Chapter 13 - Theory and methodology in learning design research<br />Introduction<br />This chapter will provide an overvi...
The transition to an educational perspective for researchers originally from a Science background is hard, requiring a com...
Many researchers are drawn into research into the use of technologies in an educational context from a practical perspecti...
Irrespective of the theoretical and methodological lenses used to study technological phenomena, it is important to take a...
Chapter 13 theory and methodology
Chapter 13 theory and methodology
Chapter 13 theory and methodology
Chapter 13 theory and methodology
Chapter 13 theory and methodology
Chapter 13 theory and methodology
Chapter 13 theory and methodology
Chapter 13 theory and methodology
Chapter 13 theory and methodology
Chapter 13 theory and methodology
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Chapter 13 theory and methodology

1,730 views

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,730
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
24
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
36
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 13 theory and methodology

  1. 1. Chapter 13 - Theory and methodology in learning design research<br />Introduction<br />This chapter will provide an overview of the theoretical perspectives that underpin learning design and associated methodologies. It will articulate how learning design is distinct from, but relates to related research such as Instructional Design and Learning Sciences. Discussing learning technology as a field, Oliver et al. argue that the object of investigation is the knowledge-technology-society nexus. ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Oliver</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>170</RecNum><record><rec-number>170</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">170</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book Section">5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Oliver, M.</author><author>Roberts, G.</author><author>Beetham, H.</author><author>Ingraham, B.</author><author>Dyke, M.</author><author>Levy, P.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Knowledge, society and perspectives on learning technology</title><secondary-title>In G. Conole and M. Oliver (Eds.) Contemporaryr perspectives in e-learning research: themes, methods and impact on practice</secondary-title></titles><pages>21-37</pages><dates><year>2007</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>RoutledgeFalmer</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Oliver, Roberts, et al., 2007). They describe how the study of each of these, knowledge, technology and society, draws on a rich range of research fields across the Social Sciences; including Instructional Design, Education, Philosophy and Sociology. Clearly which research fields are drawn on has implications for both the methodologies used and the theoretical perspectives chosen by the researchers. Learning design sits as a sub-field within this and this chapter will describe the methodologies and theoretical perspectives that are drawn on. It will locate this within the broader field of e-learning, drawing on the findings of a study which looked at the nature of interdisciplinarity in Technology-Enhanced Learning (TEL) ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Conole</Author><Year>2010</Year><RecNum>18</RecNum><record><rec-number>18</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">18</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Electronic Article">43</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Conole, G.</author><author>Eileen Scanlon</author><author>Paul Mundin</author><author>Rob Farrow</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Technology enhanced learning as a site for interdisciplinary research</title></titles><dates><year>2010</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloud/view/3419</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Conole, Scanlon, Mundin, & Farrow, 2010) and a Networked Learning conference hotseat on theory and methodology in Networked Learning ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Conole</Author><Year>2010</Year><RecNum>17</RecNum><record><rec-number>17</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">17</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Conference Paper">47</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Conole, G.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Theory and methodology in Networked Learning</title><secondary-title>Networked Learning Conference Hotseat</secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2010</year><pub-dates><date>January 2010</date></pub-dates></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloud/view/2881</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Conole, 2010). <br />Definitions<br />Research into the use of technology in an educational context had a long history with changing labels over the years, each indicating evolving trends in the field and emphasising different types of foci of inquiry. Commonly used terms include: Educational Technology, Learning Technology, E-learning, Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) Networked Learning and more recently Technology-enhanced Learning (TEL). The focus of this chapter is on theories and methodologies used across these fields. Many books have been written on research methods in Social Science. Cohen et al. is one of the standard texts for educational research ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Cohen</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>252</RecNum><record><rec-number>252</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">252</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Cohen, L.</author><author>Manion, L.</author><author>Morrison, K.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Research methods in education</title></titles><dates><year>2007</year></dates><publisher>Routledge</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Cohen, Manion, & Morrison, 2007). The Research Methods Knowledge Base provides covers the entire research process including: formulating research questions; sampling; measurement; research design; data analysis; and, writing the research paper. It also addresses the major theoretical and philosophical underpinnings of research including: the idea of validity in research; reliability of measures and ethics. The ESRC National Centre for Research Methods provides a comprehensive site for collating research methods activities across the Social Sciences, along with the latest in innovations in research methods. Early work carried out by the centre included a review of research methods and generated a typology of research methods ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Beissel-Durrant</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>97</RecNum><record><rec-number>97</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">97</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Generic">13</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Beissel-Durrant, Gabriele</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>A Typology of Research Methods Within the Social Sciences</title></titles><keywords><keyword>1.1 Frameworks for Research and Research Designs (general)</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2004</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Beissel-Durrant, 2004), which illustrates the rich variety of research methods being used reflecting the breadth of different epistemological perspectives in the field. <br />Oliver et al. ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite ExcludeAuth="1"><Author>Oliver</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>170</RecNum><record><rec-number>170</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">170</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book Section">5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Oliver, M.</author><author>Roberts, G.</author><author>Beetham, H.</author><author>Ingraham, B.</author><author>Dyke, M.</author><author>Levy, P.