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Self-selection in choice of occupations

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Our analysis focuses on how workers select their occupations, putting a strong emphasis on intergenerational transmission of cultural norms and beliefs. Our results suggest that sons are not only likely to inherit parent views, but also the type of occupations. We propose an extension to the model of occupational selection that incorporates this feature.

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Self-selection in choice of occupations

  1. 1. Self-selection in choice of occupation: family and gender issues Magdalena Smyk University of Warsaw Doctoral thesis presentation 28th February 2017 Magdalena Smyk Self-selection in choice of occupation Doctoral defense 1 / 24
  2. 2. Gender differences in occupation Why is it interesting? common and prevailing phenomenon (Goldin, 2013, 2014; Blau et al. 2013) contributes to explain gender wage differences (World Development Report, 2012) external barriers fail to explain it (Bush and Holst 2011; Blau et al. 1998, 2013) Magdalena Smyk Self-selection in choice of occupation Doctoral defense 2 / 24
  3. 3. Motivation Gender differences in the choice of occupation: preferences scientifically unsatisfactory explanation (Becker 1996, Argwal 2000) traits (risk aversion, competitiveness, altruism, etc.) (Holt and Laury 2005, Niederle and Vesterlund 2011, Andreoni 1989) small explanatory power nature or nurture? (Finucane et al. 2000, Gneezy et al. 2009) still unresolved Magdalena Smyk Self-selection in choice of occupation Doctoral defense 3 / 24
  4. 4. Thesis The role of parents: inheritance of a profession (Laband and Lentz 1990, Korupp et al. 2002) transmission of gender norms - a literature gap Main hypothesis Parents’ gender norms influence their children’s choices of education and occupation. Magdalena Smyk Self-selection in choice of occupation Doctoral defense 4 / 24
  5. 5. Contribution extension of choice of occupation model (gender identity concept) (Roy 1951, Akerlof and Kranton 2010, Humlum et al. 2012) first empirical test of the intergenerational transmission of: gender intensity of the occupation (norms) CONFIRMED gender beliefs related to education CONFIRMED study on gender norms related to housework division + proposed measure of gender intensity in an occupation Magdalena Smyk Self-selection in choice of occupation Doctoral defense 5 / 24
  6. 6. Measure of gender intensity in an occupation FemOcc Index FemOcci,t = share of womeni,t share of woment , where i – narrow occupational group, t – year representation measure ⇒ data requirements American Community Survey provides the largest consistently coded sample Magdalena Smyk Self-selection in choice of occupation Doctoral defense 6 / 24
  7. 7. Measure of gender intensity in an occupation FemOcc Index Magdalena Smyk Self-selection in choice of occupation Doctoral defense 7 / 24
  8. 8. Measure of gender intensity in an occupation FemOcc Index Magdalena Smyk Self-selection in choice of occupation Doctoral defense 8 / 24
  9. 9. Measure of gender intensity in an occupation FemOcc Index Magdalena Smyk Self-selection in choice of occupation Doctoral defense 9 / 24
  10. 10. Study 1: Transmission of norms related to the choice of occupation Do parents transmit gender norms related to choice of occupation to their children? Magdalena Smyk Self-selection in choice of occupation Doctoral defense 10 / 24
  11. 11. Transmission of norms related to the choice of occupation FemOcci = α + β1 Father s FemOcc + β2 Mother s FemOcci + γ Xi + i Variables Dependent variable: gender intensity of the occupation of an individual i (FemOcci ) Independent variables: Father s FemOcc - gender intensity of i’s father occupation Mother s FemOcc - gender intensity of i’s mother occupation Control variables (Xi ): gender, education, education of parents, birth year, race, siblings order Data: Panel Study of Income Dynamics 1968-2013 merged with measures of FemOcci from ACS Magdalena Smyk Self-selection in choice of occupation Doctoral defense 11 / 24
  12. 12. Transmission of norms related to choice of occupation What do we expect? Correlation between FemOcc indexes of: father and son - positive mother and son - negative (but possibly weaker) mother and daughter - positive father and daughter - negative Magdalena Smyk Self-selection in choice of occupation Doctoral defense 12 / 24
