Malware Analysis: N00b to Ninja in 60 Minutes -- TakeDownCon St. Louis on June 3, 2013

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These were the slides used in in my presentation at TakeDownCon St. Louis on June 3, 2013.

Abstract: Knowing how to perform basic malware analysis can go a long way in helping infosec analysts do some basic triage to either crush the mundane or recognize when its time to pass the more serious samples on to the the big boys. This presentation covers several analysis environment options and the three quick steps that allows almost anyone with a general technical background to go from n00b to ninja (;)) in no time. Well … maybe not a “ninja” per se but the closing does address follow-on resources on the cheap for those wanting to dive deeper into the dark world of malware analysis.

More on various aspects of this talk can be found at the following URL:

https://www.novainfosec.com/tag/malware-analysis/

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Malware Analysis: N00b to Ninja in 60 Minutes -- TakeDownCon St. Louis on June 3, 2013

  1. 1. Malware Analysis N00b to Ninja in 60 Minutes* @grecs * Most listeners do not become Ninjas in under 60 minutes. ;) NoVA Infosec
  2. 2. NoVA Infosec https://www.novainfosec.com/
  3. 3. NoVA Infosec https://www.novainfosec.com/
  4. 4. NoVA Infosec https://www.novainfosec.com/
  5. 5. NoVA Infosec https://www.novainfosec.com/
  6. 6. NoVA Infosec https://www.novainfosec.com/
  7. 7. Pic of hacked sites; news articles of breaches, mid-2000s
  8. 8. NoVA Infosec https://www.novainfosec.com/
  9. 9. NoVA Infosec https://www.novainfosec.com/
  10. 10. Infosec COTS
  11. 11. NoVA Infosec https://www.novainfosec.com/
  12. 12. NoVA Infosec https://www.novainfosec.com/
  13. 13. https://www.novainfosec.com/
  14. 14. Tweet/Post: Thanks … for sponsoring @grecs & @novainfosec… @MiltonSecurity @BulbSecurity @PenTestTraining Thanks
  15. 15. NoVA Infosec https://www.novainfosec.com/
  16. 16. Agenda • Introduction • Environment • Methodology • Where to Learn More • Conclusion NoVA Infosec https://www.novainfosec.com/
  17. 17. Introduction WARNING!!! DO NOT ANALYZE MALWARE ON PRODUCTION SYSTEMS SOC Analysts Looking to Expand Skills beyond Event Monitoring & Basic Analysis General Security Practitioners Interested in Getting Started in Malware Analysis
  18. 18. Environment • Setup – Virtual – Physical • Options – Single Box – Dual+ Box NoVA Infosec https://www.novainfosec.com/
  19. 19. Environment Setup • Virtual – Efficient & Easy to Setup – Snap-Shots to Revert Back To – Malware Detecting VM & Terminating • Physical – VM Detection Not Possible – Resource Intensive NoVA Infosec https://www.novainfosec.com/
  20. 20. Environment Setup – Virtual • Network: Use Non-Host Connected Interface Be Careful
  21. 21. Environment Options • Single Box – All Analysis Performed on One Machine – Risk of Potential Malware Sabotage • Dual+ Box – Mitigates Some Potential Sabotage – Gateway to Simulate More Real Network – Realistic External View (ports open, network traffic) NoVA Infosec https://www.novainfosec.com/
  22. 22. Environment Options – Single Box • Start with Base Unpatched Windows XP SP2 Box in VMware – Similar to First Set of Post-Install Instructions for Metasploit Unleashed – Switch to Classic View – Disable Windows Firewall – Turn Off Automatic Updates – Disable Alerts – Uncheck Simple File Sharing • Add Target Software – Older Versions If Needed • Starting Points: OldVersion.com & OldApps.com • Google for Others
  23. 23. Environment Options – Single Box • Install Dynamic Analysis Tools – Process Monitor • Show Processes that Started During Malware Execution – Process Explorer • Shows Files, Registry Keys, … Opened by Malware – WireShark • Sniffer to Capture Network the Malware May Make – RegShot • View Changes Malware May Make in the Registry Process Monitor: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/bb896645.aspx Process Explorer: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/bb896653 WireShark: https://www.wireshark.org/ RegShot: http://sourceforge.net/projects/regshot/
