Antarctica by Chloe


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Antarctica by Chloe

  1. 1. Antarctica By Chloe Hass
  2. 2. Where is Antarctica? Antarctica is located at the Southern end of the world (mostly south of the Antarctic Circle). The country has boundaries of 0 (km), and a coastline of 17,968 (km). Antarctica has a population of 0 and although people sometimes visit, it is not possible for people to live there permanently. Antarctica was an unclaimed territory and a possible source of valuable resources, several nations decided to claim portions of the continent. What is very unusual about borders in Antarctica is the fact that they all follow lines of longitude and are completely straight. Farmable land: 0% Permanent crops: 0% Other: 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%)
  3. 3. How do we use Antarctica <ul><li>Antarctica is used mainly for research, and could give answers relating to future climate change. There is an international agreement not to develop the natural resources contained within the continent but I feel that in the near future we will become more desperate for gas and oil, and that the current situation will worsen. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Global Warming <ul><li>The global warming effect on Antarctica has had some serious consequences, not just for the Antarctic area but the entire world. Global warming is caused by many different factors, and some of these factors are greenhouse gas ejections. The biggest cause of these emissions currently is the vehicles used that run on fossil fuels like diesel and gas. Global warming has many effects on Antarctica, and this in turn has many effects for the rest of the world. One big global warming effect is the melting of ice and snow in the Antarctica Peninsula. The ice shelves in the area are breaking up and melting. This can lead to increased sea levels, which can have an effect that is global wide. </li></ul><ul><li>The effects of global warming in Antarctica also includes the animal and wildlife populations. Penguins which nest in areas most effected by global warming are seeing a decrease in population numbers, because ideal nesting spots are slowly becoming more scarce. This means fewer eggs being laid and fewer chicks being hatched, and this can mean trouble for certain penguin species. The Krill in the sea is also being affected. This is caused by less ice in the sea around Antarctica. The number of Krill have declined significantly just in the last few years. This will also affect the penguin population, as well as almost all other forms of marine life in the area. Many fish, whales, and other marine species feed on the Krill, and with less of this food source there will be fewer species capable of survival in the area. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Global warming <ul><li>The global warming effect on Antarctica can have devastating results for the entire world. When ice melts and the sea rises, this leads to more moisture in the air. This means more rain and snow in other areas, and this will affect millions of people. Coastal lands of every continent may become flooded due to rising sea levels, leading to less land in an already overpopulated world. Food crops can be greatly affected, causing food shortages and starvation deaths, especially in countries that are not as developed. There is also a rise in natural disasters like devastating storms, such as typhoons and hurricanes, that are caused by global warming and the Antarctic ice cap melting. Hurricane Katrina in the United States and in other places may be an example of what future storms will be like if we do not stop global warming now. The global warming effect on Antarctica means disaster for the entire world if we do not stop global warming, or at least greatly reduce the greenhouse gases we are putting into the air. The global warming effect on Antarctica may not be reversible, but we can minimize the damage done from this point forward. Using renewable energy sources that are friendly to the environment, and do not cause greenhouse gas ejections and air pollution, can greatly reduce the global warming effect in Antarctica. </li></ul>Global Warming
