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Lenses of development


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Three lenses on the concept of "Development" as a framework for analysis to be used in the Endterm project paper of USLS Econ103 classes 2013-14

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Lenses of development

  1. 1. Lenses of Development Framework for Analysis and Assessment of Emerging Economic Thought Jean Lee C. Patindol
  2. 2. AUTHENTIC HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 1. The Catholic Church’s Jean Lee C. Patindol
  3. 3. “The Development of Peoples” • Populorum progressio is the encyclical written by Pope Paul VI on the topic of "the development of peoples" and that the economy of the world should serve mankind and not just the few. It was released on March 26, 1967 Jean Lee C. Patindol
  4. 4. • 14. “The development We speak of here cannot be restricted to economic growth alone. To be authentic, it must be well rounded; it must foster the development of each man and of the whole man. As an eminent specialist on this question has rightly said: "We cannot allow economics to be separated from human realities, nor development from the civilization in which it takes place. What counts for us is man—each individual man, each human group, and humanity as a whole.'' Jean Lee C. Patindol
  5. 5. • 19. Neither individuals nor nations should regard the possession of more and more goods as the ultimate objective. Every kind of progress is a two-edged sword. It is necessary if man is to grow as a human being; yet it can also enslave him, if he comes to regard it as the supreme good and cannot look beyond it. When this happens, men harden their hearts, shut out others from their minds and gather together solely for reasons of self-interest rather than out of friendship; dissension and disunity follow soon after. • Thus the exclusive pursuit of material possessions prevents man's growth as a human being and stands in opposition to his true grandeur. Avarice, in individuals and in nations, is the most obvious form of stultified moral development. Jean Lee C. Patindol
  6. 6. • 20. “If development calls for an ever-growing number of technical experts, even more necessary still is the deep thought and reflection of wise men in search of a new humanism, one which will enable our contemporaries to enjoy the higher values of love and friendship, of prayer and contemplation, (17) and thus find themselves. This is what will guarantee man's authentic development—his transition from less than human conditions to truly human ones.” Jean Lee C. Patindol
  7. 7. LESS THAN HUMAN CONDITIONS • 21. “What are less than human conditions? – The material poverty of those who lack the bare necessities of life, and – the moral poverty of those who are crushed under the weight of their own self-love; – oppressive political structures resulting from the abuse of ownership or the improper exercise of power, from the exploitation of the worker or unjust transactions.” Jean Lee C. Patindol
  8. 8. TRULY HUMAN CONDITIONS • “What are truly human conditions?  The rise from poverty to the acquisition of life's necessities;  the elimination of social ills;  broadening the horizons of knowledge;  acquiring refinement and culture. From there one can go on to  acquire a growing awareness of other people's dignity,  a taste for the spirit of poverty,  (l8) an active interest in the common good, and  a desire for peace.  Then man can acknowledge the highest values and God Himself, their author and end. Finally and above all, there is faith—God's gift to men of good will—and our loving unity in Christ, who calls all men to share God's life as sons of the living God, the Father of all men.” Jean Lee C. Patindol
  9. 9. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2. The United Nations’ Jean Lee C. Patindol
  10. 10. Sustainable Development • "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." • Must be conceived of as a multidimensional process involving major changes in social structures, popular attitudes and national institutions, as well as the acceleration of economic growth, the reduction of inequality, and the eradication of poverty. • Must represent the whole gamut of change by which an entire social system, tuned to the diverse basic needs and desires of individuals and social groups within that system, moves away from a condition of life widely perceived as unsatisfactory toward a situation or condition of life regarded as materially and spiritually better. Jean Lee C. Patindol
  11. 11. Amartya Sen’s “Capabilities” Approach  “The capability to function is what really matters for status as a poor or nonpoor person. Economic growth cannot be sensibly treated as an end in itself. Development has to be more concerned with enhancing the lives we lead and the freedoms we enjoy.” – Amartya Sen, 1998 Nobel laureate in Economics  Poverty cannot be properly measured by income or even by utility as conventionally understood; what matters is not the things a person has or the feelings these provide—but what a person is, or can be, and does, or can do.  To make any sense of the concept of human well-being in general, and poverty in particular, we need to think beyond the availability of commodities and consider their use or “functionalities”.  “Capabilities” – the freedom that a person has in terms of the choice of functionings, given his/her personal features (conversion of characteristics into functionings) and his/her command over commodities. Jean Lee C. Patindol