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Knowledge, society and perspectives on learning technology</title><secondary-title>In G. Conole and M. Oliver (Eds.) Contemporaryr perspectives in e-learning research: themes, methods and impact on practice</secondary-title></titles><pages>21-37</pages><dates><year>2007</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>RoutledgeFalmer</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(2007) argue that there are a range of different epistemological positions adopted by researchers in the field and that these have profound implications for how the field is researched. They argue that this is often explained in terms of the ‘paradigm debate’, and framed as a contrast between qualitative and quantitative methods; although they go on to qualify that this is a rather crude distinction; i.e. qualitative data can be interpreted in a positivist way and quantitative data can be used to yield understandings beyond the specific numerical data. They argue that:<br />We need to consider how different philosophical positions would interpret the kinds of data generated by particular empirical methods. ‘Methodology’ describes this relationship, and must be understood separately from ‘methods’, which are the techniques used to collect and analyse data (This will include things like interviews, questionnaires, observation etc.) Methodology determines whether the implementation of particular methods is successful or credible. Indeed, according to Agger ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite ExcludeAuth="1"><Author>Agger</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>510</RecNum><Pages>77</Pages><record><rec-number>510</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">510</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Agger, B.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The virtual self: a contemporary sociology</title></titles><dates><year>2004</year></dates><pub-location>Oxford</pub-location><publisher>Blackwell</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(2004, p. 77), “methodologies can’t solve intellectual problems but are simply ways of making arguments for what we already know or suspect to be true.<br />To do this, methodology codifies beliefs about the world, reflecting ‘out there’ or ‘in here’ positions.<br />The view that knowledge is hard, objective and tangible will demand of researchers an observer role, together with an allegiance to methods of natural science; to see knowledge as personal, subjective and unique, however, imposes on researchers an involvement with their subjects and a rejection of the ways of the natural scientist. To subscribe to the former is to be positivist; to the latter, anti-positivist (Cohen, Manion and Morrison, 2000: 6).<br />Such commitments and interests arise from historical, cultural and political influences, which collectively shape traditions of research that provide the context for current work ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Conole</Author><Year>2003</Year><RecNum>511</RecNum><record><rec-number>511</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">511</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Report">27</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Conole, G.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Research questions and methodological issues</title></titles><dates><year>2003</year></dates><pub-location>Southampton</pub-location><publisher>University of Southampton</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Conole, 2003). These have profound implications for the topics that people study and the kinds of conclusions they are willing to draw ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Oliver</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>170</RecNum><Pages>9</Pages><record><rec-number>170</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">170</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book Section">5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Oliver, M.</author><author>Roberts, G.</author><author>Beetham, H.</author><author>Ingraham, B.</author><author>Dyke, M.</author><author>Levy, P.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Knowledge, society and perspectives on learning technology</title><secondary-title>In G. Conole and M. Oliver (Eds.) Contemporaryr perspectives in e-learning research: themes, methods and impact on practice</secondary-title></titles><pages>21-37</pages><dates><year>2007</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>RoutledgeFalmer</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Oliver, Roberts, et al., 2007, p. 9).<br />Therefore methods are the techniques used to collect and analyse data, whereas methodology align with different epistemological beliefs and views of the world. The term theory is contested and is used in a variety of different ways; here are some definitions that are the closest to how it is used in an e-learning research context:<br />Theory, in the scientific sense of the word, is an analytic structure designed to explain a set of empirical observations. A scientific theory does two things: i) it identifies this set of distinct observations as a class of phenomena, and ii) makes assertions about the underlying reality that brings about or affects this class. In the scientific or empirical tradition, the term theory is reserved for ideas which meet baseline requirements about the kinds of empirical observations made, the methods of classification used, and the consistency of the theory in its application among members of the class to which it pertains. These requirements vary across different scientific fields of knowledge, but in general theories are expected to be functional and parsimonious: i.e. a theory should be the simplest possible tool that can be used to effectively address the given class of phenomena. <br />A set of statements or principles devised to explain a group of facts or phenomena, especially one that has been repeatedly tested or is widely accepted and can be used to make predictions about natural phenomena. <br />The relationship between theory and empirical data can be defined as follows:<br />Social research is theoretical, meaning that much of it is concerned with developing, exploring or testing the theories or ideas that social researchers have about how the world operates. But it is also empirical, meaning that it is based on observations and measurements of reality -- on what we perceive of the world around us. You can even think of most research as a blending of these two terms -- a comparison of our theories about how the world operates with our observations of its operation. <br />Researchers’ home disciplines<br />Researcher at a Networked Learning conference hotseat ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Conole</Author><Year>2010</Year><RecNum>17</RecNum><record><rec-number>17</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">17</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Conference Paper">47</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Conole, G.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Theory and methodology in Networked Learning</title><secondary-title>Networked Learning Conference Hotseat</secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2010</year><pub-dates><date>January 2010</date></pub-dates></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloud/view/2881</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Conole, 2010) and a synthesis of the findings from18 TEL researchers interviewed as part of the Interdisciplinarity study ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Conole</Author><Year>2010</Year><RecNum>18</RecNum><record><rec-number>18</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">18</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Electronic Article">43</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Conole, G.</author><author>Eileen Scanlon</author><author>Paul Mundin</author><author>Rob Farrow</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Technology enhanced learning as a site for interdisciplinary research</title></titles><dates><year>2010</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloud/view/3419</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Conole, et al., 2010) were asked to indicate their home discipline. They cited a broad range of disciplines, including: Computer Science, Education, Plant Science, Veterinary Science, Ethnology cultural studies, Psychology, HCI, Philosophy, Fine Art, Philosophy, Electronic Engineering, Chemistry, History of Art, Geology, HPS, Linguistics, Artificial Intelligence, Philosophy, Sociology, Maths and Physics. Hence e-learning researchers bring with them a rich variety of theoretical perspectives and methodologies. Clearly such diversity brings with it strengths, but it also results in tensions - differences in definitions and understandings and even fundamentally opposed epistemological beliefs: <br /><ul><li>Some researchers recognise the underlying influence their ‘birth discipline’ has on their research approach. However others argued that their perspectives around e-learning have been shaped far more by the experiences they have had working in the area than by prior studies in an unrelated discipline many years ago.
