SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Chapter 1 Introduction




                         1
Overview....................................................................................................................3
The context of modern education...............................................................................3
The nature of educational technology........................................................................4
Today’s learners.........................................................................................................5
The need for a new learning design methodology......................................................6
Learning design: a definition......................................................................................9
Audience and structure of the book............................................................................9
Chapter sixteen is the conclusion chapter, which provides a summary and overview
of the book. It also looks at the implications of this work, along with reflections on
its importance and the associated challenges. .........................................................12
The process of writing the book...............................................................................12
Acknowledgements..................................................................................................12




                                                                                                                                2
Overview
In this book I will argue that in today’s technologically rich context, where content and
services are increasingly free, we need to rethink approaches to the design of learning
activities and content. I introduce the concept of ‘learning design’ and argue that making
the design process more explicit and shareable will enable teachers to develop more ef-
fective learning environments and interventions for learners and help make the intended
design more explicit and shareable with other teachers and learners. It will help learners
to make more sense of their educational provision and associated learning pathways. I
will provide a number of illustrations of adopting a more open approach to designing
learning interventions, from a set of design representations through to the use of open, so-
cial and participatory media for sharing and discussing designs. I draw on the areas of
learning design, pedagogical patterns and OER (Open Educational Resources) research to
explore the creation, sharing and discussion of learning and teaching ideas and designs.

The context of modern education
Many are arguing that there is a need for a fundamental change in the way in which we
design and support learning interventions. That traditional outcomes-based, assessment
driven and standardised educational systems and processes do not meet the needs of
today’s learners (Beetham & Sharpe, 2007; Borgeman, et al., 2008; Sharpe & Beetham,
2010).
A number of triggers are evident. Firstly, there is the broader societal context within
which educational sits. Giddens (1999), Castells (2000) and others describe the net-
worked and globalised nature of modern society, and the impact of the changing nature of
society values (including the defragmentation of the family unit, polarised perspectives
on secular vs. religion-based beliefs, and changing roles for individuals and organisa-
tions).
Secondly, Reigeluth (cited in Reigeluth & Carr-chellman, 2009, p. 390) argues that we
have seen a shift from the industrial to information age, where knowledge work has re-
placed manual labour as the predominant form of work. Within this context he argues that
we need to place a greater emphasis on lifelong and self-directed learning. The greater
complexity of modern society (both in terms of societal systems and technological tools)
requires specific types of competences to make sense of and interact within this context,
such as higher-order thinking skills, problem solving, systems thinking and the ability to
communicate, collaborate and interact effectively with others.
Thirdly, in terms of approaches to learning there has been a general shift away from indi-
vidual, behaviourist approaches to those that are more authentic, contextual and social in
nature, as these are perceived as more appropriate to equip learners with the skills they
will need to participatory in a constantly changing broadly societal context. In other
words it is no longer about knowing facts and procedures, but more about being able to
locate and use relevant information on a needs basis.




                                                                                               1
Fourthly, constructivist and dialogic approaches have become more prevalent, with a rich
set of empirically based case studies of the application of strategies such as problem-
based learning, case-based scenarios and inquiry-based learning.
Fiftly, over the past thirty years or so technologies have had a steady, increasing impact
on how learning is designed and supported, from the early days of programme instruction
and computer-assisted learning packages through to the use of the web and more recently
Web 2.0 tools and services, online gaming environments, mobile devices and 3D environ-
ments such as SecondLife. As a consequence a body of research around the competences
and skills needed to effectively use and interact with these new technologies has
emerged. Terms such as digital literacies, information literacies, 21st Century literacies
have been used; each with subtle nuances and different foci. However fundamentally the
central issue is about the literacies needed to communicate with others and make sense of
information (and more specifically how to do this in a digital context). Of particular note
within this broader discourse, Jenkins et al. (Jenkins, et al., 2006; Jenkins, 2009, p. 4)
have identified twelve skills which they argue are necessary to interact in what they term
this new participatory culture, namely – play, performance, simulation, appropriation,
multitasking, distributed cognition, collective intelligence, judgment, transmedia naviga-
tion, networking and negotiation. The executive summary to the report states that ‘foster-
ing such social skills and cultural competences requires a more systemic approach to me-
dia education’ (pg 4). This is at the heart of the learning design methodology approach
outlined in this book. The aim is to present a more systematic approach to the educational
design taking account of all the stakeholders involved in the process.
To sum up, because the context of modern education is rapidly changing, traditional ap-
proaches to the design and delivery of learning interventions are being challenged and
may no longer be appropriate to meet the needs and expectations of modern learners.
New pedagogies and innovative use of technologies seem to offer much promise in terms
of providing new, exciting educational experiences for learners. However in reality there
is little evidence of this happening. As Rogers argues (Rogers, 1995), educational innova-
tions in both pedagogical approaches and innovative use of technologies remain the remit
of educational innovators or early adopters, there is little evidence of mainstream adop-
tion and indeed depressingly taken as a whole the majority of educational offerings are
still based on fairly traditional approaches, with a primary focus on content and assess-
ment of outcomes, delivered via traditional didactic approaches. See for example a recent
review of the use of Web 2.0 tools in Higher Education (Conole & Alevizou, 2010).

The nature of educational technology
Research into exploring how technologies can be used to support different pedagogical
approaches can be traced back to the emergent of educational technology as a research
field in the sixties. De Vaney and Butler provide an overview of the field, its founders,
key trends and areas of research focus (De Vaney and Butler, 1996).
Molenda (2008) states that educational technology as a field has developed through a
series of phases as new technologies have emerged. Its origins are in the use of visual and
audio-visual systems, then radio, television, teaching machines, the design of instruction-




                                                                                              2
al systems, computers and ultimately the use of the internet for both storage/processing of
information and communication.
Spector (2008; 12) argues that the foundations of educational technology include: the
psychology of learning, communications theory, human-computer interactions and in-
structional design and development. The work of both Dewey and Vygotsky are drawn on
extensively. Dewey argued that in terms of how we think we need to understand the
nature of thought to be able to devise appropriate means and methods to train thought.
Vygotsky argued that all learning involves language (Spector: 24) and of course his
concept of mediating artefacts has been drawn on extensively in the field. I will return to
the way in which we are using the concept of mediating artefacts in our learning design
field in Chapter 15.
The educational technology field has developed and is defined in many respects by the
nature of and interaction with technologies. For as long as there have been technologies
there has been a rhetoric around their potential use in education and also the associated
challenges with uptake. Molenda (2008) observes that the barriers cited for the lack of
use for audio-visual tools in the 1940/50s are similar to those cited for lack of use of
computers in the 1990s; namely: accessibility issues, lack of training, unreliability of
equipment, limited budgets and the difficulty of integrating them into the curriculum.
Despite the promise of technology, we have not seen it revolutionise education (Beabout
and Carr-Chellman, 2008: 620). This was also a point forcibly made by the much cite
book by Cuban (Cuban, 1986). It seems that although the technologies may change the
barriers and reasons for lack of uptake remain much the same.
There has been a paradigm shift in the field due to new thinking around learning theories
from behaviourism, through cognitivism and finally constructivism (Mayes & Freitas,
2004). These theories led to the development of particular uses of technology designed to
support the underpinning principles of the theories. I will return to this in Chapter 18.
Later in this book, I will argue that new approaches to design are needed for teachers to
make effective use of technologies and for learners to productively navigate through
complex digital landscapes. Graeser et al. (2008: 212) suggest that most students do not
know how to use advanced learning environments effectively, so modelling, scaffolding
and feedback on their optimal use are necessary. This resonates with recent research into
the ways in which learners are using technologies (see Sharpe et al., 2010 for example). A
number of authors have argued that new digital literacies skills are needed to make sense
of new technologies, such as Jenkins et al. (2009) for example. Similarly in terms of
teachers/designers, Sims and Kozalka suggest that the term instructional design should be
replaced with learner/learning design.