  6. 6. A n t a r c t i c a & A u s t r a l i a Why they are so different <ul><li>There are lots of differences between Australia and Antarctica. Here are some of the reasons they are different. Australia is smaller than Antarctica by 6313150 square km because Antarctica is 14,000,000 square km and Australia is 7,686,850 square km. Another example of these differences are the different time zones. Antarctica is 4.25 (4 hours and 15 minutes) hours ahead of Australia, 2:32 pm on Monday in Australia would be 6:47 pm on Monday in Antarctica. </li></ul><ul><li>Antarctica is in a polar region of the globe while Australia is in the temperate region. </li></ul><ul><li>Antarctica’s lowest ever temperature recorded was -89.6 degrees Celsius and Australia’s is -23 degrees Celsius. </li></ul><ul><li>Australia’s highest ever recorded temperature is 50.7 degrees Celsius while Antarctica’s is 14.6 degrees Celsius. </li></ul>
  7. 7. What kinds of plants are there in Antarctica? <ul><li>Plants </li></ul><ul><li>There are lots of different types of plants in Antarctica. Such as, Lichen (lay kuhn) covered rock, Moss, and Algae. In some places in the Antarctic continent such as in the dry valleys, rather than growing on rocks, some algae actually grow in the rock. Conditions are so harsh, particularly from strong, drying winds and from blown sand and dust, that it is easier to live in the rock even though there are low light levels, than it is to live on the surface. Antarctica has no trees or bushes at all, vegetation is limited to  about 350 species of mostly Lichen, Mosses and Algae.  Lichens have been discovered growing on isolated mountains within 475 km of the South Pole. In some places bare rocks are home to vibrant red, orange and yellow growths of lichens. Where rock is uncovered by ice for large parts of the summer, green lichens that grow to a few centimeters high can give the impression from a distance of a field of dark grass. Three species of flowering plants are also found on the Antarctic Peninsula. </li></ul>
  8. 8. What kinds of animals are there in Antarctica? <ul><li>The largest truly Antarctic land animals are invertebrates only a few of millimetres in size. These animals, mites, ticks and nematode worms tolerate the low temperatures in the winter by becoming frozen in ice under rocks and stones. They have antifreeze in their bodies and stop all motion and bodily functions while frozen, becoming active again when the ice finally warms up to melt. These animals live in the Antarctic Peninsula. </li></ul><ul><li>The oceans surrounding the continent on the other hand are bursting with great quantities of life. Large numbers of whales feed on the rich marine life, especially krill. Six species of seals and 12 species of birds live and breed in the Antarctic. Crab eater seals are the second most numerous large mammal on the planet after humans and the population of krill has been estimated as outweighing the human population. </li></ul><ul><li>The most famous inhabitant of Antarctica must be the penguin. It is a flightless bird, but an excellent swimmer, penguins live on ice and in the oceans around Antarctica. They breed on the land or on ice surfaces along the coast and on islands. The best known penguins are the Adélie and Emperors. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Krill are eaten by just about </li></ul><ul><li>all of the animals in Antarctica. </li></ul><ul><li>All of the Antarctic animals </li></ul><ul><li>depend on this LOW LIFE for </li></ul><ul><li>their survival. Fish, squid, the </li></ul><ul><li>black-browed albatross, the blue </li></ul><ul><li>whale, the humpback whale and </li></ul><ul><li>the southern right whale have all </li></ul><ul><li>eaten their fair share of krill. Even </li></ul><ul><li>the krill themselves, have been </li></ul><ul><li>known to eat their own kind. </li></ul>The Food Chain
  10. 10. <ul><li>The top predators in the food chain are the killer whales. Killer whales are well adapted to their ice cold environment. They eat whatever they can catch, but their </li></ul><ul><li>diet is mainly seals, penguins, and fish. </li></ul><ul><li>The Second predators include whales, seals, fish and penguins. The whales feed on krill while seals and many different types of big fish eat krill and smaller fish. Many kinds of sea birds such as the snow petrel or the albatross eat mainly fish and penguins also feed off the same things. </li></ul><ul><li>Next come the Third predators of the Antarctic. These include squid, and shrimp who eat mostly plankton. The most important of these however is the krill! Krill are small shrimp like creatures that live in the ocean and swarm in groups of great numbers. Krill is a vital part in the food chain because if the krill did not exist than neither would many of the larger creatures. </li></ul><ul><li>Last of all are the primary producers in Antarctica. They are microscopic in size, so microscopic you have to have a very strong microscope to see them. </li></ul>The Food Chain
  11. 11. Thankyou for watching my presentation on Antarctica Mr Flanagan