  2. 2. The transition to an educational perspective for researchers originally from a Science background is hard, requiring a complete rethinking of underlying epistemological beliefs. However having an understanding of both Science and Social Science perspectives is incredibly useful. Similarly transitional processes are evident from those coming into the research from managerial or business backgrounds.
  3. 3. Many researchers are drawn into research into the use of technologies in an educational context from a practical perspective, i.e. what can these technologies offer? What are the issues? This pragmatic stance is coupled with a desire to understand and describe emergent theoretical perspectives.
  4. 4. Irrespective of the theoretical and methodological lenses used to study technological phenomena, it is important to take account of the contextual and in particular the human dimension where e-learning takes place.</li></ul>The nature of theory <br />In the introduction to a special issue of JIME, Oliver provides an overview of the position of theories in the emergent field of learning technologies in 2002 ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Oliver</Author><Year>2002</Year><RecNum>512</RecNum><record><rec-number>512</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">512</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Oliver, M.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>JISM Special issue on theory for learning technologies, editorial</title><secondary-title>Journal of Interactive Multimedia Education</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Interactive Multimedia Education</full-title></periodical><volume>9</volume><dates><year>2002</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Oliver, 2002):<br />I was struck by the diversity of theories that people were drawing upon, and the very different ways in which they were using them. For some, a theory was a touchstone, a guiding set of principles, and the foundation on which their work built. For others, theories were tools, and the important thing was having the right one for the job. What, I wondered, was the right way to use theory here? Should we believe in them, live them, and risk being dogmatic — or should we be pluralistic, tied to none, and risk being superficial?<br />The papers included in this issue are as varied and eclectic as the group that contributed them. Approaches vary considerably — from theory as tool, to theory as principle; from theory building, to theory using; from disciplines as diverse as Film Studies, Psychology, Sociology and Education. So too were the objects of investigation — software tools, logic learning, metadata, multimedia and exploration of issues around the mainstreaming of the use of technologies in education. <br />Masterman and Manton ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite ExcludeAuth="1"><Author>Masterman</Author><Year>2009</Year><RecNum>513</RecNum><record><rec-number>513</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">513</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Conference Proceedings">10</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Masterman, L.</author><author>Manton, M.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Pedagogic theory and pedagogic planning in digital worlds</title><secondary-title>CAL conference</secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2009</year></dates><pub-location>Brighton</pub-location><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(2009) considered the role of theory with respect to e-learning posing the following questions: what is the value of theory to teachers? What do we mean by theory? And how has theory has been embedded? They drew on Lawes work (Lawes, 2004), in particular the notion that theory gives a framework of understanding that ultimately improves the quality of practice and leads to the transformation of subjective experience. They argued that theory could provide glue between technology and practice. They then went to make a distinction between theories, models and frameworks:<br />Theories provide a means of understanding and predicting something ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM {"citationItems":[{"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/84606/items/DUGIWV9G"]}]} (Cook 2002). In the original article Cook expands this ‘A theory or model can be used as a means for understanding and predicting some aspect of an educational situation. Theories are not the same as models. A theory can posses an explanatory power and can consist of a set of:<br />...general assumptions and laws ... that are not themselves intended to be directly (in)validated (for that, the theory must engender a model). Theories are foundational elements of paradigms, along with shared problems and methods.<br />Model are abstract representations that helps us understand something we can’t see or experience directly (Conole, Oliver et al., 2007)), models include things like Kolb’s leaning cycle, <br />A framework is a structure and vocabulary that supports the explication of concepts and issues ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Conole</Author><Year>2002</Year><RecNum>514</RecNum><record><rec-number>514</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">514</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Conole, G.</author><author>Oliver, M.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Embedding theory into learning technology practice with toolkits</title><secondary-title>Journal of Interactive Multimedia Education</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Interactive Multimedia Education</full-title></periodical><volume>8</volume><dates><year>2002</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Conole & Oliver, 2002) such as Laurillard’s Conversational Framework ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Laurillard</Author><Year>2002</Year><RecNum>64</RecNum><record><rec-number>64</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">64</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Laurillard, Diana</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Rethinking university teaching</title></titles><dates><year>2002</year></dates><publisher>Routledge %@ 0415256798, 9780415256797</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Laurillard, 2002). <br />They argue that theory is a cornerstone of professional practice… and an antidote to technological determinism. However, teachers generally do not consciously espouse formal theories and are driven much more by prior experience and reflective practice. <br />Theoretical perspectives <br />This section articulates some of the main theoretical perspectives that are evident in e-learning research. Reviewing the research literature, the following range of theoretical perspectives are evident: Social Constructivism, Actor Network Theory, Constructivism, Critical Theory, Action Research, Communities of Practice, Scientific Enquiry, Conversational Framework, Philosophy of Technology, Anthropological views on tools artefacts and technology, and Activity Theory. A sample of these is discussed below. <br />Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT)<br />Despite the range of theories listed above, arguably socio-cultural perspectives are a predominate discourse in the field. In particular, Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Engeström</Author><Year>1999</Year><RecNum>161</RecNum><record><rec-number>161</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">161</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Engeström, Y.