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The Web of Things


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The Internet of Things (IoT) is defined by embedded computing devices endowed with cross-network connectivity. This era of computing has huge potential for connected enterprises and consumers, and already has many successful use cases. IoT systems encompass many types of connectivity patterns, proprietary systems and network types. Just as the Web plays a significant role in providing an open, interoperable, easily deployable framework for today’s enterprise systems, it is not surprising the Web will provide similar benefits to IoT. New Web standards have allowed enterprises to extend their internal real-time systems over the firewall in a natural, unimpeded fashion to provide real-time, dynamic information to their customers and partners to ensure consistency and efficiency. These same Web standards can and should be applied to IoT systems to obtain advantages such as global reach, ease of deployment, economies of scale, ease of development, etc. We will discuss this evolution and explore the further impact of the Web on IoT.

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The Web of Things

  1. 1. The Web of Things WoT Now @frankgreco
  2. 2. Background § Director of Technology @ Kaazing § Chairman NYJavaSIG ( § Largest Java UG in North America 8,000+ members §, @frankgreco § Principal Evangelist - Kaazing §, @krhoyt § “IoT and the New Web” 5pm today N-121
  3. 3. Everyone wants to play in the IoT game
  4. 4. A Primary Tenet of Computing History History If History Repeats Itself, Is There No Future?
  5. 5. Let’s Take 1 Step Back to go 2 Steps Ahead… u Internet – Global system of interconnected networks that use IP to communicate u Internetworking – Connecting one network with another through a series of Gateways that provide a common method of communication
  6. 6. The Web u A popular application service on the Internet u Based on TCP/IP u Advantages § Application deployment simplified – URI § Interoperable open standards and specifications § Ease of programmability – scripting § Global reach and Economy of scale § Accessed by ubiquitous Browsers and also non-Browsers u Two major protocols HTTP (1988/1999) and WebSocket (2007/2011)
  7. 7. Now… IoT, IIoT and M2M u A riff on “Ubiquitous Computing” (“Pervasive”) • Mark Weisner PARC 1988 u Its early so there’s different definitions • Similar to early days of Cloud Computing u M2M has been around for decades. • Primarily proprietary embedded systems and typically point-to-point (RPC) u IoT/IIoT (Industrial IoT) • Adds Internet connectivity • Networks of M2M systems connected via IP
  8. 8. IoT/IIoT – Connectivity isn’t Sufficient u No formal API standards u Many protocol standards – interoperability low u No common, wide-reaching frameworks u No composition possibilities u Difficult to leverage economies of scale u Barrier to entry is high for millions of app developers u M2M/IIoT is foreign to most app developers u Also… we’re in a connected world now cloud, mobile, web APIs
  9. 9. Here’s Where the Web Comes In u IoT – Internet of Things • Embedded computing endowed with Internet connectivity u WoT – Web of Things • Application and Services layer over IoT u Apply the benefits of the Web to IoT u WoT is a uniform interface to access IoT functionality u Provides the abstraction for control/monitoring (sensors/ actuators) u Accelerates innovation u Deployment, development, interoperability, economy of scale… u Why is this important?... Evolution
  10. 10. The Hidden Web – Most of the Web is Not Visible browsers APIs Services $2B API Revenue
  11. 11. The Web of Things is all about IoT SERVICES! Developers! Services Analytics / CEP Persistence Engine Monitoring / Management Security Connectivity Internet of Documents Internet of Services
  12. 12. But Is HTTP the Right Choice for Every Service? u Disadvantages of HTTP Request/Response u Lack of resiliency and robustness u Enterprise events retrieved by resource intensive polling techniques • Much bandwidth is wasted • Information can be delayed u Composite services brittle and lack transactionality u Enterprises learned advantages of ESB 10+ years ago u See failures of CORBA, Sun RPC, etc. u Clumsy AJAX/Comet workarounds to simulate real-time
  13. 13. There are TWO Web Protocols Request-Response, Synchronous Event-based, Asynchronous WebSocket
  14. 14. Big Data Risk Management The World is Naturally Event-based (“real-time”) Logistics Presentation Music Communication Health Monitoring Home Security Remote Control Local Transportation Intelligent Appliances Monitoring and Management
  15. 15. Legacy Web u Designed for document transfer – HTTP ü Short-lived Request / Response interaction u Bidirectional, but half-duplex ü Traffic flows in only one direction at a time u Stateless ü Large amounts of metadata resent for each request The Web was not originally designed for “real-time”, event-based services…
  16. 16. WebSocket – “TCP for the Web” u IETF Protocol and W3C JavaScript API for real-time, bi-directional, always-on connections u RFC 6455 – Dec 2011 u Easily add event-based data to web apps ü ws:// ü wss:// u Avoids polling u Avoids HTTP meta-data overhead u Shares port with HTTP (80/443) u Traverses Firewalls
  17. 17. Browser and Native Applications JMS XMPP AMQP B2B FTP VNC MQTT etc WebSocket TCP/IP WebSocket Gateway Internet WebSocket Gateway Protocol Layering is Possible WebSocket is a Transport layer! svc svc svc svc svc svc
  18. 18. Typically an App Server and DB App Server is probably not the right architecture Data Flow – Human Web vs WoT Human Web WoT Large data to client Small data to server Do human-readable protocols make sense for non-humans?
  19. 19. GW GW GW IoT/IIoT WoT WoT WoT Event Gateway Architecture
  20. 20. Event Gateway Architecture – Future Directions GW GW GW GW GW GW GW Aggregator nodes • Scalability • Querying • Performance • Manageability • Composition • Circles of Trust • Event processing • CDN++
  21. 21. The Message is the Medium “…terse, self-classified messages, networking overhead isolated to a specialized tier of devices, and publish/subscribe relationships are the only way to fully distill the power of the coming Internet of Things” – Francis daCosta
  22. 22. History Repeats Itself… RPC Asynchronous RPC Messaging REST Asynchronous REST Messaging ESB ISB? Enterprise Web/WoT • Can wait for response • Tight coupling • Centralized business processes • Vertical interaction • Easy to understand (xact) • Future response • Loose coupling • Independent business processes • More complexity (xact) Did I mention History repeats itself?...
  23. 23. Web of Things
  24. 24. Demos Click to Edit Master Title Style
  25. 25. Thank You! @frankgreco