Today’s learners
The internet and associated technologies have been around for around twenty years now.
Networked access and computer ownership are now the norm; at least in the developed
world. As such the context within which today’s students learn is radically different from
the context for learning in the past (see Sharpe and Beetham, 2010 for an edited
collection of resarch on learners perceptions and use of technologies). Some argue (Ob-
linger and Oblinger, 2005; Prensky, 2001) that these learners are technologically im-




                                                                                              1
mersed and as a consequence learn differently through technologies. Others are more cau-
tious, arguing that although these students maybe digital savvy they do not always know
how to use the technologies effectively for academic work. Furthermore, they are not a
homogenous group, they vary in terms of their technology skills, the ways in which they
use technologies and there preferences for which technologies to use or not (Jones, 2011;
Kennedy et al.., 2008).
Despite the different views on how learners are using technologies, there is no doubt that
there is a plethora of technologies that can be used to support learning, offering different
ways in which learners can communicate with each other and their tutors, and providing
them with access to interactive, multimedia content. The so-called ‘net generation’ has
grown up in this technologically rich environment. There has been a lot of hype about
how this generation is used to and comfortable with using a range of technologies to sup-
port all aspects of their lives (Sharpe & Beetham, 2010). However, these generic skills
don’t necessarily translate seamlessly to an academic learning context. Appropriation of
these technologies for academic purposes requires specific skills (Jenkins et al., 2006;
Jenkins, 2009), which means that the way in which we design and support learning op-
portunities needs to provide appropriate support to harness the potential of technologies.
The diversity of offerings available to learners also means there is more potential for
them to get lost and confused; more than ever before learners need supportive ‘learning
pathways’ to enable them to blend formal educational offerings, with free resources and
services. This requires a rethinking of the design process, to enable teachers (used in the
broadest sense here, from those in K-12 through to tertiary education, as well as design-
ers/trainers in more commercial settings) to take account of a blended learning context.

The need for a new learning design methodology
This new learning context also raises some thought-provoking issues. In a world where
content and services are increasingly free, what is the role of formal education? What
new teaching approaches and assessment methods are needed? How can we provide ef-
fective learning pathways to guide learners through the multitude of offerings now avail-
able? How can teachers develop new approaches to the design of learning activities and
whole curricula that takes account of this new complex, technologically enhanced con-
text?
The emergence of so-called web 2.0 tools has shifted practice on the internet away from
passive, information provision to active, user engagement. Many of the affordances (Gib-
son, 1977; 1979) of new technologies (user participation, peer critique, sharing, collective
construction) appear to align well with what are considered to be the hallmarks of good
pedagogy (socially situated learning, constructivism, dialogic and inquiry-based
learning). However in reality there is a gap between the potential of these technologies
and actual use in practice. Teachers lack the necessary skills to make informed decisions
about how to use these technologies effectively in their teaching. The term affordances
was coined by Gibbons, originally in an ecological context. He defines them as:
       All "action possibilities" latent in an environment… but always in relation to the actor
       and therefore dependent on their capabilities.




                                                                                                  2
For instance, a tall tree offers the affordances of food for a giraffe because it has a long
neck and can reach the leaves, but not a sheep. This term is useful in a technological con-
text because it infers that although technologies have an inherent set of characteristics or
affordances (such as promoting reflection or collaboration) these are only relevant in rela-
tion to individual users’ own characteristics (such as individual skills and personal prefer-
ences and the context of use). Technologies and users therefore co-evolve.
The gap between the potential and actual use of technology is a paradox and this is at the
heart of the growth of a new area of research that has emerged in recent years. Learning
design research aims to better understand this mismatch. It focuses on the development of
tools, design methods and approaches to help teachers design pedagogically effective
learning activities and whole curriculum, which makes effective use of technologies.
A key theme across the book is the centrality of design as an approach to the development
of more pedagogically innovative learning activities and resources, which make effective
use of new technologies. The book describes the design processes and reviews the range
of approaches that have been developed to support more effective design practices. These
approaches include: learning design, the promotion and use of Pedagogical Patterns and
Open Educational Resource, as well as the more traditional Instructional Design.
The book introduces learning design as a methodology for designing for learning in an
‘open’ context. I argue that it is no longer possible for any one teacher to be an expert in
knowing about all the ways in which technology can be used to support learning or be
aware of all the latest innovative learning activities or resources that are freely available.
Drawing on the research we have been doing in this area, along with related research in
the learning design field and closely aligned research areas (in particular work on ped-
agogical patterns, Open Educational Resources (OER) research, learning sciences and in-
structional design), I will argue that there is a need for a more formal approach to design-
ing for learning. Specifically, that we need to shift from the traditional craft-based teach-
er-design (where design draws on practice and is essentially implicit) to a more systemat-
ic, explicit design approach, drawing on empirically derived and validated tools and
methods for design (Figure 1).




                                                                                                 1
Figure 1: The essence of learning design

I will describe the tools and resources that can act as Mediating Artefacts (MAs) to sup-
port teachers in making informative design decisions. For a fuller description of how the
term Mediating Artefacts is being used in this context, see (Conole, 2008). Mediating
Artefacts are discuss in more detail in chapter five. I will show how the research we have
been doing demonstrates the value of adopting a more open approach to the design pro-
cess, to enable teachers to represent, share and discuss learning designs with each other
and with students.
To my knowledge the book would provide the first single-authored coherent overview of
learning design. The book will draw in particular on the research work as part of the
Open University Learning Design Initiative (OULDI).1 However it will also locate this
work within the broader context of design research from across the learning sciences and
Instructional Design fields. The work we are doing as part of the OULDI is at the fore-
front of research in this field. We have developed a range of innovative tools and design
methods, which are generating a lot of interest in the field. We have an evolving Learning
Design Toolbox, which gives some indication of the scale of our work.
The book aims to provide a coherent overview for this work, along with a theoretical un-
derpinning and contextualization with related research in the field. The book also aims to
provide a good balance of theoretical underpinning for the field, innovative tools and
methods, and practical examples and case studies. I will articulate my position in terms of
designing for learning, through a definition for the concept of learning design by introdu-
cing the notion of adopting a more open approach to the design process. I will situate the
research work alongside related areas such as Instructional Design, learning sciences, re-
search into the development and use of Pedagogical Patterns and Open Educational Re-
sources (OER). The book will also describe the theoretical underpinnings to this work,
which are essentially socio-cultural in nature (Daniels, Cole, & Wertsch, 2007;
Engeström, Punamäki-Gitai, & Miettinen, 1999), through articulation of the range of Me-
diating Artefacts (MAs) that can be used to support and guide the design process.

1 Http://ouldi.open.ac.uk




                                                                                              2
Learning design: a definition
Learning design as a term has being used in a number of different ways, the book will
clarify these different perspectives, positioning the approach I take as being about
‘designing for learning’. I define learning design as follows:
       A methodology for enabling teachers/designers to make more informed decisions
       in how they go about designing, which is pedagogically informed and makes ef-
       fective use of appropriate resources and technologies. This includes the design of
       resources and individual learning activities right up to curriculum-level design. A
       key principle is to help make the design process more explicit and shareable.
       Learning design as an area of research and development includes both gathering
       empirical evidence to understand the design process, as well as the development
       of a range of resource, tools and activities.
The book will provide a rich basis for critiquing design considerations in learning and in-
struction. It will make clear both the distinctiveness of learning design as a research in-
quiry, but also demonstrate how it is related to and builds on other design work from the
fields of learning sciences and Instructional Design.

Audience and structure of the book
I see this book as marking an important turning point for research in this area. It will be
of broad interest to a number of audiences given the increased use and impact of Informa-
tion and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education. Thus its primary intended
audience will be existing researchers in the field. In addition, a major second market will
consist of new researchers, reached through the use of the book as a core text for post-
graduate programmes (including masters and PhD study) in this area. Finally, I believe
that there will be interest in this book from a substantial third group, consisting of teach-
ers and trainers, staff developers, learning technology practitioners and managers who
would use the book to orient themselves to these new forms of learning and teaching in
education.
The book sits at the intersection of a number of research fields and attempts to tackle one
of the key challenges facing education – how can teachers design innovative learning ex-
periences for learners in an increasingly technology-enhanced context? The primary audi-
ence is researchers in the field of technology-enhanced learning/e-learning. This includes
those with a broad interest in researching the use of technology in learning and teaching,
as well as individuals with more specialist interests, in particular the research areas of in-
structional design, learning design, pedagogical patterns, learning sciences and OER re-
search. More broadly, the book will have appeal to researchers in a number of related
fields such as computer science, education, information sciences and psychology.
The book should be of interest in a number of fields, including: educational technology,
learning technology, education, open and distance education. It is envisaged that it would
be of relevance to a wide range of masters-level courses in this area and associated areas
across Higher and Further Education (including programmes in e-learning, learning tech-
nology research, networked learning, educational masters programmes, etc.). There are
now a significant number of masters courses concerned with the use of technology in




