Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

G322 Common Representations of Specific Social Groups


Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

G322 Common Representations of Specific Social Groups

  1. 1. Common Representations of Specific Social Groups Common Traits of Representations and Stereotypes include: Held values, attitudes, personal habits, traditions, interest(s), way of life, outlook, personal or social issues, common & shared experiences, status in comparison to others, typical successes and failings, expertise and inadequacies, qualities, ways of being, and strengthens and weakness etc. <ul><li>Aim - For the purpose of your exams </li></ul><ul><li>Use the content of this slide to become familiar with common ways in which individual social groups are commonly represented in the media. </li></ul>In slide show, click on the above YouTube screen grab, to view an example of an undertaking of gender analysis.
  2. 2. Familiar Constructions of Gender <ul><li>Common Media Representations and Culturally Held </li></ul><ul><li>Assumptions of Women. </li></ul><ul><li>Women typically represented as being more emotional charged than men </li></ul><ul><li>Professional women are often shown to be more concerned/preoccupied with their appearance than their career performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived as better than men on issues involving children </li></ul><ul><li>and education, while men led on foreign policy. </li></ul><ul><li>Portrayed on television as passive, being dominated by men, </li></ul><ul><li> governed by emotion, overly emotional or dependent. </li></ul><ul><li>Women are also depict as less intelligent then men and </li></ul><ul><li>generally weaker. </li></ul><ul><li>Marital and family oriented. </li></ul><ul><li>3 main categories in which women are shown in advertising: Domestic, Sex Object, Beauty </li></ul><ul><li>Women in power are commonly perceived as manipulative- ‘the nasty corporate climber’ </li></ul><ul><li>Women are too emotional & soft to be leaders i.e. m en take charge, women take care </li></ul><ul><li>The femme fatale, the supermom, the sex kitten, the nasty corporate climber . </li></ul><ul><li>Older women often represented as overbearing and interferring </li></ul><ul><li>Black women are disportionately represented as heavily sexualised </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Common Media and Cultural Representations of Masculinity </li></ul><ul><li>Masculinity tends to be associated with such traits as rationality, </li></ul><ul><li> efficiency, competition, individualism and ruthlessness.] </li></ul><ul><li>The male hero tends to be physically strong, aggressive, </li></ul><ul><li>assertive, takes the initiative, is independent, competitive </li></ul><ul><li>and ambitious. </li></ul><ul><li>TV and film heroes represent goodness, power, control, </li></ul><ul><li>confidence, competence and success. Men tend to be </li></ul><ul><li> shown as more dominant, more violent and more powerful than women. </li></ul><ul><li>Men on TV are more likely to disparage women than vice versa. They drive, drink and smoke more, do athletic things, and make more plans. </li></ul><ul><li>Male characters are more often associated with the public sphere of work, rather than the private sphere of the home, and issues and problems related to work are more significant than personal issues </li></ul><ul><li>Non-white male characters are more likely to experience personal problems and are more likely to use physical aggression or violence to solve those problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Males are more committed to their careers than females </li></ul>
  4. 4. Construction of Masculinity <ul><li>Report Boys to Men: most popular stereotypes of male characters -2007 </li></ul><ul><li>The Joker is a very popular character with boys, perhaps because laughter is part of their own &quot;mask of masculinity.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>2. The Jock is always willing to &quot;compromise his own long-term health; he must </li></ul><ul><li>fight other men when necessary; he must avoid being soft; and he must be </li></ul><ul><li>aggressive.&quot; By demonstrating his power and strength, the jock wins the approval </li></ul><ul><li>of other men and the adoration of women. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The Strong Silent Type focuses on &quot;being in charge, acting decisively, containing emotion, and succeeding with women.&quot; This stereotype reinforces the assumption that men and boys should always be in control, and that talking about one ’s feelings is a sign of weakness. </li></ul><ul><li>4. The Big Shot is defined by his professional status. He is the &quot;epitome of success, embodying the characteristics and acquiring the possessions that society deems valuable.&quot; This stereotype suggests that a real man must be economically powerful and socially successful. </li></ul><ul><li>5. The Action Hero is &quot;strong, but not necessarily silent. He is often angry. Above all, he is aggressive in the extreme and, increasingly over the past several decades, </li></ul><ul><li>he engages in violent behaviour.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>6. The Buffoon commonly appears as a bungling father figure in TV ads and sitcoms . Usually well-intentioned and light-hearted, these characters range from slightly inept to completely hopeless when it comes to parenting their children or dealing with domestic (or workplace) issues. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Common Representation of Ethnicity <ul><li>typical stereotype of an Asian Woman = doctors or accountants not artists&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>stereotypes of black men being lazy, promiscuous, bad fathers and obsessed with rap&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Black Women were obsessed with how much money a man earned and were &quot;strait-laced&quot; compared to white women when it came to sex. </li></ul><ul><li>Asian people are perceived as invaders or karate experts. </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanic people as comics, banditos or gang members. </li></ul><ul><li>Native Americans as savages, victims, cowards or medicine men </li></ul><ul><li>People from Middle East are seen as terrorists or oil sheiks. In video games - 79 per cent of African-American males were shown as verbally and physically aggressive, compared to 57 per cent of white males. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Black people are stereotyped as late arrivers.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ White people can’t dance.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ “ Asian people own corner shops in England.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Asian people are often given arranged marriages” </li></ul><ul><li>The predominate imagery of Blacks on television oscillates between the supremely gifted, virtuous, and successful and the corrupt, criminal, and dangerous (with some Black athletes a bit of both), much more so that it does with Whites. There is little in the way of the merely ordinary, those examples that fail to register a blip on a cultural radar screen calibrated to detect only the extremes. (Robert Entman and Andrew Rejecki 2000), </li></ul>
  6. 6. Common Representation of Ethnicity White Community Dumb blondes Greedy Materialistic Businessmen Middle/upper class Posh/ well spoken The white working/under classes ( particularly young men ), are often represented as loitering and not being interested in their education Asian Community Doctors, engineers entrepreneur and mathematicians Owners of Newsagents- and other small businesses – entrepreneur Ignorant Extremely smart people Young Asian females in particularly are often portrayed as fleeing forced marriages or subject to overly strict parents Insensitive Disrespectful towards women Muslim men are increasingly represented as terrorist and/or vulnerable to extremism. Black Community Usually linked to black men = Crime Living in slums On welfare Need help from community Less intelligent Over sexual
  7. 7. <ul><li>All youths believe that the police have it in for them </li></ul><ul><li>Pensioners stereotyped as being grumpy </li></ul><ul><li>Youth: </li></ul><ul><li>negative stereotypes as hoodie wearing criminals </li></ul><ul><li>Pensioners and the elderly: </li></ul><ul><li>The elderly are stereotyped as being old, frail, lonely , not </li></ul><ul><li> wanted and a burden to their family </li></ul><ul><li>Young people are portrayed by the media as alcoholics and </li></ul><ul><li>drug abusers, criminals, bludgers, lazy, complaining and aggressive </li></ul><ul><li>The image of old people as childlike has been with us for a long time. there was a high level of agreement that old people are unproductive, have to go to bed early, need a nap every day, are in the &quot;happiest&quot; period of their lives, cannot manage their own affairs, and are in their second childhood. </li></ul><ul><li>Pensioners are fed up with being stereotyped on television as grumpy Victor Meldrews or sweet little old ladies, according to a study. </li></ul><ul><li>A common misconception for parents is that every middle school kid of this generation is conceited, gossip-ridden, hormone-raging and naive. This is a stereotype. The irony of labeling children with stereotypes </li></ul><ul><li> is not just hypocritical, but a huge overgeneralization. </li></ul>Common Representation of Age
  8. 8. <ul><li>Many gay-themed movies have made their way into the lime-light and gay characters are popping up in dozens of mainstream movies e.g. Brokeback Mountain </li></ul><ul><li>Many people believe that being gay or bisexual is just a phase </li></ul><ul><li>Gay Men Are Only Concerned With Sex </li></ul><ul><li>“ Many media outlets portray gay men as overly effeminate ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The belief that all gay men desire to be women or are feminine. ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Gay loved ones are condemned to a life alone without children ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Mothers in retrospect regret being too close to their sons, thinking that is what &quot;made&quot; them gay. ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Gay men often represented as d rifting from one sexual liaison to another, they end up old and alone. ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Gay people are flamboyant characters.” </li></ul><ul><li>Represented as often feared, pitied or being the subject of laughter </li></ul><ul><li>Gay men are only concerned with sex </li></ul><ul><li>Gay men do professions like fashions, material design and hair styling </li></ul><ul><li>Gay women do jobs such as sports and the forces </li></ul><ul><li>Lesbians commonly represented as pursuing heterosexual women. </li></ul><ul><li>Gay men and women are often depicted as suffering family rejection </li></ul>Common Representation of Homosexuality