  24. 24. Environment Options – Single Box • Install Dynamic Analysis Tools (cont) – TCPView • Allows Detection of Malware Initiated Network Connections – Malware Analysis Pack • MAP FakeDNS • MAP Right-Click (MD5 Hash, Strings, VirusTotal) – FakeNet • Aids Dynamic Analysis of Malicious Software • Simulates Network so Malware Thinks Its Interacting with Remote Hosts • DNS, HTTP, SSL, Dummy Listener TCPView: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/bb897437 MAP: http://www.woodmann.com/collaborative/tools/index.php/Malcode_Analysis_Pack FakeNet: http://practicalmalwareanalysis.com/fakenet/
  25. 25. Environment Options – Single Box • Install Static Analysis Tools – OllyDbg with OllyDump Plugin • General Disassembler/Debugger for Windows Used to Analyze Malware in Assembly; Plugin to View Encrypted Malware – IDA Pro • Windows Disassembler/Debugger with Freeware Alternative – 010 Editor • Standard Hex Editor – Specialized Tools • PDFs: Didier Stevens’s pdfid.py & pdf-parser.py • Flash: SWFTtools • Others: Java, JavaScript OllyDbg: http://www.ollydbg.de/ OllyDump: http://www.openrce.org/downloads/details/108/OllyDump IDA Pro Freeware: http://www.hex-rays.com/products/ida/support/download_freeware.shtml Didier Stevens PDF Tools: http://blog.didierstevens.com/programs/pdf-tools/
  26. 26. Environment Options – Single Box • Baseline – Configure VM to "Host-Only” Mode Secluded Network • Temporarily Change to NAT to Download Malware • Write-Once Media (e.g., CDs) • USB Key with Physical Write-Protect Switch – Imation USB 2.0 Clip Flash Drive – Kanguru Flashblu 2 – Snapshot VM NoVA Infosec https://www.novainfosec.com/
  27. 27. Environment Dual+ Box – Fake Gateway Server • Second Machine for Target to Connect To – Additional Advantage of Examining Network Traffic without Possible Malware Sabotage – Implement Linux Server in VMware & Configure to Be Default Route on Victim Machine – Should Have Fixed IP Addresses • Enable or Install Software that Provides Needed Services – DNS: Configured to Return Fake Servers IP for All Queries – HTTP – IRC – Others: DHCP, FTP, SSH – Other Services Depending on Goal of Analysis NoVA Infosec https://www.novainfosec.com/
  28. 28. Environment Dual+ Box – Fake Gateway Server • Install Network Analysis Tools – WireShark: Records Network Traffic from Victim – Netcat: Start Needed Ad-Hoc Services – Nmap: Scan for Open Ports External to Victim • Snapshot Fake Server Revert Back To NoVA Infosec https://www.novainfosec.com/
  29. 29. Environment Preconfigured • REMnux – Created by Lenny Zeltser – ISO or Virtual Appliance – Static Analysis • Load Malware on & Analyze • Web-Based Malware (e.g., Malicious JavaScript, Java Programs, & Flash Files) • Malicious Documents (e.g., Microsoft Office & Adobe PDF files) • Utilities for Reversing Malware through Memory Forensics – Dynamic Analysis • Emulate Network Services Used as Fake Gateway Server • Emulate Services in Isolated Lab Environment • Infects Another Laboratory System with Malware Sample • Directs Potentially-Malicious Connections to REMnux that's Listening on Appropriate Ports REMnux: http://zeltser.com/remnux/ v4
  30. 30. Environment Preconfigured
  31. 31. Environment Preconfigured • CuckooBox – Automated Dynamic Analysis of Malware – Data Captured • Trace of Performed Relevant Win32 API Calls • Dump of Network Traffic Generated During Analysis • Creation of Screenshots Taken During Analysis • Dump of Files Created, Deleted and Downloaded by the Malware During Analysis • Trace of Assembly Instructions Executed by Malware Process CuckooBox: http://cuckoobox.org/
  32. 32. Environment Preconfigured NoVA Infosec https://www.novainfosec.com/
  33. 33. Methodology 1. Triage 2. Dynamic Analysis 3. Static Analysis NoVA Infosec https://www.novainfosec.com/