                                                                                                 1
education (ranging from specialised Instructional Design courses through to e-learning
and open and distance education courses). In addition, I anticipate that it will be used as a
reference text for induction programmes for new lecturers. It will also be of relevance to
related masters in computer science, education, business studies and psychology for ex-
ample. This will also be of value to consumers of research such as managers, policy
makers, learning technologists and staff developers. In addition because the book covers
both the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject, it will also be of interest to those
with a support role in institutions, such as: learning technologists, instructional designers,
educational developers and librarians.
A central argument that will be developed in the book is that effective and systematic ap-
proaches to design are essential in today’s complex, technologically rich learning context.
Teachers need tools and methods to help guide them to make informed decisions about
their designs. As such teachers will also find this book valuable; in particular the descrip-
tion and case studies of a range of specific tools and design methods. The book is likely
to be of particular benefit to new teachers, as part of induction programmes for new fac-
ulty.
Finally, the book will look at design from the perspective of different levels of granularity
(from the design of small-scale learning activities through to whole curricula design), as
well as across the whole design lifecycle (from initial concepts through to evaluation). I
will argue that in most institutions, current structures and processes are woefully inad-
equate to take account of the affordances of new technologies and that effective design
using new technologies will require a radical rethink of the whole curriculum process.
This has significant implications for institutional strategy and policy. As such the book is
likely to be of interest to those in managerial roles within institutions as well as policy
makers.
The book begins with this introductory chapter, which provides an overview of the book
and a rationale for its relevance. This includes an overview of the context of modern edu-
cation. I argue that we now operate in a context of rapid technological change, which is
influencing the nature of education and its purpose. Boundaries between formal and in-
formal learning are changing, as a result I argue that, within this context, the way in
which we design, support and assess learning needs to change and the nature of educa-
tioal technologies. Next the characteristics of today’s learners are discussed drawing on
key research in the field. It provides a brief definition of the term ‘learning design and ar-
gues for the need for a new learning design methodology is discussed, which is the main
focus of the book. Finally the audience and structure of the book are described.
Design languages are the focus of chapter two, in particular the use of design notation in
music, architecture and chemistry are described. The chapter discusses the challenges of
designing for learning, and then focusses on learning design, along with the spectrum of
learning design languages that have been developed. The origins of the OU Learning
Design Initiative are described, along with a description of how OULDI adopted a
Design-Based Research (DBR) approach.




                                                                                                  2
Chapter three situates the Open Learning Design methodology discussed in this book in
relation to related research fields such as learning sciences, instructional design and ped-
agogical patterns.
Chapter four provides a review of new open, social and participatory media and gives ex-
amples of how these are being used to support different pedagogical approaches. It con-
siders the changing digital landscape of education and provides a review of new techno-
logies, which includes: i) the characteristics of new technologies, ii) the impact of web
2.0 technologies, iii) the use of web 2.0 technologies in education and iv) the impact on
practice. Highlights from a review of web 2.0 tools and practices are then discussed.
Chapter five describes the key theoretical perspectives and methodologies that underpin
learning design research. Chapter five describes how the Open Learning Design method-
ology described in this book draws on Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) and in
particular the notion of Mediating Artefacts. It also considers the nature of theory and
methodology in the field.
Chapter six defines Mediating Artefacts, including the different ways in which practice
can be captured and represented. It describes a range of Mediating Artefacts and con-
cludes with an illustrative example that demonstrates how an OER created for use in one
contexts can be repurposed.
Chapter seven introduces the concept of affordances, discussing the range of definitions
for the term. It goes on to discuss the affordances of technologies and argues that these
can be used as a means of structuring and guiding use of particular technologies for dif-
ferent learning interventions.
Chapter eight gives an overview of different design representations and how they can be
used to promote new ways of thinking about designing learning interventions.
Chapter nine then goes into more detail on different tools that can be used to visualise
and represent designs, and in particular on the CompendiumLD tool that we have de-
veloped. It begins with a description of the ways in which practitioners currently go about
designing learning interventions.
Chapter ten critiques the notion of ‘openness’ in terms of open design, delivery, evalu-
ation and research. An important aspect of open delivery is the use of OER, chapter nine
gives an overview of the Open Educational Resource movement, whilst chapter ten out-
lines two recent OER initiatives, namely Olnet and OPAL.
Chapter eleven provides a review of the Open Educational Resource movement. This in-
cludes a review of OER initiatives and a description of four illustrative examples.
Chapter twelve discusses the outputs and findings from the work being undertaken as part
of the Olnet and OPAL initiatives.
Chapter thirteen returns to the ways in which open, social and participatory media are
resulting in new forms of online communities and interactions. It defines the terms and
looks at different pedagogies of e-learning. It concludes with the introduction of a new




                                                                                               1
Community Indicators Framework (CIF), that can be used to guide the design and evalu-
ation of new social and participatory media.
Chapter fourteen describes the Cloudworks social networking site, and in particular the
ways in which it is promoting new forms of online interaction, communication and col-
laboration.
Chapter fifteen reviews a number of pedagogical planners that have been developed to
guide practitioners in making informed learning design decisions. These planners, the
chapter argues provide more structured support for the design process than the visualisa-
tion representations and the use of social and participatory media discussed in earlier
chapters.
Chapter sixteen is the conclusion chapter, which provides a summary and overview of the
book. It also looks at the implications of this work, along with reflections on its impor-
tance and the associated challenges.

The process of writing the book
The writing of the book is intended to be adventurous, in terms of adopting an 'open ap-
proach' to the process of writing the book. This consists of an ongoing series of blog
posts about the book on my blog.2 These posts include initial ideas around the nature and
scope of the book, articulation of particular issues I encounter as I am writing, fleshing
out some of the ideas for the chapters and associated references. Coupled to this, period-
ically a series of “clouds” on the Cloudworks site,3 invite the broader research com-
munity to participate in a discussion around some of research issues and questions that
arise from the content of the book as it develops. Cloudworks will also be used as a
means of adopting an open approach to the literature review associated with the book and
the aggregation of relevant links and references. The blog posts and the clouds provide a
rich set of associated resources alongside the book, as well as a continued space for ongo-
ing discussion once the book is published.

Acknowledgements
This is building on an established area of research, which I have being involved with over
the past ten years or so. In particular it follows on from the development of a Learning
Design toolkit, called DialogPlus,4 as part of a NSF/JISC funded project and more re-
cently the OULDI work at the Open University.5 In particular I would like to acknow-
ledge the contributions of this work from the folloring people: Andrew Brasher, Simon
Cross, Paul Clark, Juliette Culver, Nick Freear, Richard Lovelace, Rebecca Galley and
Paul Mundin. I would also like to thank Martin Weller for providing invaluable feedback
on draft chapters of the book and also colleagues who provide comments on the draft
chapters on Cloudworks.
Aspects of the work have been published in chapters and journal articles but this book
provides a synthesis the work to date and provide a clear position/”take” on the field. In
2 http://www.e4innovation.com
3 http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloudscape/view/2231
4 http://www.dialogplus.soton.ac.uk/
5 http://ouldi.open.ac.uk




                                                                                              2
addition it aligns this work alongside related learning design research and more broadly
research in closely aligned areas (such as instructional design, learning sciences, pedago-
gical patterns and OER research). The aim of the book is to provide a synthesis and co-
herent overview of learning design as a research area, within the context of an education-
al context that is technologically rich and increasingly open.




                                                                                              1

More Related Content

What's hot

Reading discussion anderson and dron by pedro ximenes_2104212
Reading discussion anderson and dron by pedro ximenes_2104212Reading discussion anderson and dron by pedro ximenes_2104212
Reading discussion anderson and dron by pedro ximenes_2104212
barr0336
 
Innovation, informational literacy and lifelong learning: creating a new culture
Innovation, informational literacy and lifelong learning: creating a new cultureInnovation, informational literacy and lifelong learning: creating a new culture
Innovation, informational literacy and lifelong learning: creating a new culture
eLearning Papers
 
EMBODYING THE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION
EMBODYING THE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONEMBODYING THE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION
EMBODYING THE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION
ijejournal
 
Exploring open approaches towards digital literacy
Exploring open approaches towards digital literacyExploring open approaches towards digital literacy
Exploring open approaches towards digital literacy
DEFToer3
 
3. luento tieto- ja viestintätekniikan pedagogiset perusteet: tietokoneavuste...
3. luento tieto- ja viestintätekniikan pedagogiset perusteet: tietokoneavuste...3. luento tieto- ja viestintätekniikan pedagogiset perusteet: tietokoneavuste...
3. luento tieto- ja viestintätekniikan pedagogiset perusteet: tietokoneavuste...
Jari Laru
 
13.saradindu bera
13.saradindu bera13.saradindu bera
13.saradindu bera
SRJIS
 
What shapes what? Technologies and their relationship to learning
What shapes what? Technologies and their relationship to learningWhat shapes what? Technologies and their relationship to learning
What shapes what? Technologies and their relationship to learning
Martin Oliver
 
Understanding eLearning technologies-in-practice
Understanding eLearning technologies-in-practiceUnderstanding eLearning technologies-in-practice
Understanding eLearning technologies-in-practice
Vincent Deocampo
 
Lisa Kervin: Abstract
Lisa Kervin: AbstractLisa Kervin: Abstract
Lisa Kervin: Abstract
KatherineHaratsis
 
Article 1
Article 1Article 1
Article 1
MiraAlmirys
 
Distributed educational influence and computer supported
Distributed educational influence and computer supportedDistributed educational influence and computer supported
Distributed educational influence and computer supported
María Janeth Ríos C.
 
