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Conole Salerno


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Conole Salerno

  1. 1. Bridging the gap between policy & practice: a reflective review & looking forward to the future Gráinne Conole, Open University, UK VI Congresso Nazionale della SIe-L: E-learning, creatività ed innovazione Salerno University, 17/09/09 More info, slides and references:
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Scrutinising the e-learning history line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lessons from the past </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a glimpse into the future </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emergent themes and challenges </li></ul><ul><li>A framework for making policy work </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrative case studies </li></ul><ul><li>Reflections and questions for the future </li></ul>
  3. 3. Key focus <ul><li>Is there a gap between e-learning policy and actual practice? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How can we bridge the gap ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does e-learning policy adequate reflect current technological advances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If not how can we ensure it does ? </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Scrutinising the e-learning timeline Conole, (2007) in Andrews & Haythornwaite Context Globalisation, networked society, changing societal norms, ICT advances UK : Dearing review of ICT TLTP projects, CTI, HE Academy, JISC US : Fragmented policy, driven by individuals and commercial imperative Education/Industry partnerships, spin offs, Open Educational Movement Impact Local culture vs global hegemony, changing roles & structures, commercial vs. government supported, dissemination and impact evaluation Policy Practice Drivers Widening participation, personalization, lifelong learning, quality assurance, developing the work force, commercial imperative
  5. 5. A glimpse into the future
  6. 6. Inspire by Pea &Wallis, 2008 We can now interact at a distance, accessing complex & useful resources in ways unimaginable in early eras What’s the next stage of the co-evolution? Phases of development Tool-user co-evolution 1 2 3 b a c + Internet Mobile devices TV Radio Smart tools Phone
  7. 7. Converging practices <ul><li>Modern technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Modern pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 practices </li></ul><ul><li>Location aware technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation & customisation </li></ul><ul><li>Second life/ immersive worlds </li></ul><ul><li>Google it! </li></ul><ul><li>“ Expert badges” , World of warcraft </li></ul><ul><li>User- generated content </li></ul><ul><li>Blogging, peer critiquing </li></ul><ul><li>Cloud computing </li></ul><ul><li>From individual to social </li></ul><ul><li>Contextualised and situated learning </li></ul><ul><li>Personalised learning </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential learning </li></ul><ul><li>Inquiry learning </li></ul><ul><li>Peer learning </li></ul><ul><li>Open Educational Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed cognition </li></ul>
  8. 8. Tensions & implications Loosely coupled tools Integrated IT systems Personalised tools Institutional tools Student controlled Institutional controlled The VLE/LMS is dead debate
  9. 9. A framework for making policy work Policy Teacher practice Research & development The learner’s experience
  10. 10. Avoiding failures of the past <ul><li>Common reactions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I haven’t got time ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ My research is more important” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What’s in it for me ?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Where is my reward ?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I don’t have the skills to do this” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I don’t believe in this, it won’t work” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common resistance strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ll say yes (and do nothing ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undermine the initiative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undermine the person involved </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classic mistake : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on the technologies , not the people and processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funding for technology developments but not use and support </li></ul></ul>Great policy initiatives often fail – why?
  11. 11. Cloudworks: Harnessing web 2.0
  12. 12. Key concepts Clouds: Learning & teaching ideas Design or case studies Tools or resources Questions or problems Cloudscapes: Conferences Workshops Course team Student cohort Research theme Project
  13. 13. User profile
  14. 14. Activity stream
  15. 15. Features <ul><li>Dynamic list of clouds + new comments </li></ul><ul><li>Comments on clouds + cloudscapes </li></ul><ul><li>Can “follow” people + cloudscapes </li></ul><ul><li>RSS feeds of cloudscapes + people </li></ul><ul><li>Embedding: pictures, video, presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Twitter feeds for people +cloudscapes </li></ul><ul><li>Email alerts </li></ul><ul><li>Activity streams </li></ul>
  16. 16. Emergent patterns of use <ul><li>Events: conferences and workshops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ALT-C conference , 8-11 th September 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discussions: Flash debates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is Twitter killing blogging? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eliciting expertise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Literature review of educational technologist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aggregating resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>En Rumbo Spanish course </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Olnet: redefining openness
  18. 18. A definition The open provision of educational resources, enabled by information and communication technologies, for consultation, use and adaptation by a community of users for non-commercial purposes (UNESCO 2002)
  19. 19. A broader definition of OER Learning resources Courseware, content modules, learning objects, learner support & assessment tools, online learning communities Resources to support teachers Tools for teachers and support materials to enable them to create, adapt and use OER; training materials for teachers Resources to assure the quality of education and educational practices (UNESCO 2004)
  20. 20. Bridging the gap Personalised Situative Social Experiential Reflective Adaptive Contextual Networked Immersive Collective “ Open Design” Characteristics of good pedagogy Affordances of new technologies
  21. 21. A mediating layer Can we develop new innovative mediating artifacts? How can we make the design more explicit and sharable ? Designer Design Has an inherent OER Creates Mediating artifacts <ul><li>Mediating artifacts </li></ul><ul><li>Design visualisation tools - CompendiumLD </li></ul><ul><li>Design methods </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogical patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Cloudworks </li></ul>User – can now repurpose
  22. 22. Mapping the case studies Policy Research & development Teacher practice The learner’s experience Institutional & national funding Embedding in strategy Aligning to technology trends Changing user behaviour Drivers and challenges Actual use in practice What’s in it for me? Evidence of impact
  23. 23. Questions and reflections <ul><li>What is the relationship between Government rhetoric and actual practice ? </li></ul><ul><li>How can technologies support new forms of pedagogy? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the relationship between technologies , physical and virtual spaces and pedagogy ? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we take account of a digital divide that is ever narrower but deeper? </li></ul><ul><li>What new digital literacy skills will learners and teachers need ? </li></ul><ul><li>E-learning innovation will require a radical rethinking of the curriculum, </li></ul><ul><li>E-learning challenges existing norms about assessment </li></ul>
  24. 24. Bridging the gap between policy & practice: a reflective review & looking forward to the future Gráinne Conole, Open University, UK VI Congresso Nazionale della SIe-L: E-learning, creatività ed innovazione Salerno University, 17/09/09 More info, slides and references: