01/30/15 1
Semantic Technology Overview
Trends, Applications
November 29, 2010
01/30/15 2
About Recognos
• Established 1999 ( www.recognos.com )
• California S-Corporation – Offices in San Rafael,
San ...
01/30/15 3
What is the Semantic Technology
• WEB 3.0 ?
• Gives meaning through relationships
• Building bloc – statements
...
01/30/15 4
World Wide Web vs. Semantic
WEB
01/30/15 5
Major Difficulty
Open World vs Closed World
Anybody can say ANYTHING about ANYTHING!
You don’t know what you do...
01/30/15 6
Semantic Technology vs.
Semantic WEB
• Semantic Technology – “machines” try to understand :
– Natural Language ...
01/30/15 7
Semantic WEB Model
01/30/15 8
How to represent the knowledge
• Gives meaning through relationships
• Everybody to understand the same thing
•...
01/30/15 9
Building Block RDF
“There is a Person identified by http://www.w3.org/People/EM/contact#me, whose name
is Eric ...
01/30/15 10
Ontologies - OWL
http://www.fao.org/countryprofiles/geoinfo.asp?lang=en
01/30/15 11
Ontologies - OWL
http://www.fao.org/countryprofiles/geoinfo.asp?lang=en
An Ontology is a kind of dictionary th...
01/30/15 12
The Movie Ontology –
01/30/15 13
The Geo Spatial Ontology –
01/30/15 14
The Movie Ontology –
www.movieontology.org
01/30/15 15
• The main entities can be represented as Class using an
ontology language (Movie , Person, Role)
• Other attr...
01/30/15 16
Movie PersonLiteral
title, year, runtime,
country, languages, genres,
rating, votes, plot,
colorInfo, certific...
01/30/15 17
Troy
title 2004
year
163runtime
English
language
6.9
85463
rating
votes
Alejandro Avendano
longname
stuntPerfo...
01/30/15 18
• find resources according to specific criteria
– i.e. Find movies with Roger Bratt as a cinematographer, or m...
01/30/15 19
How to represent the knowledge
Feature Relational Database Knowledgebase
Structure Schema Ontology Statements
...
01/30/15 20
How to store the knowledge
RDF Stores
•These are “referential databases”
•Oracle 11g – stores RDF in relationa...
01/30/15 21
Applications
• Are used to solve complicated problems
• All problems could be solved manually or with
conventi...
01/30/15 22
Potential for Netflix
Applications Categories:
1) Data Integration of Heterogeneous data silos
2) Semantic Sea...
01/30/15 23
Data Integration using Ontologies
n:Movie
n:MovieId
n:hasIdentifier
n:Documentary
isA
n:Director
hasDirector
n...
01/30/15 24
https://pub.needlebase.com/actions/visualizer/V2Visualizer.do?domain=Oscar-History&query=2009+Awards
01/30/15 25
Semantic Search
• Wolfram Alpha, Semantifi
• Faceted Search (www.needlebase.com)
• Micro Formats
• Good Relati...
01/30/15 26
Deep WEB vs. Shallow WEB
• www.wolframalpha.com, www.google.com
• www.semantifi.com
01/30/15 27
Deep WEB vs. Shallow WEB
01/30/15 28
Faceted Search
http://www.needlebase.com/cases/events
01/30/15 29
Faceted Search
http://dbpedia.neofonie.de/browse/rdf-type:Film/
Wikipedia
Dbpedia – semantified wikipedia
01/30/15 30
Microformats
A microformat (sometimes abbreviated μF) is a web-based approach to
semantic markup which seeks t...
01/30/15 31
Good Relations
http://www.heppnetz.de/projects/goodrelations/
01/30/15 32
Open Linked Data - Folksonomies
http://linkeddata.org/
Open Linked Data "a term used to describe a recommended...
01/30/15 33
Open Linked Data
http://linkeddata.org/
01/30/15 34
Freebase
01/30/15 35
http://www.freebase.com/view/film/film
01/30/15 36
http://www.freebase.com/view/film/film
01/30/15 37
LinkedMDB
01/30/15 38
Data.gov & Data.gov.uk
• …..
01/30/15 39
The Future: Using NL as a query
language
Comedies with John Travolta filmed in the US
All movies with Clint Ea...
01/30/15 40
Using NL as a query language
01/30/15 41
What is behind a semantic search
01/30/15 42
Extracting knowledge from text
Expert System – Cogito
Application in Financial Complex Documents
Document Advi...