  34. 34. Methodology 1. Triage  Run through External Sandbox Services for QnD Results If Possible • Goals: Establish Rough Idea of Malware Activities • Tools: Norman Sandbox, GFI Sandbox, Anubis, ThreatExpert, …  b. MD5 Hash Comparison (can run live is possible) • Goals: When Compiled, Packed or Obfuscated) • Tools: VirusTotal.com, MAP, FileAlyzer, Google Hash  c. Determine Real File Type • UNIX “file” Command and/or TrID • Open in 010 & Look for Magic Numbers: Win Exe (MZ), PDF (%PDF), ZIP (PK), … (more at Wikipedia)  Unpack If Needed • Tools: OllyDump, PE Explorer (UPX built- in)  Analyze Imports • Goals: Discovery Interesting Things Malware May Be Importing (networking APIs for non-networking app) • Tools: FileAlyzer (PD Imports tab)  f. Extract Readable Strings • Goals: Discover Interesting Data Points like Host Name & IP Addresses • Tools: MAP  Specialized Tools • E.g., pdfid.py, pdf-parser.py, SWFTtools, … a. b. c. d. e. f. e. MASTIFF: Open Source Linux Tool Automates Much of Above (on REMnux) v4
  35. 35. Methodology 2. Dynamic Analysis • Take RegShot & Start WireShark, Process Monitor, Process Explorer, FakeNet & TCPView – Monitors File and Registry Access, Network Traffic, Process Creation, etc. • Execute Malware & Let it Run for 15 Minutes or Until Activity Dies Down – Watching WireShark, Process Monitor, & TCPView for Anything Interesting • Take Second RegShot & Stop WireShark, Process Monitor, FakeNet • Compare Initial & Final RegShots & Review All Monitoring Tool Logs a. b. c. d. NoVA Infosec https://www.novainfosec.com/
  36. 36. Methodology 2. Dynamic Analysis (Regshot & Wireshark) a-1. a-3. a-2.
  37. 37. Methodology 2. Dynamic Analysis (Process Monitor) a-4. a-5. a-6.
  38. 38. Methodology 2. Dynamic Analysis (Process Explorer) a-7. Just Start
  39. 39. Methodology 2. Dynamic Analysis (FakeNet) a-8. Just Start
  40. 40. Methodology 2. Dynamic Analysis (TCPView) a-9. Just Start
  41. 41. Methodology 2. Dynamic Analysis (Execute Malware) • Double-Click EXE • Rundll32.exe DLLName, Export arguments – PE Explorer to Discover Export arguments – E.g., rundll32.exe rip.dll, Install • Watch All Monitoring Tools & Stop When Activity Dies Down b. Just Monitor
  42. 42. Methodology 2. Dynamic Analysis (Spin Down) c-1. c-3. c-2.
  43. 43. Methodology 2. Dynamic Analysis (Spin Down) c-4.
  44. 44. Methodology 2. Dynamic Analysis (Spin Down) c-5.
  45. 45. Methodology 2. Dynamic Analysis (Analysis) • Save Logs for Future Reference • Analyze c-6. c-7. NoVA Infosec https://www.novainfosec.com/
  46. 46. Methodology 3. Static Analysis • Use OllyDbg or IDA Pro to Disassemble & Analyze Deobfuscated Malware – Just Stare at It – ... – Stare Some More – ... – And Some More d. NoVA Infosec https://www.novainfosec.com/
  47. 47. Where to Learn More OpenSecurityTraining.info
  48. 48. Where to Learn More • OpenSecurityTraining.info – “Reverse Engineering Malware” • Matt Briggs & Frank Poz • “Practical Malware Analysis” by M. Sikorski/A. Honig • http://opensecuritytraining.info/ReverseEngineeringM alware.html
  49. 49. Where to Learn More • Malware Analysis Toolkit: http://zeltser.com/malware-analysis-toolkit/ • OpenRCE: http://www.openrce.org/ • TrainACE – Advanced Malware Analysis (AMA) • NoVA Infosec – Workshop Style – Posts • Videos, how-tos, etc. on news, process,es, REMnux, Noriben, and more • http://novainfosec.com/tag/malware-analysis
  50. 50. Conclusion • Introduction • Environment – Setup – Single Box - Victim – Dual+ Box – Fake Server – Preconfigured • Methodology – Triage – Dynamic Analysis – Static Analysis • Where to Learn More – OpenSecurityTraining.info – Zeltser.com – OpenRCE.org • Conclusion NoVA Infosec https://www.novainfosec.com/
  51. 51. Conclusion Thanks
  52. 52. Questions? • Twitter @grecs • Website NovaInfosec.com • Contact http://bit.ly/nispcontact

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