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# How Does Your Garden Grow Math Unit

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### How Does Your Garden Grow Math Unit

1. 1. Does How Does Your Garden Grow ? Math Unit These are just a few math ideas for plants. Measure Plant Growth You will need the following materials: notebook and pencil ruler soil pots seeds- bean, radish, or pea 1. Put soil in the pots. Poke holes and put seeds in the soil. Cover the seeds with soil. 2. Put the pots in the sun. Water the plants. 3. Every day: Measure how much the plant has grown. Count the number of leaves. Record the information in the notebook. (For younger children, you may want to do this as a class project!) Measure Up With Plants You will need the following materials: plant part to measure with- a leaf, a twig, a seed, a fruit, or a flower 1. Pick a plant part to measure with. 2. Measure various things in the classroom. 3. Fill out a class chart either as a group or using partners to show the unit of measure and the item measured. Flower Power You will need the following: flower pot pattern flower pattern stem pattern Graciela Bilat
2. 2. 1. Program each flower with a number word, each stem with a dot set (Ex. If the number is 6, put 6 dots on the stem), and each pot with a numeral. 2. To do this activity, a child sequences the pots, the matches each corresponding stem and flower. I have also used real pots and card holders from the florist with construction paper flowers attached. The child places the actual number of "flowers" in each pot! Watermelon Seeds You will need the following materials: 10 or 11 "watermelons" made with green constr. paper cut into a watermelon shape with red constr. paper in the middle to represent the meat. lima beans spray painted black 1. Have each child look at each construction paper watermelon (these are prenumbered on the "rhine" 0-10 or 1-10 or as far as you want to go). 2. The children decide how many "seeds" to put on each "watermelon". ***If you would like this to be self-checking, Turn the watermelon over to the back and either draw or glue the correct number of seeds. I also write the number words along with the numeral! The Great Corn and Bean Racee You will need the following materials: 2 clear plastic cups beans and corn for planting in the individual cups potting soil some measuring tool (piece of string, measuring tape, ruler, anything you wish) paper for recording results Prepared chart labeled "The Great Corn and Bean Race" Have 2 columns, 1 column labeled "Corn" and the other "Beans" 1. Plant beans into 1 cup and corn into the other. 2. Ask children to predict which will grow faster and record their names on the "Corn and Bean Race" chart under the appropriate column. Graciela Bilat
3. 3. 3. Watch the plants grow and record findings. **You may want to take the time to talk about measurement and use your measuring tool. 4. Discuss the results Garden Science Activities!!! Measure Plant Growth You will need the following materials: notebook and pencil ruler soil pots seeds- bean, radish, or pea 1. Put soil in the pots. Poke holes and put seeds in the soil. Cover the seeds with soil. 2. Put the pots in the sun. Water the plants. 3. Every day: Measure how much the plant has grown. Count the number of leaves. Record the information in the notebook. (For younger children, you may want to do this as a class project!) Plants Need Sunlight You will need the following: 2 small green plants brown paper bag 1. Put the plants in a sunny window. Cover one plant with the bag. 2. Water each plant, but always keep the one plant under its bag. 3. Watch what happens over the next few weeks. Graciela Bilat
4. 4. Plants Need Water You will need the following materials: 2 small potted plants 1. Put both plants in a sunny window. 2. Water one plant when it is dry. DO NOT water the other plant. 3. Check every day to see what happens to the plants. Water Moves Up Stems You will need the following materials: celery with tops white carnations 2 glasses of water food coloring 1. Add food coloring to the two glasses of water. Put celery in one glass and a carnation in the other. 2. Put the glasses in the sunlight. Leave overnight. 