Digital literacy literature review
Digital literacy literature reviewDigital literacy literature review
Digital literacy literature review
DEFToer3
 
The Impact of ICT on Students of The Preparatory Academic Unit 14 of The Auto...
The Impact of ICT on Students of The Preparatory Academic Unit 14 of The Auto...The Impact of ICT on Students of The Preparatory Academic Unit 14 of The Auto...
The Impact of ICT on Students of The Preparatory Academic Unit 14 of The Auto...
inventionjournals
 
"Anatomy of Digital Resources in Learning Generation"
"Anatomy of Digital Resources in Learning Generation""Anatomy of Digital Resources in Learning Generation"
"Anatomy of Digital Resources in Learning Generation"
Former Trainer Teacher Ministry of Education, Independent Advisor
 
Mitigating Factors, and Factors Militating against Teacher’s Utilization of I...
Mitigating Factors, and Factors Militating against Teacher’s Utilization of I...Mitigating Factors, and Factors Militating against Teacher’s Utilization of I...
Mitigating Factors, and Factors Militating against Teacher’s Utilization of I...
paperpublications3
 
Educ9701 week 1 readings
Educ9701 week 1 readingsEduc9701 week 1 readings
Educ9701 week 1 readings
Trudy Sweeney
 
E learning theory
E learning theoryE learning theory
E learning theory
Muhammad Prana Adithya
 
Between theory and practice the importance of ict in higher education
Between theory and practice  the importance of ict in higher educationBetween theory and practice  the importance of ict in higher education
Between theory and practice the importance of ict in higher education
Maria Loizou
 
K 12 mobile-learning
K 12 mobile-learningK 12 mobile-learning
K 12 mobile-learning
Cathy Cavanaugh
 
Ch. ECSSR as150414 final
Ch. ECSSR as150414 finalCh. ECSSR as150414 final
Ch. ECSSR as150414 final
Alain Senteni
 

What's hot (20)

Reading discussion anderson and dron by pedro ximenes_2104212
Reading discussion anderson and dron by pedro ximenes_2104212Reading discussion anderson and dron by pedro ximenes_2104212
Reading discussion anderson and dron by pedro ximenes_2104212
 
Innovation, informational literacy and lifelong learning: creating a new culture
Innovation, informational literacy and lifelong learning: creating a new cultureInnovation, informational literacy and lifelong learning: creating a new culture
Innovation, informational literacy and lifelong learning: creating a new culture
 
EMBODYING THE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION
EMBODYING THE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONEMBODYING THE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION
EMBODYING THE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION
 
Exploring open approaches towards digital literacy
Exploring open approaches towards digital literacyExploring open approaches towards digital literacy
Exploring open approaches towards digital literacy
 
3. luento tieto- ja viestintätekniikan pedagogiset perusteet: tietokoneavuste...
3. luento tieto- ja viestintätekniikan pedagogiset perusteet: tietokoneavuste...3. luento tieto- ja viestintätekniikan pedagogiset perusteet: tietokoneavuste...
3. luento tieto- ja viestintätekniikan pedagogiset perusteet: tietokoneavuste...
 
13.saradindu bera
13.saradindu bera13.saradindu bera
13.saradindu bera
 
What shapes what? Technologies and their relationship to learning
What shapes what? Technologies and their relationship to learningWhat shapes what? Technologies and their relationship to learning
What shapes what? Technologies and their relationship to learning
 
Understanding eLearning technologies-in-practice
Understanding eLearning technologies-in-practiceUnderstanding eLearning technologies-in-practice
Understanding eLearning technologies-in-practice
 
Lisa Kervin: Abstract
Lisa Kervin: AbstractLisa Kervin: Abstract
Lisa Kervin: Abstract
 
Article 1
Article 1Article 1
Article 1
 
Distributed educational influence and computer supported
Distributed educational influence and computer supportedDistributed educational influence and computer supported
Distributed educational influence and computer supported
 
Digital literacy literature review
Digital literacy literature reviewDigital literacy literature review
Digital literacy literature review
 
The Impact of ICT on Students of The Preparatory Academic Unit 14 of The Auto...
The Impact of ICT on Students of The Preparatory Academic Unit 14 of The Auto...The Impact of ICT on Students of The Preparatory Academic Unit 14 of The Auto...
The Impact of ICT on Students of The Preparatory Academic Unit 14 of The Auto...
 
"Anatomy of Digital Resources in Learning Generation"
"Anatomy of Digital Resources in Learning Generation""Anatomy of Digital Resources in Learning Generation"
"Anatomy of Digital Resources in Learning Generation"
 
Mitigating Factors, and Factors Militating against Teacher’s Utilization of I...
Mitigating Factors, and Factors Militating against Teacher’s Utilization of I...Mitigating Factors, and Factors Militating against Teacher’s Utilization of I...
Mitigating Factors, and Factors Militating against Teacher’s Utilization of I...
 
Educ9701 week 1 readings
Educ9701 week 1 readingsEduc9701 week 1 readings
Educ9701 week 1 readings
 
E learning theory
E learning theoryE learning theory
E learning theory
 
Between theory and practice the importance of ict in higher education
Between theory and practice  the importance of ict in higher educationBetween theory and practice  the importance of ict in higher education
Between theory and practice the importance of ict in higher education
 
K 12 mobile-learning
K 12 mobile-learningK 12 mobile-learning
K 12 mobile-learning
 
Ch. ECSSR as150414 final
Ch. ECSSR as150414 finalCh. ECSSR as150414 final
Ch. ECSSR as150414 final
 

Similar to Chapter 1 introduction

Conole connected june_2010
Conole connected june_2010Conole connected june_2010
Conole connected june_2010
grainne
 
Conole connected final
Conole connected finalConole connected final
Conole connected final
grainne
 
Learners centered 2
Learners centered 2Learners centered 2
Learners centered 2
Pugazhenthi Viswasam
 
Learner Generated Contexts
Learner Generated ContextsLearner Generated Contexts
Learner Generated Contexts
London Knowledge Lab
 
Conole keynote paper
Conole keynote paperConole keynote paper
Conole keynote paper
Grainne Conole
 
Conole keynote paper
Conole keynote paperConole keynote paper
Conole keynote paper
Grainne Conole
 
Futuro da tecnologia instrucional
Futuro da tecnologia instrucionalFuturo da tecnologia instrucional
Futuro da tecnologia instrucional
Caroline Dibe
 
Future learners, future learning spaces
Future learners, future learning spacesFuture learners, future learning spaces
Future learners, future learning spaces
Dannno
 
Conole keynote icde_sept_28
Conole keynote icde_sept_28Conole keynote icde_sept_28
Conole keynote icde_sept_28
grainne
 
Digital literacy by Dr Qaisar Abbas
Digital literacy by Dr Qaisar AbbasDigital literacy by Dr Qaisar Abbas
Digital literacy by Dr Qaisar Abbas
GC University Faisalabad Pakistan
 
Prof ass 1 final draft 1
Prof ass 1 final draft 1Prof ass 1 final draft 1
Prof ass 1 final draft 1
Amy-Lee Reynolds
 
A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK ON FUTURISTIC STUDIES
A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK ON FUTURISTIC STUDIESA CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK ON FUTURISTIC STUDIES
A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK ON FUTURISTIC STUDIES
mlaij
 
Blended learning is the natural evolution of electronic learning
Blended learning is the natural evolution of electronic learningBlended learning is the natural evolution of electronic learning
Blended learning is the natural evolution of electronic learning
Alexander Decker
 
Cognitive Communication 2.0 in the Classroom - Resonance of an Experience in ...
Cognitive Communication 2.0 in the Classroom - Resonance of an Experience in ...Cognitive Communication 2.0 in the Classroom - Resonance of an Experience in ...
Cognitive Communication 2.0 in the Classroom - Resonance of an Experience in ...
Cornélia Castro
 
DS presenation at SSAT Raising Achievement event
DS presenation at SSAT Raising Achievement eventDS presenation at SSAT Raising Achievement event
DS presenation at SSAT Raising Achievement event
Dannno
 
Chapter 2 final draft
Chapter 2 final draftChapter 2 final draft
Chapter 2 final draft
megerdts
 
Research through the Generations: Reflecting on the Past, Present and Future
Research through the Generations:  Reflecting on the Past, Present and FutureResearch through the Generations:  Reflecting on the Past, Present and Future
Research through the Generations: Reflecting on the Past, Present and Future
Grainne Conole
 
Evaluation of Educational Technology and Its Current Application
Evaluation of Educational Technology and Its Current ApplicationEvaluation of Educational Technology and Its Current Application
Evaluation of Educational Technology and Its Current Application
everlypong
 
