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Intelligent Use Of Water


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A Comprehensive Document On Best Practices and Pitfalls Of Irrigation Design and Water Management.

Published in: Self Improvement
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Intelligent Use Of Water

  1. 1. The Intelligent Use of Water
  2. 2. Anatomy of a Water-Efficient SystemToday’s Objectives: Understand direct and indirect costs of water Learn six key areas to apply water-efficient technology Learn which products to specify in each of these areas Find out where to get more information
  3. 3. The Costs of Water Understanding theDirect and Indirect Costs of Water
  4. 4. The Cost of Water Total cost of ownership: Vehicle = Cost of vehicle, maintenance, insurance and gas Appliance = Cost of appliance, installation, maintenance and power HVAC = Cost of product, installation, maintenance and power Irrigation = Design, cost of product, installation, maintenance and water The highest cost of an irrigation system is typically the water used by the system over its lifetime
  5. 5. The Cost of WaterOver-watering creates additional problems that increase costs: Leaches nutrients from the root zone requiring the application of additional fertilizer Causes fungus and attracts pests Major cause of plant death Adds additional time and labor to maintain site Runoff damages hardscapes and be an expensive liability Poor public relations
  6. 6. When Demand Outpaces Supply Water prices increase / Use is restricted Irrigation is one the most visible forms of water use - usually the first to be regulated during a drought or water shortage Current politics of irrigation:  Water bans and restrictions  Odd/even watering days  Tiered water rates  Lawn size and landscape restrictions  Irrigation audits  Water-efficient product rebates
  7. 7. Water Conservation Programs EPA WaterSense - Modeled after Energy Star labeling program ( LEED - USGBC’s rating system for designing, constructing, operating and certifying the world’s greenest buildings (
  8. 8. Leading Causes of Irrigation Water Waste Improperly designed, installed, maintained systems Inefficient systems using outdated technology Incorrect pressure and/or flow for highest efficiency operation Water applied at a higher rate than the soil or slope conditions will accept Systems operate even though irrigation or rainfall has saturated the soil Systems are not adjusted to the current needs of the landscape
  9. 9. Water-Efficient Irrigation SystemAnatomy of a Water-Efficient Irrigation System
  10. 10. 6 Key Technologies to Conserve Water1. Operates Based on Weather and 2. Flow Sensing and 3. PressureEvapotranspiration Leak Detection Regulation (ET) 6. Durability / Low4. High-Efficiency 5. Low Volume and Maintenance to Nozzles Direct to Root Perform as Specified
  11. 11. 1. Weather and ET-Based IrrigationControllers
  12. 12. Smart Controllers Automatic irrigations systems typically over-water due primarily to insufficient reprogramming of the irrigation schedule by the operator as weather changes. Smart Controllers can dramatically reduce this over-irrigation, thereby saving significant quantities of water and reducing urban runoff. Smart Controller is automatically adjust for local weather and site conditions. Once the initial set-up and monitoring is complete, there is no need to reset the controller, or even turn it off for the winter. Smart Controllers make those adjustments automatically. Weather based controllers are not necessarily Smart Controllers.
  13. 13. Weather and ET-Based Irrigation Best: Specify controllers or central control systems that replace manual operation with 100% weather-based or ET-based scheduling Next best: Specify controllers with features that make it more convenient and easy for the operator to adjust for the weather
  14. 14. Weather-Based Irrigation Controllers Controllers that use weather conditions such as rain, wind, temperature, humidity, and evaporation are called “Weather-Based Irrigation Controllers.” Evaporation really consists of two factors: Moisture lost through evaporation AND moisture used by the plants through transpiration. What term do we call these factors? Evapotranspiration or ET
  15. 15. ET-Based SchedulingWhat is Evapotranspiration (ET)? ET is the inches of water lost to the plant’s use through daily evaporation and transpiration Effective rainfall (rain that is accepted by the soil) can be subtracted from the ET to calculate the Irrigation ET. Irrigation ET is used to calculate the minutes of sprinkler run time required to return the soil moisture level back to desired levels – no more, no less.
  16. 16. Central Control Systems with ET-Based Scheduling Real Time ET Programmable ET
  17. 17. NOAA - Real Time ETNational Weather Service Technical Description of Real Time ET Format and Science Basis - This product is being developed to provide evapotranspiration - forecasts to their customers using a common methodology of an alfalfa reference crop. An algorithm is utilized, drawing upon existing National Digital Forecast Database (NDFD) gridded forecasts, to generate the forecast output. Availability - The graphics will be available 24/7. They will be updated once per day at 5 am local time. Additional Information – Although local farmers will benefit from this application, the forecast output is available to all customers and will benefit anyone who has outdoor watering needs.
  18. 18. ET Based on Five Criteria Solar Radiation – Inclination of the sun Temperature Humidity Wind Rainfall
  19. 19. 2. Flow Sensing and Leak DetectionControllers