3. Check the celery and carnation. What do you see? 4. A fresh cut stem will pick up the water better. The "Inside" Story You will need the following materials: soaked lima beans or pinto beans a small knife (for teacher use only) paper plates toothpicks magnifying glasses 1. In advance, soak beans overnight. Demonstrating with a whole soaked bean, show the children the paper-thin seed coat. By rubbing the bean between your thumb and finger, you can remove the coating. What do the children think the coating is for? (Like skin, it protects the seed.) 2. Next split the rest of the soaked beans into their two sections. Explain to the children that they are going to have a chance to see what is inside a seed. Then give each student or pair of students both halves of a bean to examine closely under a magnifying glass. (Make sure they understand that a bean is the seed of a bean plant.) 3. As the children examine the inside of their seeds, ask them if they can see a tiny plant already inside the seed. Explain that this baby plant is called the embryo. The children will be able to see that the baby plant already has tiny leaves and Graciela Bilat
5. 5. roots. The rest of the seed, called the seed leaves, contains food for the baby plant. You might also point out the spot, where the bean was attached to its stem. Feeding the Baby You will need the following materials: a slice of bread sugar a few drops of milk soaked lima beans or pinto beans iodine medicine dropper 1. Remind the children that most of a seed (the seed leaves) contains food for the baby plant inside. Ask children what kind of food they think the baby plant eats. Then explain that baby plants need starch. Foods people eat, such as bread, milk, and sugar, contain starch. 2. Tell the class that scientists have a way to test to see whether foods contain starch. Then demonstrate the test by dropping a little iodine onto the bread, the sugar, and into the milk. Let the children see that all three turn blue or purple. This means the food contains starch. 3. Ask children what they predict will happen if a little iodine is dropped onto the seed leaves of the pinto or lima beans. Cut open the beans and perform the test. (It will be positive.) Ask the students what the test proves. Different Ways to Grow Plants You will need the following materials: sweet potato sprig of ivy 2 jars of water 1. Put the end of the potato in the water. (You may need toothpicks to hold it in place.) 2. Put the ivy sprig in a jar of water. 3. Watch for roots and leaves to grow. Wet Seeds, Dry Seeds You will need the following materials: lima beans a plant mister twist ties paper toweling plastic bags 1. Now that the children know where seeds come from and what's inside them, ask them if they have any ideas about what makes seeds start to grow. Why do seeds Graciela Bilat
6. 6. start growing when we put them in the ground, but not if we leave them in a bag or a jar? Invite the children to do an experiment to find out the answer. 2. Have the children pair up. Give each pair a handful of lima beans and two sheets of paper toweling. Show the children how to put some of the beans on the towling, rolling each sheet with the seeds inside to make a "seed roll". 3. Have the pairs of children take turns using a plant mister to thoroughly moisten one of the seed rolls. Then have the children put both rolls in separate plastic bags and close the bags with twist ties. Have the children keep the bags in their desks or another dark, warm place. Make one moist bag to put in the freezer compartment of a refrigerator and another to put in your desk. 4. Have the children predict what will happen to the seeds in the moist roll, the seeds in the dry roll, and the seeds ion the freezer roll. Record the children's predictions to compare with what actually happens after step 4. 5. After two or three days, check the wet seed roll in your desk to see if any seeds have germinated. If not, wait a day or two longer. When you can see roots growing out of the seeds, have the children open both of their rolls and compare the wet seeds with the dry ones. The dry seeds will look the same as they did at the beginning of the experiment: the wet seeds will have begun to grow. 6. Take the moist seed roll out of the freezer compartment and have the children examine it. Why didn't any of the seeds start to grow? 7. What conclusion can the children draw about what makes seeds start to grow (germinate)? (They need a moist, warm, dark environment.) 8. Explain that certain chemicals in the seeds make them start to grow. These chemicals can't do their job when they are dry or too cold: they need warmth and water to become active. Growing Bulbs You will need the following materials: One of the following; onion, avacado, sweet potato, gladiola, etc. 3 toothpicks clear glass jar or clear drinking glass water 1. Stick 3 toothpicks into the bulb. 2. Place the bulb on top of a clear glass or jar about 3/4 full of water with the pointed end down. 3. Put the glass in a dark place for 2-4 weeks, or until the bulb sprouts and has roots. The bulb may split slightly. 4. Add water when necessary, keeping the water level always about the same, 1/2 way up on the bulb. 5. Once the bulb has sprouted, put it in a sunny place, and watch it grow. Note: An onion will produce long green leaves and perhaps even a flower, but it may become smelly after a while. 6. Cut a gladiola bulb open and see the "babies" waiting to come out.. Graciela Bilat
