Green fenestrations-dr. essam omar


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Green fenestrations-dr. essam omar

  1. 1. Moving Towards Sustainable Fenestrations in Kuwait Essam O. Assem Associate Research Scientist Building Energy Technologies Dept. Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research May 22, 2012
  2. 2. Outline• Fenestration facts• Common fenestration parameters• Fenestration elements• Areas influencing fenestration performance• Manufacturing cycle• Requirements for sustainable fenestrations• How to move towards sustainable fenestrations in Kuwait
  3. 3. Fenestration Facts⇑ They connect the inside with the outside and provide ‘‘life’’ to the building which could increase productivity⇑ Allow day light to the interior spaces of the building and will reduce if not replace the need for artificial lighting resulting in reductions in energy consumption⇑ Glazing covers a large area of the façade of tall buildings because of aesthetics and short installation time⇓ Up to 25% of the peak cooling load is attributed to solar heat gain through fenestrations. This could be higher if air leakage is accounted for
  4. 4. Common Fenestration Parameters • Thermal transmittance (U-value) • Solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) • Visible transmittance (VT) • Air and water permeability • Wind resistance (deflection) • Noise reduction (NR)
  5. 5. Fenestration Elements Glass Outside Inside Gas Fill Primary Seal SpacerFrame Secondary Seal Thermal Break
  6. 6. FramesAluminumAluminum with thermal breaksWoodUPVCVinylFiberglass Spacer
  7. 7. SpacersAluminumStainless SteelInsulating silicon foamExtruded vinylFiberglass Spacer
  8. 8. Glass Panes Glass Optical GlassConfiguration Properties Processing Single Clear Annealed Double Tint Laminated 20 18 Triple Reflective Toughened Total Energy (KWh) 16 14 12 Double with 10 suspended Low-e clear- double films 8 tinted- double 6 reflective- double 4 Switchable 2 0 0.5 1.5 6 Window Area (m2)
  9. 9. Gas Fills 1.95 1.9 U-Factor (W/m2.K)Gap width 1.85 1.8Air 1.75Argon 1.7Krypton 1.65Xenon Air Argon Krypton XenonNone (vacuum) 2.2 2.15 U-factor, (W/m2.K) 2.1 2.05 2 1.95 1.9 1.85 0 10 20 30 40 Gap Spacing, (mm)
  10. 10. Shading DevicesFixedManualAutomatedBetween the panes of glassExternalInternal instantaneous blind and lighting control based on day-lighting intensity
  11. 11. Sash Frames and Weather StripingOpenable windows and doors shouldbe designed to minimize air and waterpermeability as much as possible 0.6 tonref 3.8 tonref ANSI/AAMA Based on field standard study findings carried out by Assumptions: KISR Ten 2m2 sliding windows Outside: 46 C DB 28 C WB Inside: 24 C DB Effect of air leakage on cooling load 50% RH
  12. 12. Sash Frames and Weather Striping … contd. Air-tightness of fenestrations can also affect human health particularly in dusty weather conditions Field measurement from KISR study Dust Content *10-6 (g/m^3) 300 250 200 150 International limit 100 50 0 0 5 10 15 Air Infiltration (m3/h/m)
  13. 13. Acoustics• Maintaining acceptable sound levels within the spaces of the building is essential to minimize occupants stress levels associated with external sources of noise.• The fenestration performance should also account for noise reduction (NR).• ANSI S12.40 recommends a yearly day-night average sound level of 45 dB.
  14. 14. Areas Influencing Fenestrations Performance Fenestration Performance Comfort Thermal Structural Solar heat Air/waterThermal Visual Acoustic Transmission Safety/security Condensation Durability gains permeability
  15. 15. Manufacturing CycleHigh quality Glass Coatingsilica sand Float Glass Plant (i.e. Low-e) Average Average embodied embodied energy energy Average 35 MJ/kg 220 MJ/kg embodied energy 16 MJ/kg Glass Processing (cutting, edging, drill Steel Aluminum ing, tempering, IGU, etc.) Building Site Assembly (i.e frames, sash and weather stripping)
  16. 16. Requirements for Sustainable FenestrationsIssues to consider for sustainability:Social impact: Heat  Thermal comfort Gain Health Visual comfort Thermal  & Comfort  Health SafetyEconomic impact:  Direct fuel cost Optimum  Life cycle of fenestrations Design Environmental impact: Materials Day Light/visual comfort  Float glass  Aluminum/Steel etc.  Energy consumption  Recycling Cost Durability
  17. 17. How to Move Towards Sustainable Fenestrations in Kuwait State-of-the-art simulation tools must be used to arrive at the optimum design Social impact issues must be accounted for through specific codes and standards Fenestration rating labs must be established to verify their performance (air & water leakage, U- value, SHGC, durability, etc.) and hence improve quality High performance fenestrations should be a pre-requisite To make use of locally and regionally manufactured fenestrations (float, coating and processing) vis-à-vis LEED 500 miles To have in place the infrastructure to support recycling of fenestration materials
  18. 18. Thank You