01/30/15 43
Extracting knowledge from text - A look behind the scene
01/30/15 44
Tools
Open Source, Licensed
• RDF Stores
• Ontology Management : Protégé – Stanford – Open
Source
• Data Integ...
01/30/15 45
Semantic Technology Companies
01/30/15 46
How can Recognos Help
•Recognos is a Semantic Applications Developer
•Works with vendors to develop applicatio...
01/30/15 47
Contact Info
George Roth – CEO Recognos Inc
Skype Id: grecognos
eMail: groth@recognos.com
WEB Site: www.recogn...
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Netflix presentation final

  1. 1. 01/30/15 1 Semantic Technology Overview Trends, Applications November 29, 2010
  2. 2. 01/30/15 2 About Recognos • Established 1999 ( www.recognos.com ) • California S-Corporation – Offices in San Rafael, San Mateo • In 2000 created Recognos Romania • Office in Romania situated in Cluj ( www.cluj4all.com) • 70 employees • Semantic technologies R&D • Started a meetup : http://www.meetup.com/Cluj-Semantic- WEB/ • Applications in Finance, CRM, Life Sciences, etc.
  3. 3. 01/30/15 3 What is the Semantic Technology • WEB 3.0 ? • Gives meaning through relationships • Building bloc – statements • The statements describe: concepts, logic, restrictions and individuals (instances) • WWW is for human consumption • Semantic WEB – for machines • Relationships: definitions, associations, aggregations and restrictions
  4. 4. 01/30/15 4 World Wide Web vs. Semantic WEB
  5. 5. 01/30/15 5 Major Difficulty Open World vs Closed World Anybody can say ANYTHING about ANYTHING! You don’t know what you don’t know!
  6. 6. 01/30/15 6 Semantic Technology vs. Semantic WEB • Semantic Technology – “machines” try to understand : – Natural Language Text – Images – Sounds – Machine learning • Semantic WEB Technology – part of the Semantic Technology (semantic search, semantic tagging, microformats (FOAF), web site federation), Linked Open Data
  7. 7. 01/30/15 7 Semantic WEB Model
  8. 8. 01/30/15 8 How to represent the knowledge • Gives meaning through relationships • Everybody to understand the same thing • The machines could understand • Eliminates ambiguities through URI – Uniform Resource Identifier – PURL – Persistent Uniform Locator • Need software that will be able to read these and “understand” • Describe things on the internet using such a universal language
  9. 9. 01/30/15 9 Building Block RDF “There is a Person identified by http://www.w3.org/People/EM/contact#me, whose name is Eric Miller, whose email address is em@w3.org, and whose title is Dr.". Triplets: (i) http://www.w3.org/People/EM/contact#me, http://www.w3.org/2000/10/swap/pim/contact#fullName , "Eric Miller" (ii) http://www.w3.org/People/EM/contact#me, http://www.w3.org/2000/10/swap/pim/contact#personalTi , "Dr." (iii) http://www.w3.org/People/EM/contact#me, http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type, http://www.w3.org/2000/10/swap/pim/contact#Person (iv) http://www.w3.org/People/EM/contact#me, http://www.w3.org/2000/10/swap/pim/contact#mailbox , em@w3.org
  10. 10. 01/30/15 10 Ontologies - OWL http://www.fao.org/countryprofiles/geoinfo.asp?lang=en
  11. 11. 01/30/15 11 Ontologies - OWL http://www.fao.org/countryprofiles/geoinfo.asp?lang=en An Ontology is a kind of dictionary that describes information in a certain domain using concepts and relationships. It is often implemented using OWL •A Concept is defined as abstract knowledge. (Example: Movie, Country, Organizatiuon). Concepts are explicitly implemented in the ontology with individuals and classes: •An individual is defined as an object perceived from the real world. (The Sound of Music is a Movie , and belongs to the musical genre. •A class is defined as a set of individuals sharing common properties. In the geopolitical domain, Ethiopia, Republic of Korea or Italy are individuals of the class country; Relationships between concepts are explicitly implemented by: •Object properties between individuals of two classes. For example, has member and is in group properties. •Datatype properties between individuals and literals or XML datatypes. For example, the individual “United States” has the datatype property CodeISO3 with the value “USA". •Restrictions in classes and/or properties. For example, the property spoken Language of the class Movie has been restricted to have only one value, this means that a movie canb have oly one spoken language].
