What is Jam?


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What is Jam?

  1. 2. <ul><li>Pectin </li></ul><ul><li>A natural gelling agent found in ripe fruit. The levels of pectin vary from fruit to fruit. </li></ul><ul><li>Apple, 1–1.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Apricot, 1% </li></ul><ul><li>Cherries, 0.4% </li></ul><ul><li>Orange, 0.5–3.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Carrots, approx. 1.4% </li></ul><ul><li>Citrus peels, 30% </li></ul><ul><li>It is produced commercially as a white to light brown powder, mainly extracted from citrus fruits, and is used in food as a gelling agent particularly in jams and jellies. It is also used in fillings, sweets, as a stabilizer in fruit juices and milk drinks and as a source of dietary fiber. </li></ul>Some Definitions Need To Know Continues…
  2. 3. <ul><li>&quot;E&quot; numbers </li></ul><ul><li>There are different words for different food ingredients across the world. In Europe, some food ingredients are noted as &quot;E&quot; numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>Gelatin </li></ul><ul><li>Gelatin is made from the bones, skins, hoofs, and tendons of cows, fish and other animals. It is animal protein used especially for its thickening and gelling properties. It is a non-vegetarian product. It is often used in candies and Jellies. </li></ul>Some Definitions Need To Know
  3. 4. <ul><li>Brix (symbol °Bx) is a measurement of the dissolved sugar-to-water mass ratio of a liquid. It is measured easily with a refractometer. </li></ul><ul><li>Soluble solids (finished product): </li></ul><ul><li>The soluble solids value of the finished product shall not be less than 65 percent . </li></ul><ul><li>Pasteurization is the process of heating liquids for the purpose of destroying bacteria , protozoa , molds , and yeasts . The process was named after its creator, French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur . </li></ul>Some Common Known Words in Jam Technology
  4. 5. Jam contains both fruit juice and pieces of the fruit‘s flesh, however some cookbooks define Jam as cooked and gelled fruit purees. Properly, the term jam refers to a product made with whole fruit, cut into pieces or crushed. The fruit is heated with water and sugar to activate the pectin in the fruit. The mixture is then put into containers. The following extract from a US cookbook describes the process. &quot; Jams are usually made from pulp and juice of one fruit, rather than a combination of several fruits. Berries and other small fruits are most frequently used, though larger fruits such as apricots, peaches, or plums cut into small pieces or crushed are also used for jams. Good jam has a soft even consistency without distinct pieces of fruit, a bright color, a good fruit flavor and a semi-jellied texture that is easy to spread but has no free liquid. &quot; - Berolzheimer R (ed) et al (1959) What is Jam?
  5. 6. <ul><li>Preserves </li></ul><ul><li>The term Preserves is usually interchangeable with Jam , however some cookbooks define Preserves as cooked and gelled whole fruit (or vegetable), which includes a significant portion of the fruit </li></ul><ul><li>Marmalade </li></ul><ul><li>British-style marmalade is a sweet preserve with a bitter tang made from fruit, sugar, water, and a gelling agent. American-style marmalade is sweet, not bitter. In English-speaking usage &quot;marmalade&quot; almost always refers to a preserve derived from a citrus fruit, most commonly oranges. The recipe includes sliced or chopped fruit peel, which is simmered in fruit juice and water until soft; indeed marmalade is sometimes described as jam with fruit peel. </li></ul>Variants of Jam Continues…
  6. 7. <ul><li>Jelly </li></ul><ul><li>In the U.S. and Canada, the term jelly refers to a type of clear fruit spread consisting of firmed fruit (or vegetable) juice made with pectin. In British English, these products are commonly referred to by the terms fruit spread or preserves , although jelly is also used in some instances, for example mint jelly. Jelly can be made from sweet, savory or hot ingredients. Jelly is made by a similar process to jam, with the additional step of filtering out the fruit pulp after the initial heating. A cloth &quot;jelly bag&quot; is traditionally used as a filter. </li></ul>Variants of Jam
  7. 8. <ul><li>Fruit Content : </li></ul><ul><li>Specification A - The product shall be manufactured from not less than 45 parts, by weight, of original fruit ingredient, exclusive of any added sugar or optional Ingredients for each 100 parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Specification B - The product shall be manufactured from not less than 33 parts, by weight, of original fruit ingredient, exclusive of any added sugar or optional ingredients used in the preparation of the fruit ingredient, for each 100 parts, by weight. </li></ul>CODEX STANDARD 79-1981 FOR JAMS
  8. 9. Fruits Washing Cutting / Crushing Boiling with water Concentration Filling (at 85° C or above) Sealing Labeling & Storage Sugar addition Pectin addition
  9. 10. Jams Available in the Market <ul><li>Fruits: </li></ul><ul><li>Strawberry </li></ul><ul><li>Pineapple </li></ul><ul><li>Mango </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed Fruit </li></ul><ul><li>Apricot </li></ul><ul><li>Apple </li></ul><ul><li>Peach </li></ul><ul><li>Raspberry </li></ul><ul><li>Black Cherry </li></ul><ul><li>Red Cherry </li></ul><ul><li>Black Currant </li></ul><ul><li>Orange </li></ul><ul><li>Pear </li></ul>
  10. 11. Customer Requirements <ul><li>Appealing textures / More spreadable </li></ul><ul><li>Stability of the product </li></ul><ul><li>Homogenous fruit distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Uniform products </li></ul><ul><li>No preservatives added </li></ul>
  11. 12. Customer Service <ul><li>Listen to customer </li></ul><ul><li>Get the complaints </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for performance and physical and chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Trouble shoot </li></ul><ul><li>Share with your colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback to customer </li></ul>The Customer is anyone affected by the Product
  12. 13. Satisfied Customers Are Our Biggest Strength In Final
  13. 15. Some definitions taken from Wikipedia & Codex