Learning with technology (wk 1)
Learning with technology (wk 1)Learning with technology (wk 1)
Learning with technology (wk 1)
Trudy Sweeney
 
A Heutagogical Approach For The Assessment Of Internet Communication Technolo...
A Heutagogical Approach For The Assessment Of Internet Communication Technolo...A Heutagogical Approach For The Assessment Of Internet Communication Technolo...
A Heutagogical Approach For The Assessment Of Internet Communication Technolo...
Felicia Clark
 

Similar to Chapter 1 introduction (20)

Conole connected june_2010
Conole connected june_2010Conole connected june_2010
Conole connected june_2010
 
Conole connected final
Conole connected finalConole connected final
Conole connected final
 
Learners centered 2
Learners centered 2Learners centered 2
Learners centered 2
 
Learner Generated Contexts
Learner Generated ContextsLearner Generated Contexts
Learner Generated Contexts
 
Conole keynote paper
Conole keynote paperConole keynote paper
Conole keynote paper
 
Conole keynote paper
Conole keynote paperConole keynote paper
Conole keynote paper
 
Futuro da tecnologia instrucional
Futuro da tecnologia instrucionalFuturo da tecnologia instrucional
Futuro da tecnologia instrucional
 
Future learners, future learning spaces
Future learners, future learning spacesFuture learners, future learning spaces
Future learners, future learning spaces
 
Conole keynote icde_sept_28
Conole keynote icde_sept_28Conole keynote icde_sept_28
Conole keynote icde_sept_28
 
Digital literacy by Dr Qaisar Abbas
Digital literacy by Dr Qaisar AbbasDigital literacy by Dr Qaisar Abbas
Digital literacy by Dr Qaisar Abbas
 
Prof ass 1 final draft 1
Prof ass 1 final draft 1Prof ass 1 final draft 1
Prof ass 1 final draft 1
 
A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK ON FUTURISTIC STUDIES
A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK ON FUTURISTIC STUDIESA CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK ON FUTURISTIC STUDIES
A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK ON FUTURISTIC STUDIES
 
Blended learning is the natural evolution of electronic learning
Blended learning is the natural evolution of electronic learningBlended learning is the natural evolution of electronic learning
Blended learning is the natural evolution of electronic learning
 
Cognitive Communication 2.0 in the Classroom - Resonance of an Experience in ...
Cognitive Communication 2.0 in the Classroom - Resonance of an Experience in ...Cognitive Communication 2.0 in the Classroom - Resonance of an Experience in ...
Cognitive Communication 2.0 in the Classroom - Resonance of an Experience in ...
 
DS presenation at SSAT Raising Achievement event
DS presenation at SSAT Raising Achievement eventDS presenation at SSAT Raising Achievement event
DS presenation at SSAT Raising Achievement event
 
Chapter 2 final draft
Chapter 2 final draftChapter 2 final draft
Chapter 2 final draft
 
Research through the Generations: Reflecting on the Past, Present and Future
Research through the Generations:  Reflecting on the Past, Present and FutureResearch through the Generations:  Reflecting on the Past, Present and Future
Research through the Generations: Reflecting on the Past, Present and Future
 
Evaluation of Educational Technology and Its Current Application
Evaluation of Educational Technology and Its Current ApplicationEvaluation of Educational Technology and Its Current Application
Evaluation of Educational Technology and Its Current Application
 
Learning with technology (wk 1)
Learning with technology (wk 1)Learning with technology (wk 1)
Learning with technology (wk 1)
 
A Heutagogical Approach For The Assessment Of Internet Communication Technolo...
A Heutagogical Approach For The Assessment Of Internet Communication Technolo...A Heutagogical Approach For The Assessment Of Internet Communication Technolo...
A Heutagogical Approach For The Assessment Of Internet Communication Technolo...
 

More from grainne

Conole sydney
Conole sydneyConole sydney
Conole sydney
grainne
 
Conole ld overview
Conole ld overviewConole ld overview
Conole ld overview
grainne
 
Conole compendium ld
Conole compendium ldConole compendium ld
Conole compendium ld
grainne
 
Conole poe
Conole poeConole poe
Conole poe
grainne
 
Conole svea
Conole sveaConole svea
Conole svea
grainne
 
Conole
ConoleConole
Conole
grainne
 
Conole vilnius 3_nov
Conole vilnius 3_novConole vilnius 3_nov
Conole vilnius 3_nov
grainne
 
Conole vilnius 3_nov
Conole vilnius 3_novConole vilnius 3_nov
Conole vilnius 3_nov
grainne
 
Conole vilnius 3_nov
Conole vilnius 3_novConole vilnius 3_nov
Conole vilnius 3_nov
grainne
 
Theory methodology
Theory methodologyTheory methodology
Theory methodology
grainne
 
Conole ld
Conole ldConole ld
Conole ld
grainne
 
Oer panel
Oer panelOer panel
Oer panel
grainne
 
Conole creativity
Conole creativityConole creativity
Conole creativity
grainne
 
Conole keynote bali
Conole keynote baliConole keynote bali
Conole keynote bali
grainne
 
Conole iaidis 22_july
Conole iaidis 22_julyConole iaidis 22_july
Conole iaidis 22_july
grainne
 
2 09 groinne conole_july_final_2011
2 09 groinne conole_july_final_20112 09 groinne conole_july_final_2011
2 09 groinne conole_july_final_2011
grainne
 
Conole opal
Conole opalConole opal
Conole opal
grainne
 
Conole finland workshop
Conole finland workshopConole finland workshop
Conole finland workshop
grainne
 
Conole finland 5_june
Conole finland 5_juneConole finland 5_june
Conole finland 5_june
grainne
 
References may2011
References may2011References may2011
References may2011
grainne
 

More from grainne (20)

Conole sydney
Conole sydneyConole sydney
Conole sydney
 
Conole ld overview
Conole ld overviewConole ld overview
Conole ld overview
 
Conole compendium ld
Conole compendium ldConole compendium ld
Conole compendium ld
 
Conole poe
Conole poeConole poe
Conole poe
 
Conole svea
Conole sveaConole svea
Conole svea
 
Conole
ConoleConole
Conole
 
Conole vilnius 3_nov
Conole vilnius 3_novConole vilnius 3_nov
Conole vilnius 3_nov
 
Conole vilnius 3_nov
Conole vilnius 3_novConole vilnius 3_nov
Conole vilnius 3_nov
 
Conole vilnius 3_nov
Conole vilnius 3_novConole vilnius 3_nov
Conole vilnius 3_nov
 
Theory methodology
Theory methodologyTheory methodology
Theory methodology
 
Conole ld
Conole ldConole ld
Conole ld
 
Oer panel
Oer panelOer panel
Oer panel
 
Conole creativity
Conole creativityConole creativity
Conole creativity
 
Conole keynote bali
Conole keynote baliConole keynote bali
Conole keynote bali
 
Conole iaidis 22_july
Conole iaidis 22_julyConole iaidis 22_july
Conole iaidis 22_july
 
2 09 groinne conole_july_final_2011
2 09 groinne conole_july_final_20112 09 groinne conole_july_final_2011
2 09 groinne conole_july_final_2011
 
Conole opal
Conole opalConole opal
Conole opal
 
Conole finland workshop
Conole finland workshopConole finland workshop
Conole finland workshop
 
Conole finland 5_june
Conole finland 5_juneConole finland 5_june
Conole finland 5_june
 
References may2011
References may2011References may2011
References may2011
 

Recently uploaded

IGCSE Biology Chapter 14- Reproduction in Plants.pdf
IGCSE Biology Chapter 14- Reproduction in Plants.pdfIGCSE Biology Chapter 14- Reproduction in Plants.pdf
IGCSE Biology Chapter 14- Reproduction in Plants.pdf
Amin Marwan
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdfLiberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
WaniBasim
 
Bed Making ( Introduction, Purpose, Types, Articles, Scientific principles, N...
Bed Making ( Introduction, Purpose, Types, Articles, Scientific principles, N...Bed Making ( Introduction, Purpose, Types, Articles, Scientific principles, N...
Bed Making ( Introduction, Purpose, Types, Articles, Scientific principles, N...
Leena Ghag-Sakpal
 
Solutons Maths Escape Room Spatial .pptx
Solutons Maths Escape Room Spatial .pptxSolutons Maths Escape Room Spatial .pptx
Solutons Maths Escape Room Spatial .pptx
spdendr
 
Constructing Your Course Container for Effective Communication
Constructing Your Course Container for Effective CommunicationConstructing Your Course Container for Effective Communication
Constructing Your Course Container for Effective Communication
Chevonnese Chevers Whyte, MBA, B.Sc.
 