</author><author>Punamäki-Gitai, R. L.</author><author>Miettinen, R.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Perspectives on activity theory</title></titles><dates><year>1999</year></dates><publisher>Cambridge University Press</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Cole</Author><Year>1997</Year><RecNum>57</RecNum><record><rec-number>57</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">57</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Cole, M.</author><author>Engeström, Y.</author><author>Vasquez, O. A.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Mind, culture, and activity: Seminal papers from the Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition</title></titles><dates><year>1997</year></dates><publisher>Cambridge Univ Pr</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Daniels</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>114</RecNum><record><rec-number>114</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">114</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Daniels, H.</author><author>Cole, M.</author><author>Wertsch, J. V.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The Cambridge Companion to Vygotsky</title></titles><dates><year>2007</year></dates><publisher>Cambridge University Press %@ 0521831040 %7 1</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Cole, Engeström, & Vasquez, 1997; Daniels, Cole, & Wertsch, 2007; Engeström, Punamäki-Gitai, & Miettinen, 1999). A key idea in CHAT is the notion of mediation by artefacts ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Kutti</Author><Year>1996</Year><RecNum>515</RecNum><record><rec-number>515</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">515</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book Section">5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Kutti, K.</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>Nardi, B.</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Activity Theory as potential framework for Human Computer Interaction Research</title><secondary-title>Context and consciousness: activity and human-computer interaction</secondary-title></titles><dates><year>1996</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>MIT press</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Wertsch</Author><Year>1991</Year><RecNum>526</RecNum><record><rec-number>526</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">526</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Wertsch, J.V.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Voices of the mind. A sociocultural appraoch to mediated action</title></titles><dates><year>1991</year></dates><pub-location>Cambridge, Mass</pub-location><publisher>Harvard University Pres</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Kutti, 1996; Wertsch, 1991), which are broadly defined as including instruments, signs, language, and machines ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Nardi</Author><Year>1995</Year><RecNum>516</RecNum><record><rec-number>516</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">516</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Nardi, B.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Context and consciousness: activity and human-computer interaction</title></titles><dates><year>1995</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>MIT press</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Nardi, 1995). As discussed elsewhere in this book, Conole ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite ExcludeAuth="1"><Author>Conole</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>221</RecNum><record><rec-number>221</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">221</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book Section">5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Conole, G.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Capturing practice, the role of mediating artefacts in learning design</title><secondary-title>In L. Lockyer, S. Bennett, S. Agostinhi and B. Harper Handbook of learning designs and learning objects</secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2008</year></dates><publisher>IGI Global</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(2008) describes the range of mediating artefacts that practitioners can use to support the learning design process ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM {"citationItems":[{"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/84606/items/NAVCBSRJ"]}]} (Conole, 2008). Engeström’s so-called ‘triangle’ representation ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Engeström</Author><Year>1999</Year><RecNum>161</RecNum><record><rec-number>161</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">161</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Engeström, Y.</author><author>Punamäki-Gitai, R. L.</author><author>Miettinen, R.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Perspectives on activity theory</title></titles><dates><year>1999</year></dates><publisher>Cambridge University Press</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Engeström, et al., 1999) has been used extensively to described particular instances of e-learning interventions, as it helps consider a focus on subject-object with associated outcome supported through mediating tools in the context of a wider community context and associated rules and divisions of labour 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 ADDIN EN.CITE 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 ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Joyes, 2008; Karasavvidis, 2008; Waycott, Jones, & Scanlon, 2005). <br />Communities of Practice<br />Wenger’s notion of Communities of Practice ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Wenger</Author><Year>1998</Year><RecNum>198</RecNum><record><rec-number>198</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">198</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Wenger, E.