7. 7. Other Planting Ideas Seeds in pine cones will sprout when pushed into the soil. Plant raw shelled peanuts in a large container and keep moist. Grow seeds in sponges (natural or man made). Place sponge in a bowl. Keep the sponge moist and place in full sun. Note: grass seed and bird seed work best. Parts of a Plant: Listening Center Activity You will need the following materials: Homemade tape describing the parts of a plant Felt shapes cut to resemble each plant part (store in a plastic baggie) flannelboard tape player and headphones Instruct the child(ren) to listen to the tape.As he listens have him arrange the plant parts on the flannelboard according to the information on the tape. Growing Plants in the Classroom You will need the following materials: a variety of fresh vegetables a knife paper plates 1. In advance, prepare a variety of vegetables that can be eaten raw to bring to class. 2. Call the children's attention tto the vegetables on display in the classroom. Talk with the class about their experiences with eating vegetables and which vegetables they like best. Graciela Bilat
8. 8. 3. Cut up and pass around some samples for the children to taste. Ask the children to identify what they are eating. 4. As the children are eating, ask them where they think their snacks came from. Help the children trace the vegetables from the supermarket back to a farm where they were grown. 5. Discuss with the children that a garden is like a tiny farm where people grow their own vegetables or flowers. Where The Wild Things Aren't You will need the following materials: flowerpots digging tools plastic bags rubber bands a marker potting soil radish seeds 1. Take the children on a nature walk in the woods, a park, or any area where plants grow wild. 2. Ask the children if they think someone planted the trees and weeds that they see. If no one planted them, how did they get there? Explain that plants make their own seeds. The seeds fall or are carried by wind or animals and land on the ground where they grow into new plants. 3. To show the children that there are already seeds in the ground, distribute digging tools and have groups of children fill flowerpots with soil from an area where plenty of wild plants are growing. 4. Bring the pots back to the classroom and add water. Cover each pot with a plastic bag secured with a rubber band to hold in moisture. 5. Label each pot with a W for "wild" and put the pots in a sunny place. 6. Ask the children to predict what will happen. 7. The next day each group will fill a flowerpot with potting soil and plant radish seeds. Show the class pictures on the seed packets so they will know what is being planted. 8. Moisten the soil and cover with plastic bags as you did with the wild growth. 9. Label this pot with P for "planted". 10. In approximately a week, both pots should show signs of growth. Compare and contrast the growth in the two pots. From Seed to Plant Graciela Bilat
9. 9. Subject(s): • Science/Agriculture • Science/Botany Introduction: One of the most popular science units for a primary teacher is a unit on plants. This is a unit on plants and seeds that I wrote for use this spring with my children at Montessori Children's School in Vacaville, California. I created this unit by compiling materials from many sources. Most teachers have many ideas up their sleeves. Here are some of my favorite ideas that I use. I will be teaching this unit over a twelve-day period for approx. 45 minutes at a time although the lessons can be adapted for longer or shorter time periods. Objectives: Students will be able to: 1. Identify plant parts, where seeds come from and how they grow. 2. Determine what plants need to survive 3. Recognize how plants are a benefit to people and our planet. Resources/Materials: Assorted fruit, various seeds of different types, art and writing paper, construction paper, clear plastic cups, magnifying glass, lunch box, card stock, straws and paper cups, magazine pictures of plants, Activities: Day 1: What is a seed? 1. Look inside a seed. "You wear a coat to keep you from the cold. Seeds from flowering plants have seed coats to protect them." A. Soak a lima bean in water over night. Use a hand lens to examine the outside of the seed. Try to peel off the seed covering. Split the seed in halves. Look for the parts showing the chart. Draw the lima bean. Write the names of the parts of the seed. B. Have children complete a chart of a seed, noting the seed coat, root, leaves, food storage, and embryo. Day 2: Seeds come in all shapes and sizes. Graciela Bilat
10. 10. 2. Most plants come from seeds. Display seeds that come from all kinds of plants: acorns, poppies, carrots, lettuce, rice, watermelon, nuts, etc. A. Measure the bulk of different kinds of seeds. Do an estimating activity allowing the children to guess which seeds will fill more of a small cup. (Sunflower, watermelon and marigold seeds are great for this project because they are easy to handle). B. Some seeds grow from other plant parts (tubers). Onions makes parts that turn unto bulbs and new plants. The bulbs are the part we eat. Show the children some of the foods that we eat that are bulbs. (potato, onions etc.) C. Show the children a lunch box and a peanut. Ask them what the two things have in common. Explain that the shell of the peanut is the box and the inside is the lunch. D. Create seed collages. E. Roast pumpkinseeds. Day 3: How do seeds travel? 3. The wind, animals (bury and or deposit seeds by their droppings) are just some of the ways seeds travel. There are several great picture books on this subject. "The Tiny Seed" by Eric Carle is one. A. Write: "'Splash! You're a coconut that has just fallen from a palm tree into the ocean. Write what happens to you." B. Have the children take off their shoes and then go on a hike around the school or park. When you get back to class, have the children examine their socks to see what kind of seeds are stuck to the socks. Day 4: What do seeds need to grow? 4. Lead a discussion by starting with "What do children need to grow?" Then, ask the students what they think plants might need. A. Sprout a seed in a jar/clear plastic cup with wet paper towels. A bean seed works great for this. You can also try alfalfa sprouts, or popcorn. B. Put some of the seeds in a windowsill to sprout. Put others in a dark corner. Discuss with the children, which of the seeds they think will grow the best. Check and show the children periodically. C. Have the children estimate how long it will take the seeds to germinate. Chart the growth of the seedlings after they sprout. Plant them in the soil when they become too large for the jar. I have potted them in the past, and made houseplants out of them. D. Write: "You find an odd-looking seed and plant it. Your seed grows into _____________." Write an ending to the story. E. Create task cards for the children to manipulate showing the stages of a seed's growth. Children can also make their own cards to keep. Day 5. Discuss the job of the root system. A. Pass around enough straws and paper cups for each child. B. Tell the children they are the plants and the straws are the roots. This is a great explanation for the next experiment. Graciela Bilat
11. 11. C. Bring in celery or a carnation and show the children the power of the roots. D. Add colored water to a glass with the celery/carnation in it, and watch for the next few days as the celery/carnation changes colors. You might pre-start one to show what will happen. E. Create a word search or word puzzle using plant parts words OR allow the children to create the puzzle and exchange with a neighbor. F. Let the children pantomime plant growth. Day 6. Create several activities using all the plant and seed words that they have learned. A. Try a spelling bee, crossword or word puzzles. There are several software programs that will easily do this. B. Create a Seed WordBook by folding several pieces of writing paper in half and stapling it. C. Have the children make a mini dictionary for their terms and illustrate each item. D. Write several seed words on the chalkboard. Have the children use these words to create silly stories. E. Combine all the stories to write a class book. Choose several children to illustrate the cover and back page. Day 7. Animals and plants are partners. A. Discuss what the world would be like without plants, Re: the desert. B. Talk about the benefits of plants in our environment. I.e.: oxygen, carbon dioxide, cycle of nature, food, mulch, C. Create a chart discussing the cycle of nature. 