20110330 bruxelles doc_freedom


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Europeana at Document Freedom Day

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  • Hier könnte ein Exkurs zu RTP Doc ansetzen, wenn ich mehr als 20 Minuten Zeit hätte
  • Hier könnte ein Exkurs zu RTP Doc ansetzen, wenn ich mehr als 20 Minuten Zeit hätte
  • Hier könnte ein Exkurs zu RTP Doc ansetzen, wenn ich mehr als 20 Minuten Zeit hätte
  • The current data model of Europeana are the “Europeana Semantic Elements” (ESE). ESE addresses the issue of interoperability between the data from the different domains represented in Europeana by reducing the data to a “flat”, Dublin-Core like representation. This is a “simple and robust” approach but it has some drawbacks: The original metadata and information perspective are not visible anymore. And at the same time we can not specialize to finer-grained models or connect to external resources like LOD community. The EDM addresses exactly these shortcomings . It tries to transcend the different information perspectives which are represented in Europeana. It acts as a top-level ontology in order to make objects from different domains interoperable while still preserving the original data. The EDM is destined to replace ESE after the 2011 release of Europeana. The ESE will then be an „application profile“ of EDM. That means that all ESE data in Europeana will be still compatible with the new system.
  • First a few words about the envisioned information architecture of Europeana: This is how the information space of Europeana will be restructured : At the “bottom” we have the objects which are provided to Europeana. Above we have the “Semantic Data Layer” which is new. It contains various kinds of KOSs with knowledge about people, places, concepts, and so on. These concepts are linked to the objects below and thereby contextualize and enrich them.
  • Europeana intends to connect to the Linked Open Data community. In the Linked Open Data cloud we find many more knowledge sources like Dbpedia, Geonames, or Library of Congress Subject Headings. Europeana wants to use them to further contextualize and enrich the objects in its information space. At the same time Europeana wants to make its own data available to other communities. The EDM is crucial for realizing this vision. [ LOD cloud July 2009 ]
  • 20110330 bruxelles doc_freedom