Traditional Musical Instruments of Arunachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh - RAYH...
Traditional Musical Instruments of Arunachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh - RAYH...Traditional Musical Instruments of Arunachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh - RAYH...
Traditional Musical Instruments of Arunachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh - RAYH...
imrankhan141184
 
math operations ued in python and all used
math operations ued in python and all usedmath operations ued in python and all used
math operations ued in python and all used
ssuser13ffe4
 
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) CurriculumPhilippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
MJDuyan
 
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptxC1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
mulvey2
 
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the moviewriting about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
Nicholas Montgomery
 
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
ZK on Polkadot zero knowledge proofs - sub0.pptx
ZK on Polkadot zero knowledge proofs - sub0.pptxZK on Polkadot zero knowledge proofs - sub0.pptx
ZK on Polkadot zero knowledge proofs - sub0.pptx
dot55audits
 
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movieFilm vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Nicholas Montgomery
 
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UPLAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
RAHUL
 
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdfবাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
eBook.com.bd (প্রয়োজনীয় বাংলা বই)
 
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdfANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
Priyankaranawat4
 
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
PsychoTech Services
 
คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1
คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1
คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1
สมใจ จันสุกสี
 
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptxChapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Denish Jangid
 

Recently uploaded (20)

IGCSE Biology Chapter 14- Reproduction in Plants.pdf
IGCSE Biology Chapter 14- Reproduction in Plants.pdfIGCSE Biology Chapter 14- Reproduction in Plants.pdf
IGCSE Biology Chapter 14- Reproduction in Plants.pdf
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
 
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdfLiberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
 
Bed Making ( Introduction, Purpose, Types, Articles, Scientific principles, N...
Bed Making ( Introduction, Purpose, Types, Articles, Scientific principles, N...Bed Making ( Introduction, Purpose, Types, Articles, Scientific principles, N...
Bed Making ( Introduction, Purpose, Types, Articles, Scientific principles, N...
 
Solutons Maths Escape Room Spatial .pptx
Solutons Maths Escape Room Spatial .pptxSolutons Maths Escape Room Spatial .pptx
Solutons Maths Escape Room Spatial .pptx
 
Constructing Your Course Container for Effective Communication
Constructing Your Course Container for Effective CommunicationConstructing Your Course Container for Effective Communication
Constructing Your Course Container for Effective Communication
 
Traditional Musical Instruments of Arunachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh - RAYH...
Traditional Musical Instruments of Arunachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh - RAYH...Traditional Musical Instruments of Arunachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh - RAYH...
Traditional Musical Instruments of Arunachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh - RAYH...
 
math operations ued in python and all used
math operations ued in python and all usedmath operations ued in python and all used
math operations ued in python and all used
 
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) CurriculumPhilippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
 
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptxC1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
 
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the moviewriting about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
 
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
 
ZK on Polkadot zero knowledge proofs - sub0.pptx
ZK on Polkadot zero knowledge proofs - sub0.pptxZK on Polkadot zero knowledge proofs - sub0.pptx
ZK on Polkadot zero knowledge proofs - sub0.pptx
 
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movieFilm vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
 
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UPLAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
 
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdfবাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
 
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdfANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
 
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
 
คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1
คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1
คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1
 
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptxChapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
 