1. What do plants get from the air? 2. How does it get into the air? 3. What do animals get from the air? 4. How does it get into the air? D. Write stories about life in a world without plants and animals. E. Design cartoon-like plants that have the characteristics of animals. Day 8. All kinds of plants grow from seeds. Finds pictures of various kinds of plants. Some plants that are food, flower and trees. Allow the children to guess which plants contribute different ways to the earth. Create a game allowing the children to guess what each plant is, i.e. bean tomato, marigold, watermelon, etc. Day 9. How plants protect themselves. A. Plants protect themselves from insects, animals, and people. Name some kinds of protection plants have developed. i.e. thorns, spines and prickles. Poison and off-flavors. B. Another ways plants protect themselves are through camouflage. Have the children draw and illustrate "A Plant Fights Back" C. Some plants don't have to worry about being eaten by animals. They eat animals instead. One of these plants, The Venus's-fly trap, has leaves that snap shut when an insect lands on Graciela Bilat
12. 12. them. The leaves open up again after the insect has been eaten. Pretend you are a Venus Flytrap. Write about the insects that you eat. Tell what they taste like, and which insect is your favorite. Day 10. Plant Parts We Love to Eat. People and animals eat the fruits of some plants and the seeds of some, and the leaves of others. Chart on the chalkboard the different parts of plants that people can eat. Then let the children fill in as many foods that they can think of. Imagine a world without plants. What would we eat? Write a story. Day 11. People Need Plants. A. What benefits do people and animals get from plants? Let the children brainstorm the many 'things' we get from plants. Fibers, food, medicine, wood, fuel, paper, etc. B. Have the children fold a blank piece of white art paper into eight squares. Let the children illustrate eight different things they know we get from plants. C. Graph all the items that the children have put on their charts. Tally which items are the most common, unusual, etc. Day 12. What are the problems that plants create? A. Some plants cause us to sneeze. Weeds crowd our flowerbeds. B. How do plants help us? C. Write a story about one way plants help/ hurt us. More Plant Connections 1. Sunflowers need so much sunlight they turn their heads during the day to face the sun. Imagine that you are a sunflower. Someone has built a big building blocking out your sunlight. What are you going to do next? What will you do to reach sunlight? How do you feel? 2. You find an odd-looking seed and plant it. The seed grows into_______________. Write an ending to the story. 3. List these seeds from different plants. Have the children put them in order from the smallest to largest. Consider corn, lettuce, poppies, walnuts, marigolds, carrots, coconuts, acorns, apples, etc. 4. Assign a Seed Collection as part of a homework project. Show the children an egg carton. Tell them to collect one kind of seed for each chamber. Labeling can be as complex as the children's skill level. 5. Go on a walking field trip to collect seeds and grasses from an empty field. (My school has a field as part of the campus). Return to school and create a class display) Poetry (illustrate and make into a class book) My Garden This is my garden. I'll rake it with care. And then some flower seeds I'll plant there. Graciela Bilat
13. 13. The sun will shine, And rain will fall, And my garden will blossom and grow straight and tall. Resources: *The Mountain that loved a Bird-by Alice McLerran /Ill. By Eric Carle The Tiny Seed-by Eric Carle Titch- by Pat Hutchins Will Spring be early? Or Will Spring be Late- by Crocket Johnson First Comes Spring- by Anne Rockwell Round Robin-by Jack Kent Anna in the Garden-by Diane Hearn The Green Man-by Gail Haley The Pea Patch Jig- by Thatcher Hurd Sunflower House-by Eve Bunting A Weed is a Seed- by Feida Wolff From Seed to Plant by Gail Gibbons Flowers, Fruits, Seeds by Jerome Wexler Planting a Rainbow by Lois Ehlert The Giving Tree by Shel Silverstein The Carrot Seed by Ruth Kraus The Flower Alphabet Book by Jerry Pallota The Popcorn Book by Tomie dePoala Sunflower by Miela Ford Audio: Evergreen, Everblue-by Raffi Credits: Seeds and Plants by School Zone Publishing Tina's Science Notebook by Tina DeCloux Graciela Bilat
