That calls an authorization check using the authority-check statement. This
will look something like
authority-check object id field
Authorization fields: That define a scope of possible values.
Examples of authorization fields would be
ACTIVITY: defines the type of activity the user is doing with the data.
Possible values are 'DISPLAY', 'MODIFY', 'DELETE', etc.
COMPANY_CODE: possible values are any single value, or any range of
values, or any combination thereof such as '0438' and '0600' thru '1100'
Authorization fields: That define a scope of possible
values. Examples of authorization fields would be
ACTIVITY: defines the type of activity the user is doing
with the data. Possible values are 'DISPLAY',
'MODIFY', 'DELETE', etc.
COMPANY_CODE: possible values are any single
value, or any range of values, or any combination thereof
such as '0438' and '0600' thru '1100'
Authorization objects that define a group of fields.
For example, an authorization object called
'CO_MDATA', containing fields ACTIVITY and
COMPANY_CODE, might used to control access
to the company master data tables.
Authorizations, each of which belong to exactly one authorization
object, that define authorizationvalues (within the scopes defined by
the authorizationobjects) to be granted to users. Note that an
authorization is different from an authorizationobject!! Extending
our previous examples, we might have an authorization, belonging to
the authorizationobject 'CO_MDATA',called
'CO_MDATA_ALL', that grants all access to all company master
data. Then 'CO_MDATA_ALL'would have the following values:
1. Profiles, each of which may contain several authorizations or profiles. A
simple profile contains a group of authorizations. A composite profile
contains a group of profiles (simple or composite). [Profiles can be
conceptualized as forming the structure of a tree, in which end nodes (leaves)
are authorizations, and all other nodes are profiles. Simple profiles are nodes
whose children are all end nodes, and composite profiles are nodes, other than
end nodes, who have no end nodes for children.]
Profiles are designed to define set or one or more functions or positions. For
example, a functional profile might define all the authorizations that are
required for doing a goods receipt, or for making a payment in the AP
module. A position profile, on the other hand, might define all of the
authorizations that are granted to an accountant, or to a warehouse supervisor.
Often, a position profile is a composite profile consisting of several functional
Roles are collectionsof activities which allow a user to use one or more
business scenarios of an organization.
According to the standard SAP role concept,roles containingaccess
rights are assigned to users. These authorizationsare then checked
when the user performs certain actions, such as starting a transaction.
Assigning a Standard Role to a User
Changing Standard Roles
Creating Composite Roles
Note: The term activity group was replaced with the term role in SAP R/3 Release 4.6C.
Composite roles can simplify the user administration.
They consist of single roles. Users who are assigned a
composite role are automatically assigned the
associated single roles during the compare. Composite
roles do not themselves contain authorization data.
Setting up composite roles are useful for example if some
of your users need authorization for several roles. You can
create a composite role and assign it to the users instead of
putting each user in each required single role.
Derive Roles: There are two possible reasons for deriving a role from
an existing role:
The role menus are identical but the authorizations for the
menu actions are different in the derived role.
The menu and authorizations of the derived role are identical, but
the organizational levels are different in the derived role.
What is PFCG
The Profile Generator is a SAP tool.
Can be used to automatically create profiles and assign
them easily to users.
Only selects and uses the necessary authorization
objects, avoiding excessive validations in the system and
thereby improving performance.
Facilitates functional communication between security or the
authorization administrator and end users or consultants.
Makes defining and maintaining authorization
Beforeusing the PFGC for the first time, there are 4 steps that are required to
configure and work with PFCG Tool.
1) Activate the PFCG
Based on Instance Profile parameter “auth/no_check_in_some_cases=y
2) Set Up the Initial Copy of Profile Generator Configuration Tables (T-Code
Transfer the SAP transactions and authorization objects from SAP tables
USOBT and USOBX to customer USOBT_C and USOBX_C.
You can then maintain these tables using T-Code SU24.
Table USOBT includes the relation between the transactions and the
3) Maintain the Scope of Authorizations Object Checks in Transactions (T-Code
This is not a mandatory step, but can be used by customers to maintain their own
authorizationobjects to custom transactions.
4) Generate the Company Menu
Generate the SAP Standard menu and then the company menu.
1. Choose the pushbutton Create role or the transaction PFCG in the
initial transaction SAP Easy Access. You go to the role maintenance.
2. Specify a name for the role. The roles delivered by SAP have the prefix
'SAP_'. Do not use the SAP namespace for your user roles.
3. SAP does not distinguish between the names of simple and composite
roles. You should adopt your own naming convention to distinguish
between simple and composite roles.
