Cell structure and function biology


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Cell structure and function biology

  1. 1. Muskaan company presents ing anil shokeen – writter ing archana shokeen-co-operator ing ansh shokeen –fighting with me ing muskaan shokeen –main director and everything
  2. 2. What is a cell?
  3. 3. Unicellular organisms
  4. 4. Functions of unicellular organism
  5. 5. Examples of unicellular organisms
  6. 6. Multicellular organisms
  7. 7. Functions of multicellular cell
  8. 8. Variation in shape
  9. 9. Nerve cell
  10. 10. Muscle cell
  11. 11. Skin cells
  12. 12. Microscope
  13. 13. Organelles
  14. 14. Parts of cells are :
  15. 15. Cell membrane
  16. 16. Cell membrane or plasma membrane
  17. 17. Cytoplasm
  18. 18. Cytoplasm
  19. 19. Nucleus
  20. 20. Nucleus
  21. 21. Golgi bodyGolgi apparatus – it is made of tubules (long tubelike structures), vesicles (small vessels), andvacuoles and is responsible for the secretion ofchemical substances such as enzymes, hormonesand proteins.
  22. 22. Vacuoles It is a fluid filled space enclosed in a membrane. Vacuoles store excess water, useful minerals, pigments and many other substances .
  23. 23. LysosomeLysosome contains chemical substances called enzymesthat are capable of digesting cells and variety of intra andextra cellular materials (intra; internal) and (extra;external).In times of emergency, lysosomes burst and destroy thecell.Hence, they are also called suicide bag of the cells.
  24. 24. Endoplasmic reticulumIt is a network of tubules and channels and isinvolved in the synthesis, storage, and transportof the cell products.
  25. 25. RibosomesThese are small granular structures scattered inthe cytoplasm that act as sites of proteinsynthesis.
  26. 26. CentrosomesThis structure is present only in animal cells. Themain function of centrosomes is to initiate andregulate the cell division.
  27. 27. PlastidThese are present only in plant cells. Plastid contains certain pigments thathave a specific role to play in the functioning of the plant. Depending on thepigment, color, plastids are of three types:Chloroplast – this contains the green pigment chlorophyll which helps plantsin making food.Chromoplasts – this contains non green pigment that gives color to flowersand fruits.Leucoplasts – these are colorless and store food in the form ofcarbohydrates, fats and proteins.
  28. 28. Plastids are of three kind1.Chloroplasts2.Chromoplasts3.leucoplasts
  29. 29. MitochondriaThese are tiny spherical or rod shaped bodies.They act as sites of energy production and are ,therefore, called the power house of the cell.
  30. 30. Plant cell
  31. 31. Animal cell
  32. 32. Differences between plant and animalcell.Plant cell1.Cell wall is present.2.Cytoplasm is not as dense as in an animal cell.3.A large vacuole is present .4.Plastids are usually present.5.Centrosome is absent.
  33. 33. Differences between plant and animalcell.Animal cell1.Cell wall is absent.2.Cytoplasm is dense.3.Vacuoles are generally absent . If present, theyare small in size.4.Palstids are absent.5.Centrosome is present.
  34. 34. ProkaryotesCells that lack a well defined nucleussurrounded by a nuclear membrane arecalled prokaryotic cells. Organisms thathave such cells are called prokaryotes.Examples of prokaryotes are bacteria, bluegreen algae, viruses.
  35. 35. EukaryotesCells that have a well defined nucleus arecalled eukaryotic cells. Organisms that havesuch cells are called eukaryotes. Allorganisms apart from bacteria, blue greenalgae, and viruses are eukaryotes.
  36. 36. Cell division and growthThe food that we eat leads to an increase in thesize of cells. After reaching a certain size, a celldivides into two by a process called cell division.Increase in the numbers of cell division isresponsible for the growth in organisms. Celldivision also replaces the dead or damaged cellswith the new ones and is responsible for healingwounds.
  37. 37. Thank you so much.