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Communities of Practice. Learning, Meaning and Identity. Learning in Doing: Social, Cognitive, and Computational Perspectives</title></titles><dates><year>1998</year></dates><publisher>Cambridge University Press, Cambridge</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Wenger, 1998) has been picked up and used extensively in the field of e-learning 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 ADDIN EN.CITE PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5Db3VzaW48L0F1dGhvcj48WWVhcj4yMDA1PC9ZZWFyPjxSZWNOdW0+Mjc5PC9SZWNOdW0+PHJlY29yZD48cmVjLW51bWJlcj4yNzk8L3JlYy1udW1iZXI+PGZvcmVpZ24ta2V5cz48a2V5IGFwcD0iRU4iIGRiLWlkPSIyd2FwMnRlczVyZnd0bGV2ZTBteDl3cHV3NXh2dnhhcGUyNXoiPjI3OTwva2V5PjwvZm9yZWlnbi1rZXlzPjxyZWYtdHlwZSBuYW1lPSJKb3VybmFsIEFydGljbGUiPjE3PC9yZWYtdHlwZT48Y29udHJpYnV0b3JzPjxhdXRob3JzPjxhdXRob3I+Q291c2luLCBHLjwvYXV0aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+RGVlcHdlbGwsIEYuPC9hdXRob3I+PC9hdXRob3JzPjwvY29udHJpYnV0b3JzPjx0aXRsZXM+PHRpdGxlPkRlc2lnbnMgZm9yIG5ldHdvcmsgbGVhcm5pbmc6IEEgY29tbXVuaXRpZXMgb2YgcHJhY3RpY2UgcGVyc3BlY3RpdmU8L3RpdGxlPjxzZWNvbmRhcnktdGl0bGU+U3R1ZGllcyBpbiBIaWdoZXIgZWR1Y2F0aW9uPC9zZWNvbmRhcnktdGl0bGU+PC90aXRsZXM+PHBlcmlvZGljYWw+PGZ1bGwtdGl0bGU+U3R1ZGllcyBpbiBIaWdoZXIgRWR1Y2F0aW9uPC9mdWxsLXRpdGxlPjwvcGVyaW9kaWNhbD48cGFnZXM+NTfigJM2NjwvcGFnZXM+PHZvbHVtZT4zMDwvdm9sdW1lPjxudW1iZXI+MTwvbnVtYmVyPjxkYXRlcz48eWVhcj4yMDA1PC95ZWFyPjwvZGF0ZXM+PHVybHM+PC91cmxzPjwvcmVjb3JkPjwvQ2l0ZT48Q2l0ZT48QXV0aG9yPkd1bGRiZXJnPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAwNjwvWWVhcj48UmVjTnVtPjUzPC9SZWNOdW0+PHJlY29yZD48cmVjLW51bWJlcj41MzwvcmVjLW51bWJlcj48Zm9yZWlnbi1rZXlzPjxrZXkgYXBwPSJFTiIgZGItaWQ9IjJ3YXAydGVzNXJmd3RsZXZlMG14OXdwdXc1eHZ2eGFwZTI1eiI+NTM8L2tleT48L2ZvcmVpZ24ta2V5cz48cmVmLXR5cGUgbmFtZT0iSm91cm5hbCBBcnRpY2xlIj4xNzwvcmVmLXR5cGU+PGNvbnRyaWJ1dG9ycz48YXV0aG9ycz48YXV0aG9yPkd1bGRiZXJnLCBLLjwvYXV0aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+UGlsa2luZ3RvbiwgUi48L2F1dGhvcj48L2F1dGhvcnM+PC9jb250cmlidXRvcnM+PHRpdGxlcz48dGl0bGU+QSBjb21tdW5pdHkgb2YgcHJhY3RpY2UgYXBwcm9hY2ggdG8gdGhlIGRldmVsb3BtZW50IG9mIG5vbi10cmFkaXRpb25hbCBsZWFybmVycyB0aHJvdWdoIG5ldHdvcmtlZCBsZWFybmluZzwvdGl0bGU+PHNlY29uZGFyeS10aXRsZT5Kb3VybmFsIG9mIENvbXB1dGVyIEFzc2lzdGVkIExlYXJuaW5nPC9zZWNvbmRhcnktdGl0bGU+PC90aXRsZXM+PHBlcmlvZGljYWw+PGZ1bGwtdGl0bGU+Sm91cm5hbCBvZiBDb21wdXRlciBBc3Npc3RlZCBMZWFybmluZzwvZnVsbC10aXRsZT48L3BlcmlvZGljYWw+PHBhZ2VzPjE1OeKAkzE3MTwvcGFnZXM+PHZvbHVtZT4yMjwvdm9sdW1lPjxudW1iZXI+MzwvbnVtYmVyPjxkYXRlcz48eWVhcj4yMDA2PC95ZWFyPjwvZGF0ZXM+PHVybHM+PC91cmxzPjwvcmVjb3JkPjwvQ2l0ZT48Q2l0ZT48QXV0aG9yPkJyZXVsZXV4PC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MTk5ODwvWWVhcj48UmVjTnVtPjIzNTwvUmVjTnVtPjxyZWNvcmQ+PHJlYy1udW1iZXI+MjM1PC9yZWMtbnVtYmVyPjxmb3JlaWduLWtleXM+PGtleSBhcHA9IkVOIiBkYi1pZD0iMndhcDJ0ZXM1cmZ3dGxldmUwbXg5d3B1dzV4dnZ4YXBlMjV6Ij4yMzU8L2tleT48L2ZvcmVpZ24ta2V5cz48cmVmLXR5cGUgbmFtZT0iR2VuZXJpYyI+MTM8L3JlZi10eXBlPjxjb250cmlidXRvcnM+PGF1dGhvcnM+PGF1dGhvcj5CcmV1bGV1eCwgQS48L2F1dGhvcj48YXV0aG9yPkxhZmVycmnDqHJlLCBULjwvYXV0aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+QnJhY2V3ZWxsLCBSLiBKLjwvYXV0aG9yPjwvYXV0aG9ycz48L2NvbnRyaWJ1dG9ycz48dGl0bGVzPjx0aXRsZT5OZXR3b3JrZWQgbGVhcm5pbmcgY29tbXVuaXRpZXMgaW4gdGVhY2hlciBlZHVjYXRpb248L3RpdGxlPjxzZWNvbmRhcnktdGl0bGU+UHJvY2VlZGluZ3Mgb2YgU0lURTwvc2Vjb25kYXJ5LXRpdGxlPjwvdGl0bGVzPjx2b2x1bWU+OTg8L3ZvbHVtZT48ZGF0ZXM+PHllYXI+MTk5ODwveWVhcj48L2RhdGVzPjx1cmxzPjwvdXJscz48L3JlY29yZD48L0NpdGU+PC9FbmROb3RlPgB= ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Breuleux, Laferrière, & Bracewell, 1998; Cousin & Deepwell, 2005; Guldberg & Pilkington, 2006). Its appeal is probably a combination of the fact that it is relatively easy concept to grasp and that it offered a means of explaining some of the more socially situated interactions arising in networked learning. <br />Actor Network Theory<br />Developed by Callon ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite ExcludeAuth="1"><Author>Callon</Author><Year>1999</Year><RecNum>54</RecNum><record><rec-number>54</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">54</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Callon, M.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Actor-Network Theory</title></titles><dates><year>1999</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(1999) Callon and Latour ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite ExcludeAuth="1"><Author>Latour</Author><Year>2005</Year><RecNum>92</RecNum><record><rec-number>92</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">92</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Latour, B.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Reassembling the social: An introduction to actor-network-theory</title></titles><dates><year>2005</year></dates><publisher>Oxford University Press, USA</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(2005), Actor Network Theory considers both people and technologies as ‘actants’ in a connected network and in particular that it is the relationship between these actants that is important. Although called a theory it doesn’t explain a phenomenon but focuses more on why a network takes the form that it does. It is much more interested in exploring how actor-networks get formed, hold themselves together, or fall apart. <br />Cybernetics and systems thinking<br />Cybernetics and systems thinking provide a means of understanding complex systems ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Capra</Author><Year>1996</Year><RecNum>269</RecNum><record><rec-number>269</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">269</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Capra, F.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The web of life</title></titles><dates><year>1996</year></dates><publisher>Anchor books New York</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Gharajedaghi</Author><Year>1999</Year><RecNum>105</RecNum><record><rec-number>105</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">105</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Gharajedaghi, J.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Systems thinking: Managing chaos and complexity: A platform for designing business architecture</title></titles><dates><year>1999</year></dates><publisher>Elsevier</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Capra, 1996; Gharajedaghi, 1999) and has been applied to a limited extend in an e-learning context. Liber ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite ExcludeAuth="1"><Author>Liber</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>191</RecNum><record><rec-number>191</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">191</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Liber, O.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Cybernetics, e-learning and the education system</title><secondary-title>International Journal of Learning Technology</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>International Journal of Learning Technology</full-title></periodical><pages>127–140</pages><volume>1</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2004</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(2004) for example draws on the work of Illich and Beer as a means of describing in modern learning environments and systems ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Beer</Author><Year>1959</Year><RecNum>531</RecNum><record><rec-number>531</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">531</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Beer, S.