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Marine ecology

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ECOLOGY
by: BSED 2M (Poreber 1M)

Published in: Education
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Marine ecology

  1. 1. MARINE ECOLOGY
  2. 2. MARINE ECOSYSTEM Is an organized system of relationship between plants and animals in the aquatic environment. OCEANOGRAPHERS Who investigates the physical, chemical and biological properties of ocean waters, ocean currents and ocean basins.
  3. 3. MARINE PROVINCES A. Pelagic Division B. Benthic Division
  4. 4. A. PELAGIC DIVISION This division embodies all the waters of the oceans and their adjacent salt water bodies. 1. NERITIC ZONE  Extending offshore to the edge of the continental shelf to a depth of 600 ft.  Rich in plant nutrients, especially the phosphates and nitrates.  The water is more variable in density and in chemical content than oceanic waters. 2. OCEANIC ZONE  Has well-populated upper, lighted, 660 ft. stratum, deeper, relatively dark, and sparsely populated layers.  Characterized by great pressure, animals modified for life in darkness and under great pressure, and very few bottom animals.  The water is usually very transparent
  5. 5. B. BENTHIC DIVISION The division of the marine environment embraces the entire ocean floor, both coastal bottom and deep sea bottom, properly termed the littoral and deep-sea systems, respectively.
  6. 6. 1. LITTORAL ZONE Area located between the high and low tide marks. Animals living are adapted to periodic exposure to air and sun as the tides eeb and flow Most animals are motile
  7. 7. 2 TYPES OF LITTORAL ZONE a. EULITTORAL ZONE This is probably the richest zone of the marine ecosystem with respect to numbers and kinds of organisms. Factors that changes in this environment are: Light Temperature Salinity Time exposure These variations are reflect in shapes movements, tolerance and life histories of the characteristic animals and plants.
  8. 8. 5 MAJOR KINGDOMS IN THE OCEAN 1. MONERA 2. PROTISTA 3. FUNGI 4. METAPHYTA 5. METAZOA
  9. 9. Monera: (bacteria) -no internal cell membranes -planktonic or benthic -recycle organic material -some photosynthetic
  10. 10. Protista: foraminifera, diatom, seaweed -planktonic or benthic -internal membranes -planktonic, benthic, eat or photosynthesize SEA WEEDS
  11. 11. Fungi • Abundant in the intertidal zone • Not as diverse as on land • Important in decomposition
  12. 12. Metaphyta • Plants that grow attached to the sea floor – Red, brown, and green algae – Advanced plants of salt marshes and coastal swamps • Only found in shallow areas where bottom is in the photic zone
  13. 13. Metazoa:  multicellular animals
  14. 14. 2. DEEP-SEA SYSTEM COMPONENTS OF MARINE ECOSYTEM ( classification by lifestyle) A. PLANKTON ORGANISMS B. ZOOPLANKTON C. NEKTON COMMUNITY D. BENTHOS ORGANISMS E. CORAL REEFS F. MANGROVE SWAMPS
  15. 15. A. PLANKTON ORGANISMS These organisms are small, mostly microscopic and have a little or no power of locomotion, being distributed by water movements. PHYTOPLANKTON  This includes all the following plants, such as the small algae, fungi and sargasum weed.  The most important in the economy of the sea are the Algae, Diatoms and Dinoflagellates. They are the major producers in marine plankton.
  16. 16. DIATOMS  Are microscopic, unicellular plants and some of them form chains.  They possess characteristic shell composed of translucent silica, and have a great variety of form and sculpture.  Possess one or more chromophores, ranging in color from yellow to brown.  Occurs as fossil, siliceous shell deposits, called “diatomaceous earth” and as a living producers in practically all habitats of the broad marine ecosystem.  They are found floating in water, attached to the bottom, on larger plants, on animals, and as spores, enclosed in Arctic ice.
  17. 17. Different shapes of Diatoms
  18. 18. Phytoplankton organisms are more abundant in natural – rich coastal waters than in offshore oceanic waters. They are the primary producers upon which large and small marine animals feed. DINOFLAGELLATES  Possess whip-like flagella that provide a slight degree of locomotion.  Possess structural modifications that indicate adaptation to environment conditions.
  19. 19. B. ZOOPLANKTON Organisms are the floating or weakly swimming animals, which include the eggs and larval stages as well as adult forms. PRINCIPAL KINDS includes  PROTOZOA such as Foraminifera and Radiolarian  CRUSTACEA such as Ostracods and Copepods  LARVAL STAGES  JELLYFISHES  WORMS  MOLLUSKS and also the eggs and early developmental stages of most of the non- planktonic organisms in the sea.
  20. 20. Copepods • Small herbivores (plant eaters) that filter diatoms from the water • Molt their outer skeleton as they grow • About the size of a grain of rice • Migrate vertically seasonally Foramifera • Single celled, microscopic organisms • Calcium carbonate shells - Carbonates • Benthic forms outnumber the pelagic • Their shells are porous and protoplasm streams from inside the shell to engulf and digest food
  21. 21. C. NEKTON COMMUNITY  They are actively swimming animals in marine ecosystems.  They comprise adult stages of such familiar forms as crabs, squids, fish and whales. REPTILES  Are airs breathing animals that live both on land and the sea.  Some of them are snakes, turtles, crocodiles and lizards.
  22. 22. D. BENTHOS ORGANISMS  They are relatively few kinds and numbers of animals on the deep- sea floor.  They are mainly mud dwellers, possessing characteristic structures permitting life in a quiet, dark, muddy environment where food is scarce.  They are snails, mussels, clams, oysters, sea anemones, sea urchin, sea cucumbers and starfish.
  23. 23. Epifauna - live on the bottom Infauna – live within the bottom sediments Note: fauna signifies animals not plants
  24. 24. E. CORAL REEFS  Are the habitats of marine organisms, like sea hares, sea fans, sea anemones and nudibranchs.  Are important source of fish and other fishery products.  Are massive deposits of limestone that have been produced by coral animals belonging to Phylum Cnidarian, Order Scleractinia with major additions from calcareous algae and other organisms that secrete calcium carbonate.
  25. 25. Examples of Coral Reef
  26. 26. CERTAIN FACTORS THAT FAVORS THE DEVELOPMENT OF CORAL REEFS 1. Temperature above 18 degrees Celsius. 2. Water depth shallower than 50 meters. 3. Constant salinity greater than 30 but less than 36 parts per thousand. 4. Low sedimentation rates. 5. Sufficient circulation of pollution-free water. 6. Pre-existing hard substrate.
  27. 27. THREE TYPES OF CORAL REEFS are; 1. ATOLLS are circle reefs enclosing a lagoon, horseshoe-shaped ridges of reefs. 2. BARRIER REEFS along continents. 3. FRINGING REEFS are very common around tropical high islands and sometimes border the main coastline.
  28. 28. FACTORS THAT LEAD TO THE DESTRUCTION OF CORAL REEFS 1. Pollution from oil, sewage, heavy metals and thermal discharge, have caused the destruction of fringing reefs. 2. Destructive fishing activities such as blasting, dragging nets over reefs and the use of cyanide. 3. Reef gleaners break corals by walking over the reef at low tide to gather food and swimmer damage coral with their fins. 4. Tourists sometimes remove live corals and reef animals for souvenir. Indiscriminate anchoring tourists’ boats over coral reefs have caused huge destruction to frequently visited areas.
  29. 29. F. MANGROVE SWAMP  Help to form Island and extend shores. (LAND BUILDER)  Are among the few emergent land plants that tolerate the salinities of the open sea.
  30. 30. TWO TYPES OF MANGROVE 1. RED MANGROVE  Form the outermost zone.  Has an extensive deposition of mud and silt.  Provide surfaces for attachment of marine organisms.  Its seed sprout while still on the tree, the seedlings drop off and float in the water where well-develop roots may take hold, perhaps to start anew island. 2. BLACK MANGROVE  Forms a zone nearer shore.  Its roots stick up the mud like branch of asparagus.
  31. 31. Mangroves are not only important in extending coasts and building islands, but also in protecting coasts from excessive erosion which might otherwise be produced by fierce tropical storms.
  32. 32. PROBLEMS OF MARINE ECOSYSTEM Classified as: 1. Nature-induced stresses 2. Man-induced stresses 1. NATURE-INDUCED STRESSES  By water movement and geological and biological factors a. Water movements due to typhoons or cyclonic phenomenon. b. Biological factors such as competitions and predation are known to cause reef deterioration.
  33. 33. 2. MAN-INDUCED STRESSES  Are siltation, overfishing in shallow coastal waters, destructive fishing, logging and conversion of mangroves into fishponds, pollution and expansion of tourism activities. a. SILTATION. Excessive siltations due to deforestation and mining activities have been observed to cause the death of coral reefs. b. OVERFISHING. Overfishing means the continuous exploitation of particular fishing ground over sometime period.
  34. 34. c. DESTRUCTIVE FISHING. Practice which plague the marine ecosystem include; -Blast fishing means the use of dynamite or any other explosive in fishing. -Cyanide is the common poison used by illegal fisherman. Caused several of skin disease. -Electro-fishing is fishing with the used of electric generators. -Trawl fishing is done with a net in the shape of ling conical bag tapering from the wide-open mouth to a narrow bag at the end.
  35. 35. d. POLLUTION. Industrial waste. May caused: -The instability and death of organisms associated with corals which could ultimately lead to the extinction of species. -Decreased productivity followed by the decreased of fish production which results to the loss of a source of livelihood of fisherman and other people involved in the fishing industry. -An increase in coastal erosion. -The DE growth of the tourism industry. -A loss in part of our natural heritage.
  36. 36. e. TOURISM INDUSTRY. Lack of guidelines on marine preservation. RED TIDE -Is a natural phenomenon brought about by the bloom or predominance of floating microscopic organisms known as DINOFLAGELLATES. -It is called red tide because of the reddish color of dinoflagellates give to the cell when present in high cell densities. -It organisms that caused deaths in the country has been identified as PYRODINIUM HABAMENSE VAR COMPRESA. This organism is attracted to sunlight during daytime and settles at the bottom in the dark hours. - The poison in the organism is known as SAXITOXIN. It is water-soluble salt that affects the nervous system.
  37. 37. THREE CONDITIONS THAT TRIGGER RED TIDES 1. Stirring up of the sediment in the nearshore waters by wind action. 2. High temperature of water due to summer sun which makes the sea more salty. 3. Nutrient enrichment of the sea. Occurs during May and June.
  38. 38. PROTECTION OF MARINE ECOSYSTEM RULES AND REGULATIONS (Implemented by the DENR) 1. Prohibit various forms of illegal fishing. 2. Prohibit the exportation of Bangus fry. 3. Prohibit the operation of commercial trawls and purse seines in certain areas. 4. Establish fish refuges and sanctuaries. 5. Establish “closed seasons”. 6. Explore, exploit, utilize and conserve coral reef. 7. Insure continuous supply of fish in communal water areas. 8.Under take and arrange special technical assistance and training programs. 9. Conduct research and study fish and fishery products and resources.
  39. 39. THANK YOU FOR LISTENING!!!
  40. 40. REPORTED BY: AMIL, RENZ MAVERIC ALMEDA, CATHERINE CAYACO, DENNESE IRIOLA, JOCHRIS

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