4. Choose Create.
5. Enter a meaningful role description text. You can describe the activities in
the role in detail. To assign Knowledge Warehouse documentation to the
role, choose Utilities ® Info object ® Assign. The user of the role can
then display the documentation.
2. Assign transactions, programs and/or web addresses to the
role in the MENU tab. The user menu which you create
here is called automatically when the user to whom this
role is assigned logs on to the SAP System. You can
create the authorizations for the transactions in the role
menu structure in the AUTHORIZATIONS tab.
You can copy complete
menu branches from
the SAP menu by
clicking on the cross in
front of it in the user
menu. Expand the
menu branch if you
want to put lower-level
nodes or individual
in the user menu.
Choose a report and a variant.
You can skip the selection
You can generate a transaction
code automaticallyand copy
the report description by setting
Save and Move to
To create authorizationsfor a
role, choose AUTHORIZATIONS
in the role maintenance.
The AUTHORIZATIONS tab
displays creation and change
information as well as
information on the authorization
profile (includingthe profile
name, profile text and status).
Click on the change
1. Choose the menu Click on the expand menu go to the respective
authorization object and check the activity field assign the activity
to be performed.
Assign Profile Name
Save the Profile and Click on Generate
You will be prompted with Default System generated Profile Name
You can keep this or you can change the Name of the Profile
Once Generated You can assign the profile to Users.
ASSIGN PROFILES TO
Assign Profile to USERS
Comparing the new
profile with existing
profiles by using USER
Old profile is
MiniApps for the role
MiniApps are simple intuitive
Web applications. The
assignment of MiniApps to a
role determines which
MiniApps the user sees in his
or her mySAP Workplace.
Save and Exit
It sounds complicated
, but once you start working with
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What Is BizRights?
BizRights is a web-based, cross-application, cross-platformenterprise controls application. This
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If the same user performed the same transactions in two different SAP clients
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What your business is doing, according to your business rules
BizRights can monitor millions of records and thousands of transactions any time you want,
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Segregation of Duties
Segregation of duties is a basic, key internal control and one
of the most difficult to achieve. It is used to ensure that
errors or irregularities are prevented or detected on a timely
basis by employees in the normal course of business.
Segregation of duties provides two benefits: 1) a deliberate
fraud is more difficult because it requires collusion of two
or more persons, and 2) it is much more likely that innocent
errors will be found. At the most basic level, it means that
no single individual should have control over two or more
phases of a transaction or operation. Management should
assign responsibilities to ensure a crosscheck of duties.
There are four general categories of duties or
responsibilities which are examined when segregation of
duties are discussed: authorization, custody, record keeping
and reconciliation. In an ideal system, different employees
would perform each of these four major functions. In other
words, no one person should have control of two or more of
these responsibilities. The more negotiable the asset, the
greater the need for proper segregation of duties - especially
when dealing with cash, negotiable checks and inventories
Authorization: the process of reviewing and approving
transactions or operations. Some examples are:
> Verifying cash collections and daily balancing reports.
> Approving purchase requisitions or purchase orders.
> Approving time sheets, payroll certifications,
leave requests and cumulative leave records.
> Approving change orders, computer system design
or programming changes.
Having access to or control over any physical asset such as cash,
checks, equipment, supplies, or materials. Some examples are:
Access to any funds through the collectionof funds, or
> Access to safes, lock boxes, file cabinets or other places
where money, checks or other assets are stored.
> Custodianof a petty cash or change fund. > Receivingany
goods or services.
> Maintaining inventories.
> Handlingor distributingpaychecks/advices, limited
purchasechecks or other checks.
The process of creating and maintainingrecords of revenues,
expenditures, inventories, and personnel transactions. These may be
manual records or records maintainedin automatedcomputer
systems. Some examples are:
> Preparingcash receipt back-ups or billings, purchase
requisitions, payroll certifications, and leave records.
> Entering charges or posting payments to an accounts
> Maintaining inventoryrecords.
Verifying the processing or recording of transactionsto ensure that
all transactionsare valid, properlyauthorized and properlyrecorded
on a timely basis. This includesfollowing up on any differences or
discrepancies identified. Examples are:
> Comparing billing documentsto billing summaries.
> Comparing funds collectedto accountsreceivable postings.
> Comparing collectionsto deposits.
> Performing surprise counts of funds.
> Comparing payroll certifications to payroll summaries.
> Performing physical inventory counts.
> Comparing inventory changes to amounts purchased and sold.
> Reconciling departmental records of revenue, expenditure, and
payroll transactionsto the PeopleSoft management reports.