Gregory	  D.	  Phelan	  State	  University	  of	  New	  York	              College	  at	  Cortland	  
Ques%ons	  via	  Twi.er	     Please	  add	  #NASCrowd	  to	  any	  tweets	     Any	  questions	  not	  answered	  here	 ...
How	  we	  get	  our	  Informa%on.	     The	  number	  of	  people	  who	  actively	  get	  their	  news	      from	  pri...
Paradigm	  Shi;	     Changes	  are	  due	  to	  many	  factors:	         Changes	  in	  business	  models	  for	  newspa...
Historical	  Approach	  to	  Data	  Sharing	     Research	  leading	  to	  peer	  review	  publication.	     Fellow	  re...
The	  Evolu%on	  of	  the	  Internet	     Growth	  of	  Social	  Media	         Facebook	  has	  more	  than	  500	  mil...
What	  is	  Crowdsourcing	     “Crowdsourcing	  is	  the	  act	  of	  outsourcing	  tasks,	      traditionally	  performe...
The	  collec%ve	  wisdom	  of	  the	  crowd	     Some	  early	  examples	  of	  Crowdsourcing	       I)	  Longitude	  pri...
I)	  Longitude	  Prize	     Problem:	  Historically	  the	  measurement	  of	  longitude	      at	  sea	  was	  problemat...
II)	  Longitude	  Prize	  cont.	     Galileo,	  Halley,	  Werner,	  Newton	  and	  many	  other	      scientists	  of	  t...
II)	  Human	  Genome	  Project	     Work	  was	  undertaken	  in	  identifying	  the	  base	  pairs	  of	      human	  DN...
III)	  Severe	  Acute	  Respiratory	  Syndrome	     In	  2003	  reports	  of	  a	  new	  respiratory	  disease	  had	    ...
Do	  you	  really	  need	  a	  crowd?	     Ultimately	  this	  is	  task	  defined.	  	  If	  the	  task	  is	  changing	 ...
Researchers	  and	  Crowdsourcing	     Many	  of	  the	  above	  projects	  may	  be	  considered	  	      pro	  bono	  p...
Business	  opportuni%es	          Innocentive	     The	  basic	  idea	  is	  that	  a	  “challenge”	  is	  posted	  and	 ...
Networking	  of	  Researchers	     Peer	  review	  publication	  model?	     Unequal	  access	  to	  research	  exists	 ...
Networking	  of	  Researchers	  cont.	     Combining	  the	  previous	  points	  about	  the	  trend	  that	      more	  ...
The	  Use	  of	  Social	  Networking	     Websites	  such	  as	  ResearchGate,	  Nature	  Network,	      BioMed	  Experts...
The	  Use	  of	  Social	  Networking	     Websites	  such	  as	  ResearchGate,	  Nature	  Network,	      BioMed	  Experts...
Alexa	  ranking	  of	  Science/Research	  Groups	  and	  Centers	  6/13/2011	     #NASCrowd	  	  	  	  	  	  Copyright	  G...
ResearchGate	  Profile	                                                                                                    ...
Discussion	  Groups	                                                                                                      ...
Noyce	  Scholars	  on	  Facebook	                                                          Search                         ...
Noyce	  Facebook	  cont…	                                           March 18 at 4:57pm · Like · Comment · Subscribe       ...
The	  Future	   I)	  Biopunk	  movement	   II)	  Entrepreneurship	  &	  Incubators	   III)	  Crowdsourcing	  and	  DARPA	 ...
I)	  The	  Biopunks	     A	  group	  of	  do	  it	  yourselfers	  who	  work	  in	  the	  fields	  of	         biological	...
II)	  Entrepreneurship	  &	  Incubators	     Start-­‐up	  companies	  are	  driving	  the	  need	  for	  the	      creati...
III)	  Crowdsourcing	  and	  DARPA	     DARPA	  is	  sponsoring	  a	  project	  with	  Local	  Motors	  in	         Phoen...
Armored	  Off-­‐Road	  Vehicle	     Using	  off-­‐the-­‐shelf	  parts	  the	  vehicle	  was	  designed	  and	      built	  ...
Challenges	     Who	  gets	  credit	  for	  the	  “invention”	  or	  innovation	  can	      be	  challenging	  in	  some	...
What	  is	  needed	  for	  wider	  par%cipa%on?	     A	  global	  crisis?	     Better	  cash	  prizes?	     More	  succ...
Acknowledgements	     Work	  presented	  here	  was	  supported	  by	                      National	  Science	  Foundati...
Sources	     Howe,	  J.	  (2009).	  Crowdsourcing	  Why	  the	  Power	  of	  the	      Crowd	  is	  Driving	  the	  Futur...
Sources	     Surowiecki,	  J.	  (2005).	  The	  Wisdom	  of	  Crowds.	  New	      York	  :	  Anchor	  House	  -­‐	  Rando...
Websources	     http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics	     http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/14.06/       c...