  12. 12. 01/30/15 12 The Movie Ontology –
  13. 13. 01/30/15 13 The Geo Spatial Ontology –
  14. 14. 01/30/15 14 The Movie Ontology – www.movieontology.org
  15. 15. 01/30/15 15 • The main entities can be represented as Class using an ontology language (Movie , Person, Role) • Other attributes (movie rating, movie genres,…) can be represented as Properties of the appropriate Classes Movie Person Role acted film Brad PittTroy Achilles acted film
  16. 16. 01/30/15 16 Movie PersonLiteral title, year, runtime, country, languages, genres, rating, votes, plot, colorInfo, certificate company production_companies, distributor, soundMix, miscCompanies Literal birth_date, death_date, birth_name, longname, spouse, trivia Role teammember crewmember stuntPerformer, soundCrew director castingDirector, artDirector assistantDirector Cast, composer, producer, productionDesigner, artDepartment, productionManager, specialEffects, setDecorator, editor, writer, Cinematographer, costumeDesigner actedfilm (foaf)
  17. 17. 01/30/15 17 Troy title 2004 year 163runtime English language 6.9 85463 rating votes Alejandro Avendano longname stuntPerformer Jack El Despertador title setDecorator Romero titlefilm acted i.e. Alejandro Avendano as • Actor • Stunt Perfomer • Set Decorator p1 m1 m2 m3 r1 p1:http://www.imdb.com/Person/Avendano m1:http://www.imdb.com/Movie/Troy m2:http://www.imdb.com/Movie/Romero m3:http://www.imdb.com/Movie/JackElDespertador r1:http://www.imdb.com/Role/DeathSquadMember
  18. 18. 01/30/15 18 • find resources according to specific criteria – i.e. Find movies with Roger Bratt as a cinematographer, or movies with producer Halle Berry’s spouse • and simpler queries – i.e. Find movies with genre = War, Romance etc
  19. 19. 01/30/15 19 How to represent the knowledge Feature Relational Database Knowledgebase Structure Schema Ontology Statements Data Rows Instance Elements Admin language DDL Ontology Statements (OWL) Query language SQL SPARQL Relationship Foreign Keys Multidimensional Logic External of DB / triggers Formal logic statements Uniqueness Key for table Uniqueness Restriction
  20. 20. 01/30/15 20 How to store the knowledge RDF Stores •These are “referential databases” •Oracle 11g – stores RDF in relational database •http://www.franz.com/agraph/allegrograph/ - Allegrograph •AllegroGraph RDFStore is a high-performance, persistent RDF graph database. AllegroGraph uses disk-based storage, enabling it to scale to billions of triples. AllegroGraph supports SPARQL, RDFS++, and Prolog reasoning. •Sesame •Virtuoso
  21. 21. 01/30/15 21 Applications • Are used to solve complicated problems • All problems could be solved manually or with conventional applications but with much more effort • The Semantic WEB core idea is to “teach” the machine to “mimic” the human reasoning – simplistic approach • This is in fact “recycled AI techniques” • Alternative to data warehouses • Using inference to find new facts • Integrates formatted with non-formatted docs • Cross technology queries
  22. 22. 01/30/15 22 Potential for Netflix Applications Categories: 1) Data Integration of Heterogeneous data silos 2) Semantic Search a) Semantic Tagging b) Faceted Search c) NL Queries 1) Use of Open Linked Data 2) (Others: Market Sentiment Analysis – blogs, forums; Advertising)
  23. 23. 01/30/15 23 Data Integration using Ontologies n:Movie n:MovieId n:hasIdentifier n:Documentary isA n:Director hasDirector n:Person isA n:Actor isA hasActor IMDB Movie Database a - Namespace a. Character a. Cast Member a.Picture a.IMDB Id ... Paramount Movie Database b-Namespace b. Role b. Person b.Motion Picture b. Other fields ... Warner Bros Movie Database c:Namespace c. RoleName c. PersonName c.MovieName c. Other fields ... RDF Store 1 RDF Store 2 RDF Store 3 Data Mapping: n:Movie owl:sameAs a:Picture n:Actor owl:sameAs a:character n:Actor owl:sameAs a:character n:Actor owl:sameAs c.PersonName …. Data Federation using SPARQL The fields on the integrated dataset consists of the union of fields in the federated data sources. Is is very easy to add new data sources. Unformatted text… Blogs, Forums, RSS Feeds…. RDF Store 3 Knowledge extraction from text Canb be data sources in different technologies : Oracle , MySQL, XLS, CSV, etc.