  20. 20. Flow Sensing and Leak Detection Use flow sensors to monitor hydraulic conditions in the field Checks in real time for excessive flows caused by broken pipes, vandalized sprinklers or stuck valves. If a problem is detected the system will: Locate the problem Isolate the valve or mainline Send an alarm Flow Sensors and Flow Sensor Accessories
  21. 21. Leak Prevention from Low Head DrainageBuilt-in Seal-a-Matic(SAM) check valve saveswater and preventserosion from low-headdrainage. 14 feet Low head without SAM wastes water
  22. 22. SAM Check ValvesSAM Check Valves available in theseRain Bird Sprays and Rotors:1800-SAM Sprays 3500 SAM Rotors 5000/5000 Plus SAM Rotors 5505 SAM Rotors Falcon 6504 SAM Rotors 7005 SAM Rotors 8005 SAM Rotors
  23. 23. 3. Pressure RegulationValves and Heads
  24. 24. Sprinkler Operating Pressure High pressure results in ineffective misting and fogging Reduce pressure at the sprinkler head
  25. 25. Sprinkler Operating Pressure Low pressure results in poor, uneven nozzle performance Increase pressure with booster pumps
  26. 26. Importance of Regulating High Pressure Every 5 psi reduction in pressure to optimal reduces water use by 6-8% Savings in an area can be 50%+ if a 70 psi spray zone is reduced to the recommended 30 psi. Ways to achieve optimal pressure at the head:  Pressure Regulating Stem in Sprinklers  Pressure Regulating Swing Joints  Pressure Regulating Valves
  27. 27. Pressure Regulating Stem in 1800 Sprays Without PRS With PRS1800-PRS Series Sprays restrict water loss by 70% if the nozzle is damaged or removed
  28. 28. Pressure Regulating Stem in 5000 Series RotorsHunter PGP @ 75psi 5000 Plus PRS @ 75psi
  29. 29. PRS Swing Joints Pressure regulating swing joints Maintains optimum pressure on all rotors on a zone Reduces misting and fogging Factory set at: ¾“ at 45 psi 1“ at 70 psi
  30. 30. Valves PRS-Dial Pressure regulator for valves maintains constant water pressure to prevent water waste caused by misting and fogging at the head
  31. 31. 4. High-Efficiency Nozzles Sprays and Rotors
  32. 32. High-Efficiency Spray NozzlesU-Series Spray Nozzles Use 30% less water*Rotary Nozzles (on a Spray Body) 0.60 in/hr precipitation rate from 13 to 24 feetPressure Compensating Screens (PCS) Compensates for pressure variations
  33. 33. Pressure Compensating Screens for 1800 Sprays Pressure Compensating Screens (PCS) minimize pressure variations at the spray head Reduces ineffective misting and fogging caused by high pressure Can be matched with spray nozzles to create short-throw and reduced radius patterns
  34. 34. High-Efficiency Spray and Rotor Nozzles Matched Precipitation Rate (MPR) Spray Nozzles Mix various arcs and radii on the same spray circuit MPR Spray Nozzle Rain Bird 5000/5000 Plus MPR Nozzles: Deliver matched precipitation rates within and between rotor radii from 25 to 35. 5000/5000 Plus MPR Nozzle 0.60 inch/hour for quarter, one-third, half and full arcs
  35. 35. Rain Bird Fixed Arc Spray Nozzles Performance Line UpGood: MPR Nozzles  Fixed arc  Matched precipitation rate through all arcs and radiiBetter: U-Series Nozzles  Fixed arc  Matched precipitation rate through all arcs and radii  30% water savings over standard spray nozzlesBest: Rotary Nozzles U-Series Nozzle  Fixed arc  Covers larger area from 13 – 24  Matched precipitation rate through all arcs and radii  60% water savings over standard spray nozzles  Low precipitation rate 0.60 inch/hr Rotary Nozzle
  36. 36. Little Tuffy pop-up sprinkler heads incorporate into thepop-up stem the unique LittleValve® technology withall of its water-saving and labor-saving benefits.
  37. 37. 5. Low-Volume / Direct-to-Root IrrigationLandscape Drip
  38. 38. Low-Volume / Direct-to-Root Irrigation Very efficient for non-turf applications Apply precise amounts of water slowly and evenly at the root Helps reduce weeds and plant disease Helps eliminate runoff Helps plants thrive with correct installation and maintenance
  39. 39. Control Zone Kit Selection ToolInteractive way to choose the right Control Zone Kit
  40. 40. Root Watering Series (RWS) Direct-to-root-zone application for trees Deeper root watering Minimize run-off for entire zone RWS promotes tree survivability during water restrictions
  41. 41. 6. Durability and Low MaintenanceEntire System
  42. 42. Durability / Low MaintenanceSpecify products that offer technology that enhance long life and low maintenance: Quality and durability of the products is important to long-term water efficiency How easy and convenient the products are to adjust help ensure they are adjusted as needed to perform properly
  43. 43. Review
  44. 44. 6 Key Technologies to Conserve Water1. Operates Based 2. Flow Sensing and 3. Pressure on Weather and Leak Detection/ Regulation Evapotranspiration Prevention  PRS Sprays & (ET)  Central Control Rotors Central Controls  SAM Check  PRS Swing Joint ET Manager Valves  PRS-Dial  Booster Pumps4. High-Efficiency 5. Low Volume and 6. Durability / Low Nozzles Direct to Root Maintenance to Perform as U-Series  Landscape Drip Specified Rotary Nozzle  Root Watering  Technology for Series long life and low MPR maintenance Rain Curtain
  45. 45. Water-Efficient Irrigation Healthier plant material Less disease and plant loss Shorter irrigation run times Less water waste (wet areas are eliminated) Lower irrigation water bills Sites are easier to maintain Use less fertilizer & pesticides Makes you a better steward of the environment
  46. 46. Thank you for your attention!I would like to take this opportunity and thankTyler Lankowski, Commercial Marketing Assistant, Rain Bird Corporation6991 E. Southpoint RoadTucson, AZ 85756 Do we have time for(520) 741-6541 phone Questions?!!!!(520) 741-6522 fax