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Cybernetics</title></titles><dates><year>1959</year></dates><pub-location>Cambridge, Mass</pub-location><publisher>MIT Press</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Illich</Author><Year>1973</Year><RecNum>530</RecNum><record><rec-number>530</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">530</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Illich, I.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Tools for conviviality</title></titles><dates><year>1973</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Calder and Boyars</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Beer, 1959; Illich, 1973). Related work swhich also apply systems thinking include the work of Friesen, Stankov et al. and Cantoni et al. 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 ADDIN EN.CITE 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 ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Cantoni, Cellario, & Porta, 2004; Friesen, 2004; Stankov, Grubišić, & Žitko, 2004). <br />Methodological approaches<br />This section describes some of the key methodological approaches used in e-learning. The choice of methodology tends to reflect both the individual’s epistemological stance and their focus of inquiry. Oliver et al. ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite ExcludeAuth="1"><Author>Oliver</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>170</RecNum><record><rec-number>170</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">170</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book Section">5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Oliver, M.</author><author>Roberts, G.</author><author>Beetham, H.</author><author>Ingraham, B.</author><author>Dyke, M.</author><author>Levy, P.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Knowledge, society and perspectives on learning technology</title><secondary-title>In G. Conole and M. Oliver (Eds.) Contemporaryr perspectives in e-learning research: themes, methods and impact on practice</secondary-title></titles><pages>21-37</pages><dates><year>2007</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>RoutledgeFalmer</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(2007) argue that the kinds of data that are available to e-learning researchers may suggest particular kinds of interpretation. This hints at the suggestion there is a complex inter-relationship between research in the field and the affordances of the technologies themselves. <br />It is not possible to provide a comprehensive review of all the different methodological approaches used in e-learning. Methodologies are predominantly interpretive in nature; although experimental approaches are still used extensively in North America. In terms of methods a range are evident – interviews, focus groups, observation, surveys, student journals, video and audio diaries, document analysis, and web tracking. In-depth case studies are popular, as are large-scale surveys. The use of learning analytics and web tracking as a means of data collection is still in its infancy but is a growing area of research. <br />Content analysis<br />Early research in the field was dominated by analysis of asynchronous discussion forums. Coding schemes such as those developed by Henri and Gunawadena et al. were used extensively ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Henri</Author><Year>1992</Year><RecNum>126</RecNum><record><rec-number>126</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">126</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book Section">5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Henri, F.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Computer conferencing and content analysis</title><secondary-title>In A.R. Kaye (Ed.) Collaborative learning through computer conferencing: The Najaden Papers</secondary-title></titles><pages>116-136</pages><dates><year>1992</year></dates><pub-location>Berlin</pub-location><publisher>Springer Verlag</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Gunawardena</Author><Year>1997</Year><RecNum>202</RecNum><record><rec-number>202</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">202</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Gunawardena, C. N.</author><author>Lowe, C. A.</author><author>Anderson, T.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Analysis of a global online debate and the development of an interaction analysis model for examining social construction of knowledge in computer conferencing</title><secondary-title>Journal of Educational Computing Research</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Educational Computing Research</full-title></periodical><pages>397-431</pages><volume>17</volume><number>4</number><dates><year>1997</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Gunawardena, Lowe, & Anderson, 1997; Henri, 1992). Henri identified following five dimensions, which can be used to evaluate Computer-Mediated Conferences: participative, social, interactive, cognitive and metacognitive. As discussed elsewhere, Garrison et al. (2000) developed a 'community of learning' model, which assumes that learning occurs through the interaction of three core components: cognitive presence, teaching presence, and social presence ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Garrison</Author><Year>2000</Year><RecNum>3</RecNum><record><rec-number>3</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">3</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Garrison, D.R., Anderson, T., and Archer, W. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education.</title><secondary-title>The Internet and Higher Education</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>The Internet and Higher Education</full-title></periodical><pages>87-105</pages><volume>2</volume><number>2-3</number><dates><year>2000</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Arbaugh</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>450</RecNum><record><rec-number>450</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">450</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Arbaugh, J.B.</author><author>Cleveland-Innes, M.</author><author>Diaz, S.R., </author><author>Garrison, D.R.</author><author>Ice, P.</author><author>Richardson, J.C.</author><author>Swan, K.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Developing a community of inquiry instrument: testing a measure of the community of inquiry framework using a multi-institutional sample</title><secondary-title>The Internet and Higher Education</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>The Internet and Higher Education</full-title></periodical><pages>1330136</pages><volume>11</volume><number>3-4</number><dates><year>2008</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Arbaugh, et al., 2008; D. R. Garrison, Anderson, T., and Archer, W. , 2000). Gunawadena et al. divided content into the types of cognitive activities the participant engaged with (questioning, clarifying, negotiating, synthesising, etc), the types of arguments they put forward, the resources used and any evidence of changes in understanding ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Gunawardena</Author><Year>1997</Year><RecNum>202</RecNum><record><rec-number>202</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">202</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Gunawardena, C. N.