  24. 24. 01/30/15 24 https://pub.needlebase.com/actions/visualizer/V2Visualizer.do?domain=Oscar-History&query=2009+Awards
  25. 25. 01/30/15 25 Semantic Search • Wolfram Alpha, Semantifi • Faceted Search (www.needlebase.com) • Micro Formats • Good Relations • Open Linked Data • Using natural language as a query language
  26. 26. 01/30/15 26 Deep WEB vs. Shallow WEB • www.wolframalpha.com, www.google.com • www.semantifi.com
  27. 27. 01/30/15 27 Deep WEB vs. Shallow WEB
  28. 28. 01/30/15 28 Faceted Search http://www.needlebase.com/cases/events
  29. 29. 01/30/15 29 Faceted Search http://dbpedia.neofonie.de/browse/rdf-type:Film/ Wikipedia Dbpedia – semantified wikipedia
  30. 30. 01/30/15 30 Microformats A microformat (sometimes abbreviated μF) is a web-based approach to semantic markup which seeks to re-use existing HTML/XHTML tags to convey metadata and other attributes in web pages and other contexts that support (X)HTML, such as RSS. This approach allows software to process information intended for end-users (such as contact information, geographic coordinates, calendar events, and the like) automatically. Examples: hAtom – for marking up Atom feeds from within standard HTML hCalendar – for events hCard – for contact information; includes: adr – for postal addresses geo – for geographical coordinates (latitude, longitude) hNews - for news content hProduct – for products hRecipe - for recipes and foodstuffs. hResume – for resumes or CVs hReview – for reviews rel-directory – for distributed directory creation and inclusion[7]
  31. 31. 01/30/15 31 Good Relations http://www.heppnetz.de/projects/goodrelations/
  32. 32. 01/30/15 32 Open Linked Data - Folksonomies http://linkeddata.org/ Open Linked Data "a term used to describe a recommended best practice for exposing, sharing, and connecting pieces of data, information, and knowledge on the Semantic Web using URIs and RDF." http://esw.w3.org/DataSetRDFDumps www.wikipedia.com www.freebase.com – bought by Google i9n July, 2010 – Metaweb Folksonomy - Folksonomy is the result of personal free tagging of information and objects (anything with a URL) for one's own retrieval. The tagging is done in a social environment (usually shared and open to others). Folksonomy is created from the act of tagging by the person consuming the information. (Thomas Vander Wal – 2004)
  33. 33. 01/30/15 33 Open Linked Data http://linkeddata.org/
  34. 34. 01/30/15 34 Freebase
  35. 35. 01/30/15 35 http://www.freebase.com/view/film/film
  36. 36. 01/30/15 36 http://www.freebase.com/view/film/film
  37. 37. 01/30/15 37 LinkedMDB
  38. 38. 01/30/15 38 Data.gov & Data.gov.uk • …..
  39. 39. 01/30/15 39 The Future: Using NL as a query language Comedies with John Travolta filmed in the US All movies with Clint Eastwood as director Coppola family movies Documentaries about the genocide in Africa Movies filmed in San Francisco Marina Where can I buy the music from Love Story ? Is any tour based on the Da Vinci Code ? Movies based on novels written by 19th Century British writers
  40. 40. 01/30/15 40 Using NL as a query language
  41. 41. 01/30/15 41 What is behind a semantic search
  42. 42. 01/30/15 42 Extracting knowledge from text Expert System – Cogito Application in Financial Complex Documents Document Advisor Blogs Forums
  43. 43. 01/30/15 43 Extracting knowledge from text - A look behind the scene
  44. 44. 01/30/15 44 Tools Open Source, Licensed • RDF Stores • Ontology Management : Protégé – Stanford – Open Source • Data Integration Tools – Cambridge Semantics, Metatomix • NLP Tools – COGITO (Expert Systems), GATE • Etc…
  45. 45. 01/30/15 45 Semantic Technology Companies
  46. 46. 01/30/15 46 How can Recognos Help •Recognos is a Semantic Applications Developer •Works with vendors to develop applications •Help Netflix create a Semantic Group •Help selecting technologies •Build search applications for Linked Data, Faceted Search •Detect similarities between film descriptions •Data Integrations •Leverage the 3 years experience in developing semantic applications (data integration, NLP, semantic search) • etc.
  47. 47. 01/30/15 47 Contact Info George Roth – CEO Recognos Inc Skype Id: grecognos eMail: groth@recognos.com WEB Site: www.recognos.com Adonis Damian – Senior Semantic Application Architect eMail: adonis@recognos.com

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