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Health and
Consumers
Sunscreens with titanium dioxide
as nanoparticles
Health risks?
The increasing use
of nanomaterials
in a wide range of
consumer prod-
ucts has prompt-
ed a re-evalua-
tion of the safety
of a number of
substances,
including tita-
nium dioxide
(TiO2
). Tita-
nium dioxide, in
the form of nanoparticles used
to render creams and lotions transparent, is
currently approved as a UV-filter in sunscreens.
Are sunscreens with titanium dioxide nano-
particles safe? Do these nanoparticles behave
differently than other particles of titanium di-
oxide? How are the risks of nanoparticles eval-
uated? This fact sheet tells you all about it.
 WHAT ARE ‘NANOMATERIALS’? WHAT ARE
TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES?
TitaniumdioxideisusedasaUVfilterinsunscreen
products to protect the skin from harmful
UV rays when exposed to sunlight. Particles
in nano form (also named ‘nanomaterials’,
‘nanoparticles’ or ‘micronized materials’) refer
to very small sized materials and components
that have a particle size range of 1 to 100
nanometre (one nanometre is one millionth of
a millimetre, e.g. human hair is about 80 000
nanometres wide). Very small particles may,
however, also be harmful (see further).
 IS THE USE OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE
NANOPARTICLES IN SUNSCREENS SAFE?
On the basis of the available scientific evidence,
the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety
(SCCS) confirmed that the evaluated titanium
dioxide nanoparticles, used at a concentration
up to 25% as a UV filter in sunscreens, can be
considered safe for humans after application
on a healthy, intact or sunburnt skin. Labelling
of cosmetic products may not show this
concentration on the package, but manufacturers
have to respect this limit according to European
legislation (annex III of the EU regulation on
cosmetic products; regulation EC 1223/2009).
Inspectors from public authorities can perform a
check at any time.
The safety assessment is based on the current
scientific knowledge, which shows that neither
titanium dioxide in nano form nor in non-nano
form penetrates through the skin. This conclusion
will need to be revised if new scientific evidence
would arise, showing that nanoparticles behave
differently.
 SAFE, BUT . . .
Breathing in nanoparticles can lead to lung
toxicity and inflammation. Some tests suggest
that this could also lead to cancer. In view of
this, the SCCS advises not using titanium dioxide
nanoparticles in applications that would lead
to any significant inhalation exposure such as
powders or sprayable products.
There is also a very low risk for skin or eye
irritation (painful reaction such as eczema with
dry itchy skin) and skin sensitisation (response
of the immune system resulting in an allergic
reaction) from exposure to these nanomaterials.
No relevant information on reproductive toxicity
is yet available, but some scientific evidence
suggests that titanium dioxide nanomaterials,
if they penetrate the body, may cause damage
to genetic material of cells (e.g. damage to cells
in some organs may cause cancer and damage
to spermatozoa cells may lead to infertility).
However, such effects are unlikely to occur with
dermal application.
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles can also act, in
certain cases, as a photocatalyst. This means
that they can react with UV light (e.g. sun) to
accelerate a photoreaction causing oxidation
of some biological molecules and generating
free radicals. The latter could enhance the
toxic effects mentioned above. Not all titanium
dioxide particles used in cosmetic products have
this property. When appropriately coated, the
nanoparticlesdonotremainphotocatalysts
but still retain their function as a UV filter.
Nevertheless, sunscreen manufacturers
are recommended to avoid the use of
titanium dioxide nanoparticles that have
a substantial photocatalytic activity, or to
treat the surface of such nanoparticles
properly with a stable and safe coating
material.
 NEW CHALLENGES IN RISK
ASSESSMENT OF NANOMATERIALS
This opinion refers to the titanium dioxide
materials revised by the SCCS and to
materials with similar characteristics
of size, purity, coating and solubility. As
the methodologies for evaluating the
properties of nanomaterials in general are
still in development, additional data may
be required for a full assessment of the
health impact of titanium dioxide in nano
form. The development of new assessment
methods is an ongoing process.
The SCCS published detailed guidance
documents on the evaluation of risks of
nanomaterials in cosmetics (SCCS/1484/12
and SCCS/1524/13).
For completeness, it should be noted
that the impact of titanium dioxide
nanoparticles released in the environment
was not considered in this scientific opinion.
This fact sheet is based on the
opinion of the independent Scientific
Committee on Consumer Safety
(SCCS): ‘Opinion on titanium dioxide
(nano form) COLIPA n° S75’.