Chapter 1 introduction

  • 2. Overview....................................................................................................................3 The context of modern education...............................................................................3 The nature of educational technology........................................................................4 Today’s learners.........................................................................................................5 The need for a new learning design methodology......................................................6 Learning design: a definition......................................................................................9 Audience and structure of the book............................................................................9 Chapter sixteen is the conclusion chapter, which provides a summary and overview of the book. It also looks at the implications of this work, along with reflections on its importance and the associated challenges. .........................................................12 The process of writing the book...............................................................................12 Acknowledgements..................................................................................................12 2
  • 3. Overview In this book I will argue that in today’s technologically rich context, where content and services are increasingly free, we need to rethink approaches to the design of learning activities and content. I introduce the concept of ‘learning design’ and argue that making the design process more explicit and shareable will enable teachers to develop more ef- fective learning environments and interventions for learners and help make the intended design more explicit and shareable with other teachers and learners. It will help learners to make more sense of their educational provision and associated learning pathways. I will provide a number of illustrations of adopting a more open approach to designing learning interventions, from a set of design representations through to the use of open, so- cial and participatory media for sharing and discussing designs. I draw on the areas of learning design, pedagogical patterns and OER (Open Educational Resources) research to explore the creation, sharing and discussion of learning and teaching ideas and designs. The context of modern education Many are arguing that there is a need for a fundamental change in the way in which we design and support learning interventions. That traditional outcomes-based, assessment driven and standardised educational systems and processes do not meet the needs of today’s learners (Beetham & Sharpe, 2007; Borgeman, et al., 2008; Sharpe & Beetham, 2010). A number of triggers are evident. Firstly, there is the broader societal context within which educational sits. Giddens (1999), Castells (2000) and others describe the net- worked and globalised nature of modern society, and the impact of the changing nature of society values (including the defragmentation of the family unit, polarised perspectives on secular vs. religion-based beliefs, and changing roles for individuals and organisa- tions). Secondly, Reigeluth (cited in Reigeluth & Carr-chellman, 2009, p. 390) argues that we have seen a shift from the industrial to information age, where knowledge work has re- placed manual labour as the predominant form of work. Within this context he argues that we need to place a greater emphasis on lifelong and self-directed learning. The greater complexity of modern society (both in terms of societal systems and technological tools) requires specific types of competences to make sense of and interact within this context, such as higher-order thinking skills, problem solving, systems thinking and the ability to communicate, collaborate and interact effectively with others. Thirdly, in terms of approaches to learning there has been a general shift away from indi- vidual, behaviourist approaches to those that are more authentic, contextual and social in nature, as these are perceived as more appropriate to equip learners with the skills they will need to participatory in a constantly changing broadly societal context. In other words it is no longer about knowing facts and procedures, but more about being able to locate and use relevant information on a needs basis. 1
  • 4. Fourthly, constructivist and dialogic approaches have become more prevalent, with a rich set of empirically based case studies of the application of strategies such as problem- based learning, case-based scenarios and inquiry-based learning. Fiftly, over the past thirty years or so technologies have had a steady, increasing impact on how learning is designed and supported, from the early days of programme instruction and computer-assisted learning packages through to the use of the web and more recently Web 2.0 tools and services, online gaming environments, mobile devices and 3D environ- ments such as SecondLife. As a consequence a body of research around the competences and skills needed to effectively use and interact with these new technologies has emerged. Terms such as digital literacies, information literacies, 21st Century literacies have been used; each with subtle nuances and different foci. However fundamentally the central issue is about the literacies needed to communicate with others and make sense of information (and more specifically how to do this in a digital context). Of particular note within this broader discourse, Jenkins et al. (Jenkins, et al., 2006; Jenkins, 2009, p. 4) have identified twelve skills which they argue are necessary to interact in what they term this new participatory culture, namely – play, performance, simulation, appropriation, multitasking, distributed cognition, collective intelligence, judgment, transmedia naviga- tion, networking and negotiation. The executive summary to the report states that ‘foster- ing such social skills and cultural competences requires a more systemic approach to me- dia education’ (pg 4). This is at the heart of the learning design methodology approach outlined in this book. The aim is to present a more systematic approach to the educational design taking account of all the stakeholders involved in the process. To sum up, because the context of modern education is rapidly changing, traditional ap- proaches to the design and delivery of learning interventions are being challenged and may no longer be appropriate to meet the needs and expectations of modern learners. New pedagogies and innovative use of technologies seem to offer much promise in terms of providing new, exciting educational experiences for learners. However in reality there is little evidence of this happening. As Rogers argues (Rogers, 1995), educational innova- tions in both pedagogical approaches and innovative use of technologies remain the remit of educational innovators or early adopters, there is little evidence of mainstream adop- tion and indeed depressingly taken as a whole the majority of educational offerings are still based on fairly traditional approaches, with a primary focus on content and assess- ment of outcomes, delivered via traditional didactic approaches. See for example a recent review of the use of Web 2.0 tools in Higher Education (Conole & Alevizou, 2010). The nature of educational technology Research into exploring how technologies can be used to support different pedagogical approaches can be traced back to the emergent of educational technology as a research field in the sixties. De Vaney and Butler provide an overview of the field, its founders, key trends and areas of research focus (De Vaney and Butler, 1996). Molenda (2008) states that educational technology as a field has developed through a series of phases as new technologies have emerged. Its origins are in the use of visual and audio-visual systems, then radio, television, teaching machines, the design of instruction- 2
  • 5. al systems, computers and ultimately the use of the internet for both storage/processing of information and communication. Spector (2008; 12) argues that the foundations of educational technology include: the psychology of learning, communications theory, human-computer interactions and in- structional design and development. The work of both Dewey and Vygotsky are drawn on extensively. Dewey argued that in terms of how we think we need to understand the nature of thought to be able to devise appropriate means and methods to train thought. Vygotsky argued that all learning involves language (Spector: 24) and of course his concept of mediating artefacts has been drawn on extensively in the field. I will return to the way in which we are using the concept of mediating artefacts in our learning design field in Chapter 15. The educational technology field has developed and is defined in many respects by the nature of and interaction with technologies. For as long as there have been technologies there has been a rhetoric around their potential use in education and also the associated challenges with uptake. Molenda (2008) observes that the barriers cited for the lack of use for audio-visual tools in the 1940/50s are similar to those cited for lack of use of computers in the 1990s; namely: accessibility issues, lack of training, unreliability of equipment, limited budgets and the difficulty of integrating them into the curriculum. Despite the promise of technology, we have not seen it revolutionise education (Beabout and Carr-Chellman, 2008: 620). This was also a point forcibly made by the much cite book by Cuban (Cuban, 1986). It seems that although the technologies may change the barriers and reasons for lack of uptake remain much the same. There has been a paradigm shift in the field due to new thinking around learning theories from behaviourism, through cognitivism and finally constructivism (Mayes & Freitas, 2004). These theories led to the development of particular uses of technology designed to support the underpinning principles of the theories. I will return to this in Chapter 18. Later in this book, I will argue that new approaches to design are needed for teachers to make effective use of technologies and for learners to productively navigate through complex digital landscapes. Graeser et al. (2008: 212) suggest that most students do not know how to use advanced learning environments effectively, so modelling, scaffolding and feedback on their optimal use are necessary. This resonates with recent research into the ways in which learners are using technologies (see Sharpe et al., 2010 for example). A number of authors have argued that new digital literacies skills are needed to make sense of new technologies, such as Jenkins et al. (2009) for example. Similarly in terms of teachers/designers, Sims and Kozalka suggest that the term instructional design should be replaced with learner/learning design. Today’s learners The internet and associated technologies have been around for around twenty years now. Networked access and computer ownership are now the norm; at least in the developed world. As such the context within which today’s students learn is radically different from the context for learning in the past (see Sharpe and Beetham, 2010 for an edited collection of resarch on learners perceptions and use of technologies). Some argue (Ob- linger and Oblinger, 2005; Prensky, 2001) that these learners are technologically im- 1
  • 6. mersed and as a consequence learn differently through technologies. Others are more cau- tious, arguing that although these students maybe digital savvy they do not always know how to use the technologies effectively for academic work. Furthermore, they are not a homogenous group, they vary in terms of their technology skills, the ways in which they use technologies and there preferences for which technologies to use or not (Jones, 2011; Kennedy et al.., 2008). Despite the different views on how learners are using technologies, there is no doubt that there is a plethora of technologies that can be used to support learning, offering different ways in which learners can communicate with each other and their tutors, and providing them with access to interactive, multimedia content. The so-called ‘net generation’ has grown up in this technologically rich environment. There has been a lot of hype about how this generation is used to and comfortable with using a range of technologies to sup- port all aspects of their lives (Sharpe & Beetham, 2010). However, these generic skills don’t necessarily translate seamlessly to an academic learning context. Appropriation of these technologies for academic purposes requires specific skills (Jenkins et al., 2006; Jenkins, 2009), which means that the way in which we design and support learning op- portunities needs to provide appropriate support to harness the potential of technologies. The diversity of offerings available to learners also means there is more potential for them to get lost and confused; more than ever before learners need supportive ‘learning pathways’ to enable them to blend formal educational offerings, with free resources and services. This requires a rethinking of the design process, to enable teachers (used in the broadest sense here, from those in K-12 through to tertiary education, as well as design- ers/trainers in more commercial settings) to take account of a blended learning context. The need for a new learning design methodology This new learning context also raises some thought-provoking issues. In a world where content and services are increasingly free, what is the role of formal education? What new teaching approaches and assessment methods are needed? How can we provide ef- fective learning pathways to guide learners through the multitude of offerings now avail- able? How can teachers develop new approaches to the design of learning activities and whole curricula that takes account of this new complex, technologically enhanced con- text? The emergence of so-called web 2.0 tools has shifted practice on the internet away from passive, information provision to active, user engagement. Many of the affordances (Gib- son, 1977; 1979) of new technologies (user participation, peer critique, sharing, collective construction) appear to align well with what are considered to be the hallmarks of good pedagogy (socially situated learning, constructivism, dialogic and inquiry-based learning). However in reality there is a gap between the potential of these technologies and actual use in practice. Teachers lack the necessary skills to make informed decisions about how to use these technologies effectively in their teaching. The term affordances was coined by Gibbons, originally in an ecological context. He defines them as: All "action possibilities" latent in an environment… but always in relation to the actor and therefore dependent on their capabilities. 2
  • 7. For instance, a tall tree offers the affordances of food for a giraffe because it has a long neck and can reach the leaves, but not a sheep. This term is useful in a technological con- text because it infers that although technologies have an inherent set of characteristics or affordances (such as promoting reflection or collaboration) these are only relevant in rela- tion to individual users’ own characteristics (such as individual skills and personal prefer- ences and the context of use). Technologies and users therefore co-evolve. The gap between the potential and actual use of technology is a paradox and this is at the heart of the growth of a new area of research that has emerged in recent years. Learning design research aims to better understand this mismatch. It focuses on the development of tools, design methods and approaches to help teachers design pedagogically effective learning activities and whole curriculum, which makes effective use of technologies. A key theme across the book is the centrality of design as an approach to the development of more pedagogically innovative learning activities and resources, which make effective use of new technologies. The book describes the design processes and reviews the range of approaches that have been developed to support more effective design practices. These approaches include: learning design, the promotion and use of Pedagogical Patterns and Open Educational Resource, as well as the more traditional Instructional Design. The book introduces learning design as a methodology for designing for learning in an ‘open’ context. I argue that it is no longer possible for any one teacher to be an expert in knowing about all the ways in which technology can be used to support learning or be aware of all the latest innovative learning activities or resources that are freely available. Drawing on the research we have been doing in this area, along with related research in the learning design field and closely aligned research areas (in particular work on ped- agogical patterns, Open Educational Resources (OER) research, learning sciences and in- structional design), I will argue that there is a need for a more formal approach to design- ing for learning. Specifically, that we need to shift from the traditional craft-based teach- er-design (where design draws on practice and is essentially implicit) to a more systemat- ic, explicit design approach, drawing on empirically derived and validated tools and methods for design (Figure 1). 1