</author><author>Lowe, C. A.</author><author>Anderson, T.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Analysis of a global online debate and the development of an interaction analysis model for examining social construction of knowledge in computer conferencing</title><secondary-title>Journal of Educational Computing Research</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Educational Computing Research</full-title></periodical><pages>397-431</pages><volume>17</volume><number>4</number><dates><year>1997</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Gunawardena, et al., 1997). In this early work arguably there was a naïve assumption that focusing on the content in the treaded messages was enough to capture the whole event. Whereas in reality the level of detail/object of focus will naturally have a significant impact on results and it was soon realised that taking account of the broader context within which discussion forums were taken place was important. Jones for example reports students simulating collaboration online whilst actually being co-present seated around four computers ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Jones</Author><Year>1999</Year><RecNum>116</RecNum><record><rec-number>116</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">116</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Jones, C. R.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>From the sage on the stage to what exactly? Description and the place of the moderator in cooperative and collaborative learning</title><secondary-title>ALT-J</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>ALT-J</full-title></periodical><pages>27-36</pages><volume>7</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>1999</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Jones, 1999). A number of approaches have been used to take account of the broader perspective. For example, De Laat et al. use a multi-method approach using Social Network Analysis with content analysis and critical event recall 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 ADDIN EN.CITE 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 ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (De Laat, Lally, Lipponen, & Simons, 2007; M. F. De Laat, 2006; M. F. De Laat, Lally, V., Lipponen, L., and Simons, P.R.J., 2006). In this work, they used Social Network Analysis ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Hawthornthwaite</Author><Year>2002</Year><RecNum>442</RecNum><record><rec-number>442</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">442</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book Section">5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Hawthornthwaite, C.</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>Renninger, K.A.</author><author>Shumar, W.</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Building social networks via computer networks: creating and sustaining distributed learning communities</title><secondary-title>Building virtual communiites: learning and change in cybersapce</secondary-title></titles><pages>159-190</pages><dates><year>2002</year></dates><pub-location>Cambridge</pub-location><publisher>Cambridge University Press</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Hawthornthwaite, 2002) to visualise the social structures and dynamics of the course, content analysis is used to identify the learning and teaching processes and critical event recall is used to elicit teachers’ experiences and perceptions. <br />Ethnography<br />Ethnography has been used extensively in e-learning 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 ADDIN EN.CITE 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 ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Hodgson & Watland, 2004; Kruger, 2006; Rice-Lively, 1994). The approach is qualitative based on ‘systematic description of human behaviour and organisational culture based on first-hand observation’ ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Howard</Author><Year>2002</Year><RecNum>143</RecNum><record><rec-number>143</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">143</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Howard, P. N.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Network Ethnography and the Hypermedia Organization: New Media, New Organizations, New Methods</title><secondary-title>New Media and Society</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>New Media and Society</full-title></periodical><pages>550-574</pages><volume>4</volume><number>4</number><dates><year>2002</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Howard, 2002). <br />Case studies<br />Rich, situated case studies are a very popular and common form of studying e-learning. A case study is an in-depth investigation/study of a single individual, group, incident, or community ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Yin</Author><Year>2009</Year><RecNum>130</RecNum><record><rec-number>130</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">130</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Yin, R. K.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Case study research: design and methods</title></titles><dates><year>2009</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Sage %7 4th</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Yin, 2009). The nature and scope of the cases can vary significantly and the approach often overlaps with other methodological approaches (such as action research, evaluation and ethnography). Critics of the case study approach argue that the findings are not generalisable or transferable. Proponents argue that the case-based approach enables the researcher to gather a rich, contextual understanding of a situation in context.<br />Action research<br />As might be expected, given the educational nature of e-learning as a research field, action research is often used as a methodological approach, particularly by practitioners who are trialling out the use of technologies in their classroom and want a framework within which to study the interventions ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Derntl</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>519</RecNum><record><rec-number>519</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">519</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Conference Proceedings">10</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Derntl, M.</author><author>Motschnig-Pitrik, R.