Celebrant should not be reader  People (sit)
  52. 52. Lectionary  Readings  Old Testament  New Testament (other than Gospel)  Gospel  Sundays and feasts  Use Eucharistic lectionary if  Principal service  Joined to Eucharist
  53. 53. Assignment of readings  Single daily office  May use all three readings (or less)  Both morning and evening prayer  Option A: [2+1] or [1+2]  Option B: [2+2]  4th reading = Old Testament of alternate year  Gospel  Morning Year 1  Evening Year 2
  54. 54. Canticles (stand)  Placement  After first two readings  Custom: sign of the cross for “Gospel canticles”  Song of Zechariah (Benedictus)  Song of Mary (Magnificat)  Song of Simeon (Nunc Dimittis)
  55. 55. Canticles - selection 8. The Song of Moses 9. The First Song of Isaiah 10.The Second Song of Isaiah 11.The Third Song of Isaiah 12.A Song of Creation 13.A Song of Praise 14.A Song of Penitence 15.The Song of Mary Nos. 1-8 = Versions in traditional English (“thee”/“thou”) from Rite I
  56. 56. Canticles - selection 16.The Song of Zechariah 17.The Song of Simeon 18.A Song to the Lamb 19.The Song of the Redeemed 20.Glory to God 21.You are God
  57. 57. Canticles – selection (cont.)  Suggested assignment = BCP (1979) pp. 144-145
  58. 58. 4. Apostles’ Creed (stand)
  59. 59. 5. Prayers (stand or kneel)
  60. 60. Elements A. Salutation and Lord’s Prayer B. Suffrages C. Collect of the Day D. Other collects E. Prayer for mission F. Intercessions/thanksgivings G. Prayer(s) of thanksgiving
  61. 61. A. Salutation and Lord’s prayer
  62. 62. B. Suffrages  Versicles + responses  Two options
  63. 63. C. Collect of the day  Sundays and feasts  “Proper” to the day  Other times  Collect of previous Sunday
  64. 64. D. Other collects  Sunday – proper (resurrection)  Monday – renewal of life  Tuesday – peace  Wednesday – grace  Thursday – guidance  Friday – proper (crucifixion)  Saturday – proper (sabbath rest)
  65. 65. E. Prayer for mission  Three options
  66. 66. F. Intercessions/thanksgivings  From those present
  67. 67. G. Prayer(s) of thanksgiving  One or both  General Thanksgiving  Prayer of St. Chrysostom
  68. 68. 6. Conclusion
  69. 69. Elements A. Versicle and response • Officiant: Let us bless the Lord • People: Thanks be to God • Custom: sign of the cross at versicle A. Closing sentences • Three options • Unrelated to seasons
  70. 70. Evening prayer Rite II BCP (1979), pp. 115-126
  71. 71. Overall structure o Same as Morning Prayer 1. Preliminaries (optional) 2. Invitatory and Psalter 3. Lessons and canticles 4. Apostles’ Creed 5. Prayers 6. Conclusion
  72. 72. 1. Preliminaries Optional
  73. 73. Elements A. Opening sentences (stand) • Not seasonal A. Invitation to confession (stand) B. Confession (kneel) C. Absolution (priest stand/people kneel)
  74. 74. 2. Invitatory and psalter
  75. 75. Elements A. Versicle and responses (“preces”) B. Invitatory • No antiphon A. Psalm(s)
  76. 76. A. Versicles and responses (stand)  Custom: sign of the cross at versicle
  77. 77. B. Invitatory (stand)
  78. 78. C. Psalm(s) (stand or sit)  Same as Morning Prayer
  79. 79. 3. Lessons and canticles
  80. 80. Lessons (reader stands/people sit)  Same as Morning Prayer
  81. 81. Canticles (stand)  Selection  The Song of Mary  The Song of Simeon
  82. 82. 4. Apostles’ Creed (stand) Same as Morning Prayer
  83. 83. 5. Prayers (stand or kneel)
  84. 84. Elements same as Morning Prayer A. Salutation and Lord’s Prayer B. Suffrages C. Collect of the Day D. Other collects E. Prayer for mission F. Intercessions/thanksgivings G. Prayer(s) of thanksgiving
  85. 85. A. Salutation and Lord’s prayer  Same as Morning Prayer
  86. 86. Suffrages  Versicles + responses  Two options
  87. 87. C. Collect of the day  Same as Morning Prayer
  88. 88. D. Other collects  Sunday – proper (resurrection)  Monday – peace  Tuesday – aid against perils  Wednesday – protection  Thursday – presence of Christ  Friday – proper (crucifixion)  Saturday – proper (sabbath rest)
  89. 89. E. Prayer for mission  Three options
  90. 90. F. Intercessions/thanksgivings  Same as Morning Prayer
  91. 91. G. Prayer(s) of thanksgiving  Same as Morning Prayer
  92. 92. 6. Conclusion Same as morning prayer
  93. 93. Noonday BCP (1979), pages 103-107
  94. 94. Basic structure  Opening versicle and response  Custom: sign of the cross at versicle
  95. 95. Basic structure (cont.)  Psalm  3 options  Lesson  3 options  Lord have mercy  Lord’s Prayer
  96. 96. Basic structure (cont.)  Versicle and response  Collect  4 options  Intercessions
  97. 97. Basic structure (cont.)  Closing versicle and response  Custom: sign of the cross at versicle
  98. 98. Compline BCP (1979), pp. 127-135
  99. 99. Basic structure  Opening sentence  Versicle and response  Custom: sign of the cross at versicle  Confession and absolution (optional)
  100. 100. Basic structure (cont.)  Versicle and response  Psalm (4 choices)  Lesson (4 choices)
  101. 101. Basic structure (cont.)  Versicles and responses and Lord have mercy  Lord’s Prayer
  102. 102. Basic structure (cont.)  Versicle and response  Collect  4 options  Other collects  2 options
  103. 103. Basic structure (cont.)  Intercessions and thanksgivings  Song of Simeon with proper antiphon  Used as “bookends”
  104. 104. Basic structure (cont.)  Closing versicle and response  Closing sentence  Custom: sign of the cross

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