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A la découverte de Svalbard - Jamais sans mon fusil! 4/8

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Sur tout le territoire de Svalbard, il est fortement déconseillé de se promener sans arme à feu. Les habitants sont tous équipés d’un fusil. Et toute nouvelle personne s’installant sur l’île doit passer par un stage de sécurité obligatoire. Pourtant, zéro crime ici,…

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A la découverte de Svalbard - Jamais sans mon fusil! 4/8

  1. 1. A la découverte de… Svalbard Jamais sans mon fusil !
  2. 2. Dans les environs de Longyearbyen etsur tout le territoire de Svalbard, il estfortement déconseillé de se promenersans arme à feu. Dès que vous vouséloignez de quelques centaines demètres du village, vous devez êtreéquipé dun fusil (et accessoirementsavoir vous en servir...). Pourtant, zérocrime ici, on laisse les clés sur lecontact dans sa voiture, les portes desmaisons sont ouvertes, et lespatrouilles de police passent le plusclair de leur temps à rapatrier touristesou promeneurs perdus dans lamontagne. Loin dêtre des fous furieuxde la gâchette, les habitants courentdonc un seul danger : rencontrer unours polaire, dont le nombre sélèveraità 3000 sur la totalité de larchipel.Animal maritime, lours polaire estsurtout présent près des côtes etpendant lhiver, sur la banquise. Mais ilest possible de tomber nez à nez avecun ours partout, en haut dunemontagne ou dun glacier, surtout à lasortie de lhiver, quand il est en quêtede nourriture.
  3. 3. Au stand de tir de la ville, sur les hauteurs,les balles claquent. Des hommes et desfemmes sentraînent pour la saison de chassequi va ouvrir bientôt . « Ici, presque tout lemonde a un fusil, cest normal, rappelle unpolicier, en plein entraînement. Nous devonstoujours en avoir un avec nous pour nousprotéger contre les ours polaires, mais aussiparce que beaucoup de gens chassent lerenne. Moi je fais les deux. Cet automne jevais aller chasser, et je dois avoir un fusilavec moi à chaque fois que lon sort de laville... » Rennes, phoques, oiseaux, la chasseest contrôlée mais fait partie de la vie deshabitants, estime encore ce policier en civil.« Nous chassons pour manger, si vous navezjamais goûté la viande de rennes duSvalbard, vous devriez, cest délicieux ! »
  4. 4. Pour toute personne qui sinstalle sur lîle, un stage de sécuritéest donc obligatoire. Martin Indreiten est le chef de la logistique àlUnis, en charge de la formation des étudiants, à leur arrivée.« Tout le monde ici doit avoir un cours de survie de base, et celacomprend une initiation au tir et aux règles de sécurité. Onapprend aussi à manier le fusil de la manière la plus sécuriséepossible. Chaque année, 1000 personnes sont formées dans laville. » Dans la réserve de matériel de cette université un peuspéciale, on peut trouver des combinaisons pour résister à leaugelée, des caisses de survie, des skis ou du matériel de campingextrême. Surtout, un système de prêt gratuit de fusils a été misen place, pour permettre aux étudiants de partir en expédition ouse promener quand ils le souhaitent, en toute sécurité. Partoutdans cette ville paisible, il y a des casiers pour ranger son arme,dans les dortoirs des étudiants, à lentrée du supermarché, à laposte ou dans les établissements municipaux.« Le plus important, cest de savoir comment réagir si vousrencontrez un ours polaire, explique Martin. Le fusil est plutôt unoutil dauto-défense, votre dernière chance. Avant ça, vous devezessayer de quitter la zone, tenter deffrayer lours et de voussignaler. Le principal défi est de ne pas être en situation deblesser ou tuer un ours polaire. » Car à Svalbard plus quailleurs,les ours polaires sont une espèce protégée, les tuer est un crimepuni par la loi. A chaque décès dours provoqué par lhomme, uneenquête est dailleurs lancée pour déterminer sil sagissait bel etbien de légitime défense.
  5. 5. Reportage original réalisé par Mathilde Goanec pour www.greenetvert.fr

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