14. 14. Plant Songs and Fingerplays Plant Songs Do You Know the Parts of Plants? Tune: Head, Shoulders, Knees, And Toes Do you know the parts of plants, Parts of plants? Do you know the parts of plants, Parts of plants? All kinds of plants that grow and grow and grow. Do you know the parts of plants, Parts of plants? The roots hold the plant in place, Plant in place. The roots hold the plant in place, Plant in place. The roots store food and water, too. The roots hold the plant in place, Plant in place. The stem move water up the plant, Graciela Bilat
15. 15. Up the plant. The stem move water up the plant, Up the plant. The stem brings water to the leaves. The stem move water up the plant, Up the plant. The leaves soak up the sun, Soak up the sun. The leaves soak up the sun, Soak up the sun. The sun helps the plant to grow and grow and grow. The leaves soak up the sun, Soak up the sun. The flower grows into a fruit, Into a fruit. The flower grows into a fruit, Into a fruit. Inside the fruit are little tiny seeds. The flower grows into a fruit, Into a fruit. The Gardener Plants the Seeds (Tune "Farmer in the Dell") The gardener plants the seeds. The gardener plants the seeds. High ho the derry oh, The gardener plants the seeds. Second Verse: The rain falls on the ground. Third Verse: The sun shines bright and warm. Fourth Verse: The seeds begin to grow. Fifth Verse: Flowers grow everywhere. OR The flowers smile at us. Graciela Bilat
16. 16. The Farmer Plants the Seeds (Tune "Farmer in the Dell") The farmer plants the seeds. (put seeds in the ground) The farmer plants the seeds. High ho the derry oh, The farmer plants the seeds. Second Verse: The sun comes out to shine. (make big circle with arms) Third Verse: The rain begins to fall. (hands flutter to the ground) Fourth Verse: The seeds begin to grow. (children begin to rise) Fifth Verse: The farmer digs them up. (pretend to use a shovel) Now we'll have some to eat. (pretend to eat) Little Seed (Tune: I'm a Little Teapot) Here's a little seed in the dark, dark ground. Out comes the warm sun, yellow and round. Down comes the rain, wet and slow. Up comes the little seed, grow, grow, grow! This is the Way We Plant the Seeds (Tune: Mulberry Bush) This is the way we plant the seeds, Plant the seeds, plant the seeds, This is the way we plant the seeds, Early in the springtime. Other Verses: This is the way we dig the hole... This is the way we put in the seeds... This is the way we cover the seeds... This is the way we water the seeds... This is the way we check the seeds... Parts of Plants Song (Tune: Muffin Man) Oh, do you know the parts of plants, The parts of plants, the parts of plants? Do you know the parts of plants That make them grow and grow? Graciela Bilat
17. 17. The roots, they hold the plant in place, The plant in place, the plant in place. The roots they hold the plant in place Soak up food and water, too. The stem moves water up the plant, Up the plant, up the plant. The stem moves water up the plant Brings water to the leaves. The leaves soak up the rays of sun, The rays of sun, the rays of sun. And help the plant make food. The flower grows into a fruit, Into a fruit, into a fruit. The flower grows into a fruit, Which holds the tiny seeds. Now you know the parts of plants, The parts of plants, the parts of plants, Now you know the parts of plants, That make them grow and grow. Green Plants Need Song (Tune:"Three Blind Mice") Three main things, three main things, Green plants need, green plants need. For plants to grow and plants to thrive, In order to keep green plants alive, What does it take for them to survive? Just three main things. Plants need sun, plants need sun, That's number one, plants need sun. For plants to grow and plants to thrive, In order to keep green plants alive, What does it take for them to survive? Just three main things. Plants need air, plants need air, Graciela Bilat
18. 18. Be aware, plants need air. For plants to grow and plants to thrive, In order to keep green plants alive, What does it take for them to survive? Just three main things. Plants need water, plants need water, Especially when it's hotter, plants need water. For plants to grow and plants to thrive, In order to keep green plants alive, What does it take for them to survive? Just three main things. Plant Fingerplays Mister Carrot Nice Mister Carrot Make curly hair, (Hand on head) His head grows underneath the ground (Bob head) His feet up in the air. (Raise feet) And early in the morning I find him in his bed (Close eyes, lay head on hands) And give his feet a great big pull (Stretch legs out) And out comes his head! Graciela Bilat