  12. 12. 3 Core Values of Development • Sustenance – the ability to meet basic needs; “to have enough in order to be more” • Self-esteem – to be a person; a sense of worth and self-respect, of not being used as a tool by others for their own ends – the nature and form of this self-esteem may vary from society to society and from culture to culture. However, with the proliferation of the “modernizing values” of developed nations, many societies in developing countries that have a profound sense of their own worth suffer from serious cultural confusion when they come in contact with economically and technologically advanced societies. • Freedom from servitude – to be able to choose; emancipation from alienating material conditions in life and from social servitude to nature, ignorance, other people, misery, institutions, and dogmatic beliefs, especially the belief that one’s poverty is one’s predestination. Jean Lee C. Patindol
  13. 13. PEACE AS DEVELOPMENT 3. Peace and Conflict Studies’ Jean Lee C. Patindol
  14. 14. Levels of Peace Jean Lee C. Patindol
  15. 15. Global Peace* • “A culture of peace is a set of values, attitudes and forms of behavior that reflect respect for life and for human dignity, the rejection of violence in all its forms and commitment to the principles of freedom, justice, solidarity and tolerance.” * From the UNESCO/UN “Declaration on a Culture of Peace”, 1998 Jean Lee C. Patindol
  16. 16. National Peace* • True peace is the fruit of justice and love, concern, care • Solidarity is the unity of heart among peoples of different cultures, classes and beliefs, generations and genders • Vision of peace: “Peace by ways of Peace” – grounded on justice, enlivened by love and solidarity *National Peace Conference, 1990 Jean Lee C. Patindol
  17. 17. Cultural-religious Concepts of Peace • Pax (Latin) – a pact, a contract; an absence of war through the imposition of order by a dominant power • Sala’m (Arabic) – peace with justice/order/following the right path of God • Shalom (Hebrew) – wholeness, integrity, harmony; co- existence of opposites through acceptance of differences; continuous growth of all creative human powers • Shanti (Sanskrit) – equananimity, spiritual peace, oneness with the Divine, non-attachment, self-realization • Heping (Chinese) – harmony within and without, stability and order • Filipino? Jean Lee C. Patindol
  18. 18. Key Elements of Peace • Absence of war and physical violence • Conditions necessary for human fulfillment and the growth of our creative powers • Conditions necessary for human harmony • Conditions necessary for oneness with all creation, inner peace • Upholding basic human rights: – Respect – Truth – Justice – Freedom – Compassion Jean Lee C. Patindol
  19. 19. Total Peace (Johan Galtung, 1964) Total Peace Integrated Peace: Absence of Indirect Violence Direct/Symptomatic Peace: Absence of Direct Physical Violence “Negative” Peace “Positive” Peace Jean Lee C. Patindol
  20. 20. Violence: Inflicting Harm, Damage • Direct Violence -usually physically manifested (hitting, beating, shooting, bombing, raping, kicking, etc.) • Indirect Violence – usually insidiously/subtly manifested; “killing people without using guns” – Cultural Violence: hate speech, gossip, xenophobia, discrimination in any form, gender violence, “chosen-ness”, etc. – Structural Violence: poverty, slavery, apartheid, colonialism, corruption, excessive material inequality – Ecological Violence: overconsumption, pollution, environmental harm and damage Jean Lee C. Patindol
  21. 21. When there is violence, is there necessarily conflict? Jean Lee C. Patindol
  22. 22. What is Conflict? Conflict is a process through which two or more actors try to pursue incompatible goals while trying the undermine the goal- seeking potential of the others. It may also arise when two or more actors pursue compatible goals with incompatible methods. Conflict basically arises because of unmet needs or changes in needs. Jean Lee C. Patindol
  23. 23. Sources of Conflict • Scarce resources (economy) • Uneven distribution of power (polity) • Poor or no communication between parties (media, education) • Parties have incorrect perceptions of each other (media, education) • There is a lack or very low level of trust (media, education) • Unresolved grievances exist from the past (polity) • Parties do not value the relationship between them Jean Lee C. Patindol
  24. 24. Conflict Escalation 9. Destruction and self-destruction 8. Destruction of the opponent 7. Limited destructive blows and sanctions 6. Threatening strategies 5. Open attack and loss of face 4. Formation of coalitions 3. Confrontation, with a “fait accompli” 2. Debate 1. Tension and Crystallization How Conflict is Managed And Communicated (economy, polity, media) Quantity and Quality of Information (media, education) Jean Lee C. Patindol
  25. 25. Sample Case: Why Are There Armed Conflicts? Based on the people’s perception of the major causes of armed conflict in the Philippines through a series of public consultations conducted in 71 out of the 76 provinces in the country conducted by the National Unification Commission (NUC) Massive poverty and economic equity Poor governance Injustice and abuse of power Control by a few of political power Exploitation of cultural communities, and lack of recognition of their ancestral domain Differences in political belief and ideology Scarce resources (economy) Uneven distribution of power (polity) Poor or no communication between parties (media, education) Parties have incorrect perceptions of each other (media, education) There is a lack or very low level of trust (media, education) Unresolved grievances exist from the past (polity) Parties do not value the relationship between them Jean Lee C. Patindol
  26. 26. Conflict is not the same as Violence! • Conflict is part of life. Life means growth. • Conflict is about change. Life is a series of changes towards growth. • Change requires adjustments and readjustments of perceptions, attitudes, behaviors, structures, ways of life. • Responses to conflict can be creative and collaborative, if change is seen as an opportunity for new and better possibilities rather than a threat.Jean Lee C. Patindol
  27. 27. Since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defense of peace must be constructed. - UNESCO Constitution Jean Lee C. Patindol