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Conole norway


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Conole norway

  1. 1. The changing landscape of educational practice Gráinne Conole, The Open University NADE annual conference, Horten, Norway 18th November 2010
  2. 2. Key questions  How are new open, social and participatory media changing educational practice?  What are the implications for formal and informal learning?  How are learner and teacher roles changing?  What new digital literacies are needed?  How can we design learning interventions and environments to harness new media?
  3. 3. New media  Key characteristics  Peer critiquing  Aggregation of resources  Collaboration  Personalisation  Networking  Open practices Web 2.0 - the machine is Us/ing Us
  4. 4. A typology of new technologies Technology Examples Media sharing Flckr, YouTube, Slideshare, Sketchfu Media manipulation and mash ups Geotagged photos on maps, Voicethread Instant messaging, chat, web 2.0 forums MSN, Paltalk, Arguementum Online games and virtual worlds WorldofWarcraft, SecondLife Social networking Facebook, Myspace, Linkedin, Elgg, Ning Blogging Wordpress, Edublog, Twitter Social bookmarking, Citeulike, Zotero Recommender systems Digg, LastFm, Stumbleupon Wikis and collaborative editing tools Wikipedia, GoogleDocs, Syndication/RSS feeds Bloglines, Podcast, GoogleReaderConole and Alevizou, 2010
  5. 5. Changing landscapes Teacher Learner Teaching Learning Content Activities Real space Virtual space
  6. 6. Locating educational approaches Teacher- centred Learner- centred Activity -based Content- based Formal, ‘traditional’ courses Problem- based learning Learner- defined learning Informal web-based learning A lecture Why is a river polluted? Amateur photography Professional or skills development
  7. 7. A focus on community  New open, social and participatory media enable new means of communication, collaboration, sharing and co-construction of knowledge  Want to focus on the nature of community in these new online spaces  What is it and how can it be fostered, supported?
  8. 8. The nature of community  Complex, distributed, loose communities are emerging  Facilitated through different but connected social networking tools such as facebook, Twitter, Ning  Users create their own Personal Digital Environment  Mix of synchronous and asynchronous tools  Boundary crossing via the power of retweeting  Links between interests, rather than places
  9. 9. So what is a community? [Community does not] imply necessarily co-presence, a well- defined identifiable group, or socially visible boundaries. It does imply participation in an activity system about which participants share understandings concerning what they are doing and what that means in their lives and for their communities Lave and Wenger, 1991 Virtual communities are social aggregations that emerge from the Net when enough people carry on those public discussions long enough, with sufficient human feeling, to form webs of personal relationships in cyberspace. Rheingold, 1993
  10. 10. Depthofrelationship Extent of boundary crossing Close friends and strong relationships Acquaintances and associated Within the group Outside the group Exploration through shared enterprise Exploration through synthesis Innovation through novel combinations Gratton, 2007
  11. 11. Community as a process  Constantly evolving and changing  Shifting groups and depths of relationships  Dynamic, evolving and potentially transformative  Both directed and serendipitous interactions
  12. 12. Participation Sustained over time Commitment from core group Emerging roles & hierarchy Identity Group self-awareness Shared language & vocab Sense of community Cohesion Support & tolerance Turn taking & response Humour and playfulness Creative capability Igniting sense of purpose Multiple points of view expressed, contradicted or challenged Creation of knowledge links & patterns Community indicators Galley et al., 2010
  13. 13. Participation  Three types of hierarchical roles  Veterans: support and encourage groups and newbies  Trendsetters: make a difference  Posters: need to be incentivised to turn from lurkers to active contributors
  14. 14. Cohesion  Through support, tolerance, reciprocity and trust  Language and tone are critical factors in the development of an online community  Emotional and peer support
  15. 15. Identity Central to the notion of community are issues of membership and exclusion. Some people are in, others are out. Communities range from being open to anyone who shares particular ideas or interests to communities accessible only to those who meet certain criteria of geography, ethnicity, gender, etc. Erickson (1997)
  16. 16. Framework for sociality  System needs to accommodate both evolution of practices and inclusion of newcomers  Both individual and group identity are important  People more likely to use systems that resemble their daily routines, languages and practices  Metaphors that mimic real life practices are likely to be more successful Bouman et al., 2007
  17. 17. Membership Boundaries Emotional safety Common symbol system Sense of belonging and identification Personal investment McMillan and Chavis, 1986
  18. 18. Creative capability  Importance of conflict, disagreement and negotiation in the process of collaborative knowledge creation and developing understanding  Social discord as a catalyst for knowledge construction and expansive learning
