Pt50 Trends

381 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
381
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
12
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
10
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Pt50 Trends

  1. 1. Periodic Trends The Periodic Table
  2. 2. A. Periodic Law <ul><li>When elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic #, elements with similar properties appear at regular intervals. </li></ul>
  3. 3. B. Chemical Reactivity <ul><li>Families </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar valence e - within a group result in similar chemical properties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alkali Metals </li></ul><ul><li>Alkaline Earth Metals </li></ul><ul><li>Transition Metals </li></ul><ul><li>Halogens </li></ul><ul><li>Noble Gases </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Atomic Radius </li></ul><ul><ul><li>size of atom </li></ul></ul>C. Other Properties <ul><li>First Ionization Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy required to remove one e - from a neutral atom. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Melting/Boiling Point </li></ul>© 1998 LOGAL © 1998 LOGAL
  5. 5. <ul><li>Atomic Radius </li></ul>D. Atomic Radius Li Ar Ne K Na
  6. 6. <ul><li>Atomic Radius </li></ul>D. Atomic Radius <ul><ul><li>Increases to the LEFT and DOWN </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Why larger going down? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher energy levels have larger orbitals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shielding - core e - block the attraction between the nucleus and the valence e - </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why smaller to the right? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased nuclear charge without additional shielding pulls e - in tighter </li></ul></ul>D. Atomic Radius
  8. 8. <ul><li>First Ionization Energy </li></ul>E. Ionization Energy K Na Li Ar Ne He
  9. 9. <ul><li>First Ionization Energy </li></ul>E. Ionization Energy <ul><ul><li>Increases UP and to the RIGHT </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Why opposite of atomic radius? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In small atoms, e - are close to the nucleus where the attraction is stronger </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why small jumps within each group? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stable e - configurations don’t want to lose e - </li></ul></ul>E. Ionization Energy
  11. 11. <ul><li>Successive Ionization Energies </li></ul>E. Ionization Energy <ul><ul><li>Mg 1st I.E. 736 kJ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2nd I.E. 1,445 kJ </li></ul><ul><li>Core e - 3rd I.E. 7,730 kJ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large jump in I.E. occurs when a CORE e - is removed. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Successive Ionization Energies </li></ul>E. Ionization Energy <ul><ul><li>Al 1st I.E. 577 kJ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2nd I.E. 1,815 kJ </li></ul><ul><li>3rd I.E. 2,740 kJ </li></ul><ul><li>Core e - 4th I.E. 11,600 kJ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large jump in I.E. occurs when a CORE e - is removed. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Melting/Boiling Point </li></ul>F. Melting/Boiling Point <ul><ul><li>Highest in the middle of a period. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Ionic Radius </li></ul>G. Ionic Radius <ul><ul><li>Cations (+) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lose e - </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>smaller </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anions (–) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gain e - </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>larger </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  15. 15. <ul><li>Which atom has the larger radius? </li></ul>Examples <ul><ul><li>Be or Ba </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ca or Br </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ba </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ca </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Which atom has the higher 1st I.E.? </li></ul>Examples <ul><ul><li>N or Bi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ba or Ne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ne </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Which atom has the higher melting/boiling point? </li></ul>Examples <ul><ul><li>Li or C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cr or Kr </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cr </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Which particle has the larger radius? </li></ul>Examples <ul><ul><li>S or S 2- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Al or Al 3+ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S 2- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Al </li></ul></ul>

×