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>A pattern approach to person-centered e-learning based on theory-guided action research</title><secondary-title>Networked Learning Conferece</secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2004</year></dates><pub-location>Lancaster University</pub-location><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Garrison</Author><Year>2003</Year><RecNum>517</RecNum><record><rec-number>517</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">517</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Garrison, D.R.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>E-learning in the 21st Century: a framework for research and practice</title></titles><dates><year>2003</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Rouledge</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Sloman</Author><Year>2001</Year><RecNum>520</RecNum><record><rec-number>520</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">520</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Sloman, M.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The e-learning revolution: from propisitions to action </title></titles><dates><year>2001</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Derntl & Motschnig-Pitrik, 2004; D. R. Garrison, 2003; Sloman, 2001). <br />Evaluation<br />The importance of evaluation has grown in recent years; as new learning technologies emerge there is a need to evaluate how these are used to support an increasingly diverse student population. The relationship between evaluation and research more generally remains contested. Both processes may use the same methods and study the same things. However, one way to distinguish them is to consider how findings are used. If they are interpreted by an immediate, local audience and used to support decision-making, the study was probably an evaluation; if findings are interpreted in terms of theories and are presented as a contribution to knowledge, it was probably research. Oliver et al. contend that approaches in evaluation range from positivist approaches focussed upon objective data collection (typically using quantitative methods) to interpretivist ones more rooted in constructivism (typically using qualitative methodologies) ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Oliver</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>68</RecNum><record><rec-number>68</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">68</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book Section">5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Oliver, M.</author><author>Harvey, J.</author><author>Conole, G.</author><author>Jones, A.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Evaluation</title><secondary-title>In G. Conole and M. Oliver (eds), Contemporary perspectives in e-learning research: themes, methods and impact on practice’</secondary-title></titles><pages>203-216</pages><dates><year>2007</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>RoutledgeFalmer</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Oliver, Harvey, Conole, & Jones, 2007).<br />Choosing an appropriate methodology<br />So which methodology should be used when, and are some methodologies better than others? Oliver et al. considers how five different methodological approaches (action research, behaviourist, activity theory-based, and a perspective based on power) are used to tackle the same research problem ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Oliver</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>170</RecNum><record><rec-number>170</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">170</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book Section">5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Oliver, M.</author><author>Roberts, G.</author><author>Beetham, H.</author><author>Ingraham, B.</author><author>Dyke, M.</author><author>Levy, P.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Knowledge, society and perspectives on learning technology</title><secondary-title>In G. Conole and M. Oliver (Eds.) Contemporaryr perspectives in e-learning research: themes, methods and impact on practice</secondary-title></titles><pages>21-37</pages><dates><year>2007</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>RoutledgeFalmer</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Oliver, Roberts, et al., 2007). This provides a nice illustration of how different theoretical perspectives would explain this situation differently, and how each can contribute to our understanding of this field.<br />Influences, beliefs and theoretical perspectives<br />E-Learning researchers draw on a broad group of influential thinkers, but there does appear to be a common shared discourse underpinning the field. Socio-cultural approaches – in particular the work of Vygotsy ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite ExcludeAuth="1"><Author>Vygotsky</Author><Year>1978</Year><RecNum>216</RecNum><record><rec-number>216</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">216</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Vygotsky, L. S.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Mind in society</title></titles><dates><year>1978</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(1978), Engeström ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite ExcludeAuth="1"><Author>Engeström</Author><Year>1999</Year><RecNum>161</RecNum><record><rec-number>161</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">161</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Engeström, Y.</author><author>Punamäki-Gitai, R. L.</author><author>Miettinen, R.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Perspectives on activity theory</title></titles><dates><year>1999</year></dates><publisher>Cambridge University Press</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(1999) and others around Activity Theory seem to be particularly influential. Laurillard’s ‘Rethinking university teaching and learning’ has been extensively cited ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Laurillard</Author><Year>2002</Year><RecNum>64</RecNum><record><rec-number>64</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">64</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Laurillard, Diana</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Rethinking university teaching</title></titles><dates><year>2002</year></dates><publisher>Routledge %@ 0415256798, 9780415256797</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Laurillard, 2002) and act as somewhat of a watershed in the field as it was published at a key time. <br />Listing others mentioned gives some indication of the theoretical perspectives these researchers are drawing on: Alan Collins; work on design-based research ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Collins</Author><Year>1992</Year><RecNum>379</RecNum><record><rec-number>379</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="2wap2tes5rfwtleve0mx9wpuw5xvvxape25z">379</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book Section">5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Collins, A.</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>E. Scanlon</author><author>T. O&apos;Shea</author></secondary-authors></contributors&

×