    1. 1. Linked Open Europeana: Semantic Leveraging of European Cultural Heritage Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin / School of Library and Information Science [email_address]
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Europeana: How did it start? What has been achieved to date?
    3. 3. Linked Data: What is it, how does it work?
    4. 4. Linked Europeana ... Object Representations in Context
    5. 5. … and what can you do with that?
    6. 6. Conclusion : on the importance of being 'open' </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul>Europeana 2005 - 2011 </ul>
    8. 8. How Europeana Came About Google Books in 2005 as seen by the Canard Enchainé ...
    9. 9. Europeana 2005 - 2011 <ul><li>… and by Jean-Noel Jeanneney
    10. 10. -> Joint declaration of six European Governments … Chirac and Schröder among those!
    11. 11. Declaration by Commissioner Reding on the “European Digital Library” flagship as part of i2010.
    12. 12. Launch (and crash) of a first prototype 20.11.2008
    13. 13. Constant growth and stable operations since then, > 15M objects represented to date
    14. 14. But basically yet another portal, a big one – but nothing innovative ... </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul>From the Web of Documents … <li>… to the Web of Linked Data </li></ul>
    16. 16. The Web of Documents Information Management: A Proposal (TBL, 1989)
    17. 17. Resources and Links in the Document Web <ul><li>We have HTTP URIs to identify resources and links between them – but we are missing a few things!
    18. 18. What kinds of resources are 'Louvre.html' and 'LaJoconde.jpg'? </li><ul><li>A machine cannot tell.
    19. 19. Humans can: we recognize implied context! </li></ul><li>How exactly do they relate to each other? </li><ul><li>A machine cannot tell.
    20. 20. Humans can: again we recognize implied context! </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Syntactically Extending the Document Web (1) <ul><li>We add a syntax for making statements on resources: RDF </li></ul><ul><li>Or, more generally triples ... </li></ul><ul><li>… where S and P are web resources (identified using URIs) and O is either a web resource or a literal </li></ul>
    22. 22. Syntactically Extending the Document Web (2) <ul><li>We add a schema language (RDFS) with elements such as </li><ul><li>classes,
    23. 23. hierarchies of classes and properties,
    24. 24. inheritance
    25. 25. support for basic inferencing. </li></ul><li>And thus are able to establish structures in triple aggregations resulting in lightweight domain ontologies: </li></ul>
    26. 26. … and new opportunities: Triple Sets and Reasoning (1)
    27. 27. Triple Sets and Reasoning (2)
    28. 28. Triple Sets and Reasoning (3) -> Potential of novel digital heuristics!
    29. 29. The Web of Things … Somewhat Mistaken Taken from Ronald Carpentier's Blog at http://carpentier.wordpress.com/ 2007/08/08/1-2-3/ <ul><li>Something is wrong with this picture (but what?)
    30. 30. But basically we extend the WWW in syntax (RDF) and in scope (enable representation of virtually everything in the Web). And this results in ... </li></ul>
    31. 31. … Linked Data Copyright © 2008 W3C (MIT, ERCIM, Keio) http://www.w3.org/2008/Talks/0617-lod-tbl/#(4)
    32. 32. A few Bubbles: 5/2007 < Over 500 million RDF triples < Around 120,000 RDF links between data sources © Richard Cyganiak
    33. 33. Quite some Bubbles: 9/2008 © Richard Cyganiak
    34. 34. Many Bubbles: 7/2009 © Richard Cyganiak < Over 13.1 billion RDF triples < Over 142 million RDF links between data sources
    35. 35. (Too?) Many Bubbles: 9/2010 http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2010-09-22_colored.html
    36. 36. The Europeana Data Model (EDM) Making Europeana Part of Linked Data
    37. 37. <ul>EDM </ul><ul>“ Europeana Data Model” (EDM) </ul><ul><li>destined to replace the current model (ESE) with the 2011 release of Europeana
    38. 38. Builds a roof on top of various cultural heritage domains (Archives, Museums, Libraries, Audio-Visual)
    39. 39. Builds on standards such as SKOS, DCterms and OAI-ORE …
    40. 40. allows for Semantic Web representation of Cultural Heritage </li></ul>
    41. 41. An Aggregation ...
    42. 42. … some context
    43. 43. … more context
    44. 44. <ul>… and the Big Picture: The Semantic Data Layer </ul>
    45. 45. <ul>EDM and Linked Open Data </ul><ul>Europeana Information Space </ul><ul>Context Data </ul><ul><li>DBpedia
    46. 46. PND and SWD (prototype)
    47. 47. Geonames
    48. 48. LCSH
    49. 49. … </li></ul>
    50. 50. <ul>… and what can you do with that? </ul>
    51. 51. What if ... <ul><li>Europeana EDM is fully implemented and data migrated.
    52. 52. Data originating from public bodies (PSI) are available as LoD </li><ul><li>As in http://data-gov.tw.rpi.edu/wiki : </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And we combine all this with the rest of the Cloud: what use to make of all this? -> Into knowledge generation! </li></ul>
    53. 53. -> Visualise Triples and Context © Eytan Adar
    54. 54. -> Visualise Cultural Context Mapping the Republic of Letters: https://republicofletters.stanford.edu/#maps Or again the Finnish example (Kultuurisampo): http://www.kulttuurisampo.fi/kulsa/historiallisetKartat.shtml
    55. 55. <ul>… and the political bit </ul>
    56. 56. On the Importance of being 'Open' (1) <ul><li>“ Openness (allowing access) is separate question.” (TBL, http://www.w3.org/2008/Talks/0617-lod-tbl/#(22))
    57. 57. Does Linked Data work without being 'open' ? </li><ul><li>Technically speaking: yes (cf. pharma industry or biomedical data)
    58. 58. But it gets quite expensive that way …
    59. 59. … much too expensive, probably, for Europeana to afford!
    60. 60. And much of its 'semantic' charms of open flow of RDF statements and reasoning potential would be lost in such a setting, anyway. </li></ul><li>As a consequence, we aim at Europeana data being Open Linked Data (more in a Europeana Foundation statement at http://bit.ly/fe637P ) and at Europeana data being under CC0! </li></ul>
    61. 61. On the Importance of being 'Open' (2) <ul><li>This has a number of implications </li><ul><li>No control over data usage
    62. 62. No income to be generated from data access and use
    63. 63. Innovative and (commercially) attractive services can be built on LoD </li></ul><li>-> Do not repeat mistakes we are very familiar with from the Open Access debates of the past 10 years! </li><ul><li>'open' vs. 'free',
    64. 64. 'free' vs. 'commercial' </li></ul><li>-> Do not exclude commercial reuse for Europeana metadata!
    65. 65. -> What is the actual value of context (in business terms!)? </li></ul>
    66. 66. Selected Reading <ul><li>Chris Bizer, Tom Heath, Tim Berners-Lee, T. (2009). Linked Data - The Story So Far. International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems, 5(3), 1. http://www.citeulike.org/user/omunoz/article/5008761
    67. 67. Martin Doerr, Stefan Gradmann, Steffen Hennicke, Antoine Isaac, Carlo Meghini, Herbert van de Sompel: The Europeana Data Model. IFLA 2010 (Gothenburg). Session on „Libraries and the Semantic Web“. http://www.ifla.org/files/hq/papers/ifla76/149-doerr-en.pdf
    68. 68. Stefan Gradmann: Knowledge = Information in Context: on the Importance of Semantic Contextualisation in Europeana. Europeana White Paper 1. http://www.scribd.com/doc/32110457/Europeana-White-Paper-1
    69. 69. Eero Hyvönen: Preventing Interoperability Problems Instead of Solving Them. Semantic Web Journal, no. 2-3, December, 2010. http://www.semantic-web-journal.net/content/new-submission-preventing-interoperability-problems-instead-solving-them
    70. 70. A lot more mercifully skipped ... </li></ul>
    71. 71. Thank you for your attention!