  • 8. Figure 1: The essence of learning design I will describe the tools and resources that can act as Mediating Artefacts (MAs) to sup- port teachers in making informative design decisions. For a fuller description of how the term Mediating Artefacts is being used in this context, see (Conole, 2008). Mediating Artefacts are discuss in more detail in chapter five. I will show how the research we have been doing demonstrates the value of adopting a more open approach to the design pro- cess, to enable teachers to represent, share and discuss learning designs with each other and with students. To my knowledge the book would provide the first single-authored coherent overview of learning design. The book will draw in particular on the research work as part of the Open University Learning Design Initiative (OULDI).1 However it will also locate this work within the broader context of design research from across the learning sciences and Instructional Design fields. The work we are doing as part of the OULDI is at the fore- front of research in this field. We have developed a range of innovative tools and design methods, which are generating a lot of interest in the field. We have an evolving Learning Design Toolbox, which gives some indication of the scale of our work. The book aims to provide a coherent overview for this work, along with a theoretical un- derpinning and contextualization with related research in the field. The book also aims to provide a good balance of theoretical underpinning for the field, innovative tools and methods, and practical examples and case studies. I will articulate my position in terms of designing for learning, through a definition for the concept of learning design by introdu- cing the notion of adopting a more open approach to the design process. I will situate the research work alongside related areas such as Instructional Design, learning sciences, re- search into the development and use of Pedagogical Patterns and Open Educational Re- sources (OER). The book will also describe the theoretical underpinnings to this work, which are essentially socio-cultural in nature (Daniels, Cole, & Wertsch, 2007; Engeström, Punamäki-Gitai, & Miettinen, 1999), through articulation of the range of Me- diating Artefacts (MAs) that can be used to support and guide the design process. 1 Http://ouldi.open.ac.uk 2
  • 9. Learning design: a definition Learning design as a term has being used in a number of different ways, the book will clarify these different perspectives, positioning the approach I take as being about ‘designing for learning’. I define learning design as follows: A methodology for enabling teachers/designers to make more informed decisions in how they go about designing, which is pedagogically informed and makes ef- fective use of appropriate resources and technologies. This includes the design of resources and individual learning activities right up to curriculum-level design. A key principle is to help make the design process more explicit and shareable. Learning design as an area of research and development includes both gathering empirical evidence to understand the design process, as well as the development of a range of resource, tools and activities. The book will provide a rich basis for critiquing design considerations in learning and in- struction. It will make clear both the distinctiveness of learning design as a research in- quiry, but also demonstrate how it is related to and builds on other design work from the fields of learning sciences and Instructional Design. Audience and structure of the book I see this book as marking an important turning point for research in this area. It will be of broad interest to a number of audiences given the increased use and impact of Informa- tion and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education. Thus its primary intended audience will be existing researchers in the field. In addition, a major second market will consist of new researchers, reached through the use of the book as a core text for post- graduate programmes (including masters and PhD study) in this area. Finally, I believe that there will be interest in this book from a substantial third group, consisting of teach- ers and trainers, staff developers, learning technology practitioners and managers who would use the book to orient themselves to these new forms of learning and teaching in education. The book sits at the intersection of a number of research fields and attempts to tackle one of the key challenges facing education – how can teachers design innovative learning ex- periences for learners in an increasingly technology-enhanced context? The primary audi- ence is researchers in the field of technology-enhanced learning/e-learning. This includes those with a broad interest in researching the use of technology in learning and teaching, as well as individuals with more specialist interests, in particular the research areas of in- structional design, learning design, pedagogical patterns, learning sciences and OER re- search. More broadly, the book will have appeal to researchers in a number of related fields such as computer science, education, information sciences and psychology. The book should be of interest in a number of fields, including: educational technology, learning technology, education, open and distance education. It is envisaged that it would be of relevance to a wide range of masters-level courses in this area and associated areas across Higher and Further Education (including programmes in e-learning, learning tech- nology research, networked learning, educational masters programmes, etc.). There are now a significant number of masters courses concerned with the use of technology in 1
  • 10. education (ranging from specialised Instructional Design courses through to e-learning and open and distance education courses). In addition, I anticipate that it will be used as a reference text for induction programmes for new lecturers. It will also be of relevance to related masters in computer science, education, business studies and psychology for ex- ample. This will also be of value to consumers of research such as managers, policy makers, learning technologists and staff developers. In addition because the book covers both the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject, it will also be of interest to those with a support role in institutions, such as: learning technologists, instructional designers, educational developers and librarians. A central argument that will be developed in the book is that effective and systematic ap- proaches to design are essential in today’s complex, technologically rich learning context. Teachers need tools and methods to help guide them to make informed decisions about their designs. As such teachers will also find this book valuable; in particular the descrip- tion and case studies of a range of specific tools and design methods. The book is likely to be of particular benefit to new teachers, as part of induction programmes for new fac- ulty. Finally, the book will look at design from the perspective of different levels of granularity (from the design of small-scale learning activities through to whole curricula design), as well as across the whole design lifecycle (from initial concepts through to evaluation). I will argue that in most institutions, current structures and processes are woefully inad- equate to take account of the affordances of new technologies and that effective design using new technologies will require a radical rethink of the whole curriculum process. This has significant implications for institutional strategy and policy. As such the book is likely to be of interest to those in managerial roles within institutions as well as policy makers. The book begins with this introductory chapter, which provides an overview of the book and a rationale for its relevance. This includes an overview of the context of modern edu- cation. I argue that we now operate in a context of rapid technological change, which is influencing the nature of education and its purpose. Boundaries between formal and in- formal learning are changing, as a result I argue that, within this context, the way in which we design, support and assess learning needs to change and the nature of educa- tioal technologies. Next the characteristics of today’s learners are discussed drawing on key research in the field. It provides a brief definition of the term ‘learning design and ar- gues for the need for a new learning design methodology is discussed, which is the main focus of the book. Finally the audience and structure of the book are described. Design languages are the focus of chapter two, in particular the use of design notation in music, architecture and chemistry are described. The chapter discusses the challenges of designing for learning, and then focusses on learning design, along with the spectrum of learning design languages that have been developed. The origins of the OU Learning Design Initiative are described, along with a description of how OULDI adopted a Design-Based Research (DBR) approach. 2
  • 11. Chapter three situates the Open Learning Design methodology discussed in this book in relation to related research fields such as learning sciences, instructional design and ped- agogical patterns. Chapter four provides a review of new open, social and participatory media and gives ex- amples of how these are being used to support different pedagogical approaches. It con- siders the changing digital landscape of education and provides a review of new techno- logies, which includes: i) the characteristics of new technologies, ii) the impact of web 2.0 technologies, iii) the use of web 2.0 technologies in education and iv) the impact on practice. Highlights from a review of web 2.0 tools and practices are then discussed. Chapter five describes the key theoretical perspectives and methodologies that underpin learning design research. Chapter five describes how the Open Learning Design method- ology described in this book draws on Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) and in particular the notion of Mediating Artefacts. It also considers the nature of theory and methodology in the field. Chapter six defines Mediating Artefacts, including the different ways in which practice can be captured and represented. It describes a range of Mediating Artefacts and con- cludes with an illustrative example that demonstrates how an OER created for use in one contexts can be repurposed. Chapter seven introduces the concept of affordances, discussing the range of definitions for the term. It goes on to discuss the affordances of technologies and argues that these can be used as a means of structuring and guiding use of particular technologies for dif- ferent learning interventions. Chapter eight gives an overview of different design representations and how they can be used to promote new ways of thinking about designing learning interventions. Chapter nine then goes into more detail on different tools that can be used to visualise and represent designs, and in particular on the CompendiumLD tool that we have de- veloped. It begins with a description of the ways in which practitioners currently go about designing learning interventions. Chapter ten critiques the notion of ‘openness’ in terms of open design, delivery, evalu- ation and research. An important aspect of open delivery is the use of OER, chapter nine gives an overview of the Open Educational Resource movement, whilst chapter ten out- lines two recent OER initiatives, namely Olnet and OPAL. Chapter eleven provides a review of the Open Educational Resource movement. This in- cludes a review of OER initiatives and a description of four illustrative examples. Chapter twelve discusses the outputs and findings from the work being undertaken as part of the Olnet and OPAL initiatives. Chapter thirteen returns to the ways in which open, social and participatory media are resulting in new forms of online communities and interactions. It defines the terms and looks at different pedagogies of e-learning. It concludes with the introduction of a new 1
  • 12. Community Indicators Framework (CIF), that can be used to guide the design and evalu- ation of new social and participatory media. Chapter fourteen describes the Cloudworks social networking site, and in particular the ways in which it is promoting new forms of online interaction, communication and col- laboration. Chapter fifteen reviews a number of pedagogical planners that have been developed to guide practitioners in making informed learning design decisions. These planners, the chapter argues provide more structured support for the design process than the visualisa- tion representations and the use of social and participatory media discussed in earlier chapters. Chapter sixteen is the conclusion chapter, which provides a summary and overview of the book. It also looks at the implications of this work, along with reflections on its impor- tance and the associated challenges. The process of writing the book The writing of the book is intended to be adventurous, in terms of adopting an 'open ap- proach' to the process of writing the book. This consists of an ongoing series of blog posts about the book on my blog.2 These posts include initial ideas around the nature and scope of the book, articulation of particular issues I encounter as I am writing, fleshing out some of the ideas for the chapters and associated references. Coupled to this, period- ically a series of “clouds” on the Cloudworks site,3 invite the broader research com- munity to participate in a discussion around some of research issues and questions that arise from the content of the book as it develops. Cloudworks will also be used as a means of adopting an open approach to the literature review associated with the book and the aggregation of relevant links and references. The blog posts and the clouds provide a rich set of associated resources alongside the book, as well as a continued space for ongo- ing discussion once the book is published. Acknowledgements This is building on an established area of research, which I have being involved with over the past ten years or so. In particular it follows on from the development of a Learning Design toolkit, called DialogPlus,4 as part of a NSF/JISC funded project and more re- cently the OULDI work at the Open University.5 In particular I would like to acknow- ledge the contributions of this work from the folloring people: Andrew Brasher, Simon Cross, Paul Clark, Juliette Culver, Nick Freear, Richard Lovelace, Rebecca Galley and Paul Mundin. I would also like to thank Martin Weller for providing invaluable feedback on draft chapters of the book and also colleagues who provide comments on the draft chapters on Cloudworks. Aspects of the work have been published in chapters and journal articles but this book provides a synthesis the work to date and provide a clear position/”take” on the field. In 2 http://www.e4innovation.com 3 http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloudscape/view/2231 4 http://www.dialogplus.soton.ac.uk/ 5 http://ouldi.open.ac.uk 2
  • 13. addition it aligns this work alongside related learning design research and more broadly research in closely aligned areas (such as instructional design, learning sciences, pedago- gical patterns and OER research). The aim of the book is to provide a synthesis and co- herent overview of learning design as a research area, within the context of an education- al context that is technologically rich and increasingly open. 1