This opinion is available at:
http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_
committees/consumer_safety/
opinions/index_en.htm

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Sunscreens with titanium dioxide as nanoparticles. Health risks?

  • 1. Health and Consumers Sunscreens with titanium dioxide as nanoparticles Health risks? The increasing use of nanomaterials in a wide range of consumer prod- ucts has prompt- ed a re-evalua- tion of the safety of a number of substances, including tita- nium dioxide (TiO2 ). Tita- nium dioxide, in the form of nanoparticles used to render creams and lotions transparent, is currently approved as a UV-filter in sunscreens. Are sunscreens with titanium dioxide nano- particles safe? Do these nanoparticles behave differently than other particles of titanium di- oxide? How are the risks of nanoparticles eval- uated? This fact sheet tells you all about it.  WHAT ARE ‘NANOMATERIALS’? WHAT ARE TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES? TitaniumdioxideisusedasaUVfilterinsunscreen products to protect the skin from harmful UV rays when exposed to sunlight. Particles in nano form (also named ‘nanomaterials’, ‘nanoparticles’ or ‘micronized materials’) refer to very small sized materials and components that have a particle size range of 1 to 100 nanometre (one nanometre is one millionth of a millimetre, e.g. human hair is about 80 000 nanometres wide). Very small particles may, however, also be harmful (see further).  IS THE USE OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES IN SUNSCREENS SAFE? On the basis of the available scientific evidence, the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) confirmed that the evaluated titanium dioxide nanoparticles, used at a concentration up to 25% as a UV filter in sunscreens, can be considered safe for humans after application on a healthy, intact or sunburnt skin. Labelling of cosmetic products may not show this concentration on the package, but manufacturers have to respect this limit according to European legislation (annex III of the EU regulation on cosmetic products; regulation EC 1223/2009). Inspectors from public authorities can perform a check at any time. The safety assessment is based on the current scientific knowledge, which shows that neither titanium dioxide in nano form nor in non-nano form penetrates through the skin. This conclusion will need to be revised if new scientific evidence would arise, showing that nanoparticles behave differently.  SAFE, BUT . . . Breathing in nanoparticles can lead to lung toxicity and inflammation. Some tests suggest that this could also lead to cancer. In view of this, the SCCS advises not using titanium dioxide nanoparticles in applications that would lead to any significant inhalation exposure such as powders or sprayable products. There is also a very low risk for skin or eye irritation (painful reaction such as eczema with dry itchy skin) and skin sensitisation (response of the immune system resulting in an allergic reaction) from exposure to these nanomaterials. No relevant information on reproductive toxicity is yet available, but some scientific evidence suggests that titanium dioxide nanomaterials, if they penetrate the body, may cause damage to genetic material of cells (e.g. damage to cells in some organs may cause cancer and damage to spermatozoa cells may lead to infertility). However, such effects are unlikely to occur with dermal application. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles can also act, in certain cases, as a photocatalyst. This means that they can react with UV light (e.g. sun) to accelerate a photoreaction causing oxidation of some biological molecules and generating free radicals. The latter could enhance the toxic effects mentioned above. Not all titanium dioxide particles used in cosmetic products have this property. When appropriately coated, the nanoparticlesdonotremainphotocatalysts but still retain their function as a UV filter. Nevertheless, sunscreen manufacturers are recommended to avoid the use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles that have a substantial photocatalytic activity, or to treat the surface of such nanoparticles properly with a stable and safe coating material.  NEW CHALLENGES IN RISK ASSESSMENT OF NANOMATERIALS This opinion refers to the titanium dioxide materials revised by the SCCS and to materials with similar characteristics of size, purity, coating and solubility. As the methodologies for evaluating the properties of nanomaterials in general are still in development, additional data may be required for a full assessment of the health impact of titanium dioxide in nano form. The development of new assessment methods is an ongoing process. The SCCS published detailed guidance documents on the evaluation of risks of nanomaterials in cosmetics (SCCS/1484/12 and SCCS/1524/13). For completeness, it should be noted that the impact of titanium dioxide nanoparticles released in the environment was not considered in this scientific opinion. This fact sheet is based on the opinion of the independent Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS): ‘Opinion on titanium dioxide (nano form) COLIPA n° S75’. This opinion is available at: http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_ committees/consumer_safety/ opinions/index_en.htm