  9. 9. <ul><li>“ invisible minority ” </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps the most common stereotype of persons with disabilities is the victim , </li></ul><ul><li>character who is presented as a helpless object of pity or sympathy </li></ul><ul><li>The flip side of the victim stereotype is the hero - the character who proves her worth by overcoming her disability </li></ul><ul><li>The third common stereotype is the villain </li></ul><ul><li>Throughout history physical disabilities have been used to suggest evil or depravity, such as the image of pirates as having missing hands, eyes and legs. </li></ul><ul><li>Have to try to become over their disability </li></ul><ul><li>Submissive </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of autonomy – font have a lot of freedom </li></ul><ul><li>The disabled person as pitiable or pathetic </li></ul><ul><li>An object of curiosity or violence Sinister or evil </li></ul><ul><li>The super cripple </li></ul><ul><li>His/her own worst enemy </li></ul><ul><li>As a burden </li></ul><ul><li>As non-sexual </li></ul><ul><li>Being unable to participate in daily life </li></ul>Common Representation of Disability
  10. 10. <ul><li>“ Scots have a deadpan style of humor. ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Scots have become wary of expecting much. ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ At weddings, at parties, at major soccer games - Scots will dance, sing, kiss, embrace, cheer and let themselves go. ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Irish people tend to have quick tempers.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ They are all alcoholics, they are all Catholic, they all belong to the IRA, they all sing limericks, they all wear green clothes and talk about fairies. ” </li></ul><ul><li>What Southerners think of Northerners and the North: old-fashioned, boring, miserable, sexually-repressed, racist, depressed, silent, always whining, lazy, drunk, aggressive/violent, it's always raining, awful beer What Northerners think of Southerners and the South: loud, flashy, brash, cocky, arrogant, talk too much, effeminate men , can't handle their beer, rich, posh, too influenced by other Europeans/French/Continental, faddy, too expensive, awful beer What Southerners think of themselves and the South: happy, confident, go-getting, hard-working, progressive, open, broad-minded, ambitious, clever, sunny, cultured, where everything 'is', What Northerners think of themselves and the North: honest, hard-working, romantic about the past, genuine, 'real' men/women , tough, humorous, had-it-tough, stoical, friendly, kind, practical, innovative </li></ul>Common Representation of Region
  11. 11. <ul><li>Working class: </li></ul><ul><li>lazy and childish. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking fame and popularity, being on benefits and struggling to cope financially. </li></ul><ul><li>Underclass (sometimes associated with the label ‘chavs’), being unemployed and/or strapped for cash </li></ul><ul><li>Working-class women in television sitcoms are often portrayed as physically out of control – fat, loud, single mothers, overly sexual and dressed in loud and inappropriate clothing. </li></ul><ul><li>White working class youths , come from bad areas, poorly educated, involved in crime and drugs, scrounging on the system and being anti authority. </li></ul><ul><li>Working-class men , as Richard Butsch has argued , are usually shown as buffoons.  They ’re lazy, foolish, selfish, and childish -think Homer Simpson. </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Classes: Stereotypical qualities: ambitious, officious, snobbish (the more snobbish the more ignorant), un-manly, mean, pushy, sometimes camp, Types: social climber; nerd, or, alternatively, blokish/laddish; managerial/bank manager </li></ul><ul><li>Upper-class : greedy, selfish and bigoted, silly (hee-hawing laugh) drunk (as a lord), easy-going, generous, stylish, confident, sometimes masterful, sometimes camp </li></ul>Common Representation of Social Class
  12. 12. Common Representation of Social Class <ul><li>Most of the religious characters were not very pleasant, judgemental, unforgiving though occasionally they would be seen as having a ‘heart of gold’. </li></ul><ul><li>They were mostly older women with a habit of quoting the bible and moralising about other people ’s behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Clergy characters were seen as being prone to temptation (and usually giving in to it) but there was a split amongst interviewees on whether or not this made them more humane and representative of modern clergy or just weak, corrupt and not fit to be in the church. </li></ul><ul><li>Two stereotypical images of Muslims are offered. On the one hand we have characters from films and dramas, such as BBC 1's 'Eastenders' and BBC 2's 'This Life', who are Muslim, though only by name. These characters are Western conformists, totally adopting Western values and culture. There remains no sign of their religious or ethnic identity, and should the issue of their cultural background be mentioned it is treated as a cause for embarrassment. </li></ul><ul><li>The other, and more common stereotype is that of the violent religious fanatic. </li></ul><ul><li>In programmes we are constantly offered the image of Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>as savage terrorists, killing innocent people with no remorse. </li></ul>Common Representation of Religion/ The Religious