Sculpture Means of
•He was born in the Rhineland to poor Catholic, manual worker parents.
• He had a clubfoot.
• Became a Dr of Philology. 1922 joined Nazi Party, because he liked
Gregor Strassers radical views.
•1926 sided with Hitler and became a more powerful Nazi, and became
Gauleiter of Berlin.
•1927 founded the paper ‘Der Angriff’
•1928 Propaganda chief for the Nazis.
•1930 Elected to Reichstag
•Once described as “bitter and cynical”.
•He was known as Hitler’s faithful servant.
•His propaganda didn’t mirror his own life; he encouraged
the traditional life, while having affairs himself.
•In 1945 he encouraged Hitler and Eva Braun to kill
themselves, then poisoned his children, shot his wife and
“If the day should ever come when we [the Nazis] must go, if some day
we are compelled to leave the scene of history, we will slam the door so
hard that the universe will shake and mankind will stand back in
stupefaction...” – J. Goebbels
The structure and organisation of Propaganda in Nazi Germany.
“Think of the press
as a great keyboard
on which the
play.” – J. Goebbels
The Government controlled all
those involved in the press like
journalists, editors and
publishers. They were made
compulsory members of co-
ordinating bodies. The
government kept a list of all
‘acceptable’ editors and
journalists. It was treason to print
•Sculpture is easily accessible to people, so the Nazis put it all
over public buildings.
•1934, all public buildings were to be adorned with sculptures.
•Individualistic work gave way to works conveying Nazi virtues.
• In perfect but lifeless body shapes. It was used to emphasise
the Nazi ideology of the Aryan superiority.
•Hitler’s favourite sculptors were: Arno Breker & Josef Thorak,
they were given vast studios to turn out heroic German figures.
•In 1937, two parallel art exhibitions were held in Munich, one
was the Exhibition of Great German Art, the other, The Exhibition
of Degenerate Art. The first displayed 6,000 works that
represented “true German perfection” in one way or another.
•The exhibition of Degenerate Art displayed 5,000 works which
were labelled as the Work of Degenerates. These ‘degenerates’
included Van Gogh, Picasso and Gauguin.
After these works were toured around Germany to show the
German people how terrible people outside the
Volksgemeinschaft were, they were either destroyed, sold or
kept by Goering.
•Radio was state regulated since 1925 after the creation of the Reich
Radio Company, the government owned 51% of the shares in the
company and therefore controlled content.
•1933 – Nine regional broadcast companies were taken over by Reich
•1934 – Nazis establish a unified radio system, purge it of ‘hostile
•Radio was mainly used for light entertainment but also broadcasted
Hitler’s speeches, with 70% of households owning a radio, it meant
Hitler could spread his message easily.
•Key speeches were announced by sirens and it was compulsory for all A Poster from Jud Süss (above)
‘The Führer Speaks’ – Paul
work to stop so people could listen to the loudspeaker.
Mathias Padua (below)
• From 1933 onwards film companies ‘inadvertently’ became state
controlled after the RMVP bought up shares and financed film. The
state controlled both film companies and the content of the films.
•1942 – All film companies nationalised under Ufi (Ufa Film GmbH)
•Goebbels made himself responsible for approving every film made in
Germany and approving those that were imported.
•Films were used to convey ideals to the population such as anti-
Semitism, films were often rated as “valuable for youth” etc.
•They were mainly used to reinforce German ideals and maintain
•Hitler and Goebbels both believed in the power of
photos, so much so that Hitler had a personal
photographer -Heinrich Hoffmann.
• Hitler used to practise poses and the best images
were reproduced and put everywhere, even the
inside of cigarette packets.
• The Nazis used posters during the Weimar Republic
to gain attention but after this they were used to
create an impression of patriotism and deepen
•Rallies and mass meeting were used to entice ‘bystanders’ to the
•They were carefully choreographed so that they seemed precise,
and created the desire to belong to something so impressive.
•The use of uniforms, lights, architecture, music and colour was all
carefully planned and as Goebbels once said could “transform a
little worm into part of a large dragon”.
• Along with Rallies the Nazis created many new Festival days.
•On these days rallies would be held and failure to support them
might be reported to the Gestapo.
•Sport was used carefully to emphasise the idea of Aryan
•The government co-ordinated the sporting bodies such as the
Hitler youth and DAF under the Reichssportfuhrer.
•Activities were believed to be the best way to gain, maintain and
honour physical prowess. As such the government made a huge
effort to make the 1936 Olympics a propaganda success.
•Germany headed the table of medal winners at the Olympics,
however their ideal of superiority was rocked by the success of
African-American Jesse Owens who beat the German athlete to
claim gold in the 100m sprint, among other events.
•May 1933, the first organised book burning in Berlin. 20,000 books both
fiction and non-fiction were burnt, to cleanse Germany.
•Famous novelists such as Thomas Mann (The Magic Mountain) and Stefan Zweig
(Fantastic Night and Other Short Stories), went into exile. Others stayed but were
banned from publishing. Authors were expected to promote Nazi ideals.
•Hitler’s ‘Mein Kampf’ was the best selling book in Nazi Germany, it sold 6
•The experimental drama of the 1920’s came to an abrupt end under
the Nazi regime. Officially approved drama concentrated on ‘glorious’
history and light entertainment.
•New forms of Drama began to spring up. An example was Thingspielen –
assembly. It was performed outside in impromptu amphitheatres and
glorified the pagan past.
•Music by negroes, experimental musicians and Jews were all
banned because it was deemed degenerate.
•Hitler’s favourite composers Wagner, Strauss, Bruckner were
all used widely in public announcements and rallies to
encourage people to follow the approved music.
•This was the form of Propaganda Hitler was proudest of,
as it fitted perfectly into his idea of the Thousand Year
•Hitler favoured a neo-classical monumental style. He
once said “Our enemies, and our followers must realise
that these buildings strengthen our authority”.
•Hitler worked closely with official Nazi architect Albert
Speer to plan the re-building of 30 major German cities
and Berlin which he planned to rename Germania.
•The Germans even competed at Architecture, in 1937 at
the Paris International Exhibition of Arts and Technology
Albert Speer created a 65-metre tower in competition
with the Soviet one, it was built directly opposite it.