  19. 19. Emerge project  Bounded openness  Heterogeneous homophily  Mutual stability  Sustainable development  Shared personal repertoires  Structured freedom  Mutimodal identity  Serious fun Roberts, 2008
  20. 20. Social construction of knowledge  Sharing/comparing information  Discovery and exploitation of dissonance  Negotiation of meaning/co-construction of knowledge  Testing and modification of proposed synthesis or co- construction  Agreement statement(s)/applications of newly constructed meaning Gunawardena, Lowe & Anderson (1997)
  21. 21. Play Performance Simulation Appropriation Multitasking Distributed cognition Collective intelligence Judgement Transmedia navigation Networking Negotiation Jenkins et al., 2006 Participatory culture shifts the focus of literacy from one of individual expression to community involvement. The new literacies almost all involve social skills developed through collaboration and networking. New digital literacies
  22. 22. Applying the framework Participation Cohesion Identity Creative capability Environment Welcome newcomers Means to share Reward contributions Model expected behaviours Language – clear & inclusive Friendly tone Explicit mutual & collegiality Means for both individual & group expression Refer to group as group Clear purpose Contradictory views Abundance of resource Participatory processes Assign roles Actively facilitate Share things of interest High ratio of social to informational interactions Allow old practices Encourage new practices Stimulating questions Engaging tasks Explore dissonance
  23. 23. Cloudworks  Social networking site for sharing and discussing learning and teaching ideas  Boundary crossing  Best of web 2.0 functionality and practices
  24. 24. Quick language guide Cloud: Anything to do with learning and teaching Cloudscape: A collection of clouds Activity stream: Latest activities on a Cloudscape or people Favourites: Vote for things your like RSS feeds: For Cloudscapes, Clouds & people Follow: Cloudscapes, Clouds or people Attend: Conferences & workshops
  25. 25. Types of activity Virtual reading circles Events Open reviews
  26. 26. Vision Technical interventions Evolving: socio-technical co-evolution Social interventions Beta release RSS feeds, activity streams etc Events listing, voting, favourites, etc Content seeding Event support, flash debates, etc Open reviews, expert consultation, etc Virtual ethnography
  27. 27. Analysis  Data analysis  Observation  Interviews and surveys  Activity logs  Written  Video Virtual ethnography
  28. 28. Evaluating the collective … Galley, 2010 expanding on Cross, 2010
  29. 29. Observation  Participation  Shared history  Solidarity  Criticism and conflict  A group’s self-awareness  Roles and heirarchy Herring, 2004
  30. 30. Participation Cohesion Identity Creative capability Indicators Sustained participation Commitment from a core group Emerging roles & hierarchy Support Tolerance Reciprocity Humour Group self- awareness Membership Shared language Sense of community Igniting purpose Multiple points of view Contradiction Creation of knowledge links Framework indicators
  31. 31. Interviews & surveys The selection of interviewees should offer insights into a range of perspectives within a field. It is therefore crucial to contact interviewees who exemplify different participation formats, e.g. amateur and professional ones, as identified by observation. Androutsopoulos, 2008
  32. 32. Cloudworks goes open source
  33. 33. Reflections  Open, participatory and social media enable new forms of communication and collaboration  Communities in these spaces are complex and distributed  Teachers and learners need to develop new digital literacy skills to harness their potential  We need to rethink the design of learning interventions, support and assessment  Sites like Cloudworks can provide a mechanisms for teachers to share and discuss learning and teaching ideas  We are seeing a blurring of boundaries: teachers/learners, teaching/learning, content/activities and real/virtual spaces
  34. 34. References  Galley, R., Conole, G. and Alevizou, P. (submitted), Community Indicators: A framework for building and evaluating community activity on Cloudworks, Interactive Learning Environments. Conole, G, and Alevizou, P. (2010), A literature review of the use of Web 2.0 tools in Higher Education, HE Academy commissioned report, pdf  Galley, R., Conole, G. and Alevizou, P. (2010), Case study: Using Cloudworks for an Open Literature Review, An HE Academy commissioned report.  Alevizou, P., Conole, G. and Galley, R. (2010), Using Cloudworks to support OER activities, An HE Academy commissioned report.  Conole, G., Galley, R. and Culver, J. (2010), Frameworks for understanding the nature of interactions, networking and community in a social networking site for academic practice, The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.  Conole, G. and Culver, J. (2010) 'The design of Cloudworks: applying social networking practice to foster the exchange of learning and teaching ideas and designs' Computers and Education, 54(3): 679 - 692.  Conole and Culver (2009), Cloudworks: social networking for learning design, Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 25(5), pp. 763–782,
  35. 35. Acknowledgements  Prism  Emerge project  Roberts, 2008  Questionmark – questionmark