  13. 13. Transmission of norms related to choice of occupation Total Without Only Only different sample the same siblings gender occupation siblings FATHER - SON 0.056*** 0.042** 0.048*** 0.071*** (0.017) (0.017) (0.018) (0.022) MOTHER - SON -0.046* -0.041 -0.040 -0.053* (0.025) (0.025) (0.027) (0.032) MOTHER - DAUGHTER 0.050*** 0.064* 0.070* 0.041** (0.035) (0.034) (0.037) (0.043) FATHER - DAUGHTER 0.000** 0.000* -0.004** -0.002*** (0.023) (0.023) (0.024) (0.028) Observations 7,868 7,661 6,880 5,038 Magdalena Smyk Self-selection in choice of occupation Doctoral defense 13 / 24
  14. 14. Summary of Study 1 Robustness checks: The timing of parents’ occupations Placebo tests Do parents transmit gender norms related to choice of occupation to their children? Results: Transmission from father to sons - confirmed Transmission from mother to sons - rejected Transmission to daughters - more complex Magdalena Smyk Self-selection in choice of occupation Doctoral defense 14 / 24
  15. 15. Study 2: Transmission of gender beliefs Do parents’ gender beliefs related to education correlate with children’s occupational plans? Magdalena Smyk Self-selection in choice of occupation Doctoral defense 15 / 24
  16. 16. Transmission of gender beliefs P(STEM = 1|Xi ) = α + β1Own Beliefsi + β2Parents Beliefsi + γXi + i Variables Dependent variable: pupil plans to work in STEM occupation (P(STEM = 1|Xi )) (Science, Technology, Engineering, Math) Independent variables: Own Beliefsi - pupil believes that boys are better in math Parents Beliefsi - parents believe that boys are better in math Control variables (Xi ): GPA in math, parents occupations, race, school controls Data: High School Longitudinal Study 2009 Magdalena Smyk Self-selection in choice of occupation Doctoral defense 16 / 24
  17. 17. Transmission of gender beliefs What do we expect? Effects of own and parents’ beliefs on probability to plan STEM occupation is: positive - for boys negative - for girls Magdalena Smyk Self-selection in choice of occupation Doctoral defense 17 / 24
  18. 18. Transmission of gender beliefs Chance of choosing occupation within STEM Magdalena Smyk Self-selection in choice of occupation Doctoral defense 18 / 24
  19. 19. Summary of Study 2 Robustness checks: Various measurements of gender beliefs Science (rather than math) Do parents’ gender beliefs related to education correlate with children’s occupational plans? Results: Parents and children share gender related beliefs Gender beliefs affect occupational plans Parent’s gender beliefs effect is stronger than subjective factors (own beliefs) objective factors (GPA) Magdalena Smyk Self-selection in choice of occupation Doctoral defense 19 / 24
  20. 20. Conclusions Main findings: Parents play significant role for their children’s choice of occupation: For sons father’s gender norms related with occupation matters, but mother’s do not For daughters transmission of gender norms is more complex Children tend to share parents’ gender beliefs Parents’ gender beliefs influence children’s occupational plans Contribution to the literature: Addressing Akerlof and Kranton (2010) theory of where gender norms related to choice of occupation come from First empirical confirmation of parents role in choice of occupation and education Magdalena Smyk Self-selection in choice of occupation Doctoral defense 20 / 24
  21. 21. Thank you for your attention Magdalena Smyk Self-selection in choice of occupation Doctoral defense 21 / 24
  22. 22. Theoretical background Roy’s choice of occupation model (1951) Gender identity (Akerlof and Kranton 2000, 2010) Choice of occupation (Humlum et al. 2012) Uj = Uj (wj ( j , εj )), εj , Ij ( j , cj , εj , P)), where wj ( j , εj ) - wage in occupation εj , j - individual characteristics, cj - social category (gender), P - gender norms Operationalize P - gender norms as a function of j and parents (p) Magdalena Smyk Self-selection in choice of occupation Doctoral defense 22 / 24
  23. 23. Theoretical background - extension How the gender norms are shaped? Pj = Pj (aj , a−j , cj , j , Pj,p), where aj - actions of individual j, a−j - actions of other people, cj - gender, j - individual characteristics, Pj,p - parents’ gender norms Magdalena Smyk Self-selection in choice of occupation Doctoral defense 23 / 24

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