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National Academy of Sciences - Improving the quality of scientific research through crowdsourcing

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National Academy of Sciences - Improving the quality of scientific research through crowdsourcing

  1. 1. Gregory  D.  Phelan  State  University  of  New  York   College  at  Cortland  
  2. 2. Ques%ons  via  Twi.er     Please  add  #NASCrowd  to  any  tweets     Any  questions  not  answered  here  will  be  address  later   via  twitter,  @gdphelan     Copies  of  this  presentation  will  be  posted  on  LinkedIn   and  can  be  accessed  searching  for  “Gregory  Phelan”  6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  3. 3. How  we  get  our  Informa%on.     The  number  of  people  who  actively  get  their  news   from  print  media  is  decreasing.     In  2010,  24  out  of  the  top  25  newspapers  in  the  United   States  saw  a  decrease  in  circulation.     New  York  Times  (-­‐8.5%  weekday  /  -­‐5.2%  on  Sunday)     Chicago  Tribune  (-­‐9.8%  weekday  /  -­‐7.5%  on  Sunday)     Los  Angeles  Times  (-­‐14.6%  weekday  /  7.6%  on  Sunday)     USA  Today  (-­‐13.6%  weekday)     San  Francisco  Chronicle  (-­‐22.7%  weekday)     Wall  Street  Journal  (+0.5%  when  including  digital   subscriptions)  6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan   Pew  Research  Center,  2011  
  4. 4. Paradigm  Shi;     Changes  are  due  to  many  factors:     Changes  in  business  models  for  newspapers     Fewer  people  are  reading  newspapers.    According  to  a   study  conducted  by  Pew  Research  Center  in  2010  40%   of  Americans  read  a  newspaper  three  times  a  week   compared  to  52%  in  2006.     A  Pew  Project  for  Excellence  in  Journalism  found  in   2010  that  more  people  got  their  news  online  and  more   money  was  spent  for  online  access  versus  print   subscriptions.  6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan   Pew  Research  Center,  2011  
  5. 5. Historical  Approach  to  Data  Sharing     Research  leading  to  peer  review  publication.     Fellow  researchers  look  for  relevant  information.     Go  to  the  library.     Request  reprints.     Electronic  access  (or  lack  thereof).     Open  Source  Publications.     Other  online  resources?  6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  6. 6. The  Evolu%on  of  the  Internet     Growth  of  Social  Media     Facebook  has  more  than  500  million  active  users     50%  of  active  users  log  on  daily     Average  user  creates  90  pieces  of  content  per  month.     70  different  translations  with  ~70%  of  users  not  in  the   United  States.     (300,000  Facebook  users  participated  in  the  translation   project  through  an  onsite  application.)  6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan   From  Facebook  
  7. 7. What  is  Crowdsourcing     “Crowdsourcing  is  the  act  of  outsourcing  tasks,   traditionally  performed  by  an  employee  or  contractor,   to  an  undefined,  large  group  of  people  or  community   (a  "crowd"),  through  an  open  call,”  Wikipedia.     The  term  is  attributed  to  Jeff  Howe  in  June  2006  from   a  Wired  magazine  article.  6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  8. 8. The  collec%ve  wisdom  of  the  crowd     Some  early  examples  of  Crowdsourcing   I)  Longitude  prize.   II)  Human  Genome  Project.   III)  Work  to  identify  the  cause  Severe  Acute  Respiratory   Syndrome  (SARS).  6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  9. 9. I)  Longitude  Prize     Problem:  Historically  the  measurement  of  longitude   at  sea  was  problematic.     Starting  in  1567  monetary  rewards  were  offered  to   solve  the  problem.     The  Académie  Royale  de  Sciences  was  founded  in  1666   and  charged  with  advancing  the  science  of  navigation.     The  Scilly  Naval  Disaster  1707   (image  from  Wikipedia)  6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  10. 10. II)  Longitude  Prize  cont.     Galileo,  Halley,  Werner,  Newton  and  many  other   scientists  of  this  age  worked  on  this  problem.     John  Harrison  a  clockmaker  and  carpenter  from   England  ultimately  received  the  first  prize  1737-­‐1765.     Model  of  Harrison’s  H1  timepiece   (image  from  NewScientist:NMM)    6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  11. 11. II)  Human  Genome  Project     Work  was  undertaken  in  identifying  the  base  pairs  of   human  DNA.     This  work  was  completed  at  laboratories  as  part  of   publically  funded  projects  in  United  States,  parts  of   Europe  and  parts  of  Asia.     The  project  also  had  impacts  on  many  other  areas   including  intellectual  property  law.  6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  12. 12. III)  Severe  Acute  Respiratory  Syndrome     In  2003  reports  of  a  new  respiratory  disease  had   sickened  more  than  300  Chinese  were  brought  to  the   attention  of  the  World  Health  Organization.         Disease  was  similar  to  the  flu  but  no  source  could  be   found.     Eleven  research  labs  around  the  world  were  recruited   to  participate  in  the  effort  to  identify  the  SARS  virus.     The  formation  of  this  “collaborative  multicenter   research  project”  helped  the  rapid  identification,   sequencing,  and  testing  of  this  coronavirus.  6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  13. 13. Do  you  really  need  a  crowd?     Ultimately  this  is  task  defined.    If  the  task  is  changing   a  part  on  your  car,  a  single  expert  will  suffice.    More   complex  challenges  also  can  be  solved  by  individuals.     According  to  Scott  E.  Page  at  Michigan  a  diverse   group  with  members  that  have  distinct  tools  and   abilities  will  exceed  the  sum  of  their  parts  and  usually   outperform  more  singular  expert  entities  given  the   correct  challenge.     It  is  also  important  to  note  that  crowds  police   themselves.  6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  14. 14. Researchers  and  Crowdsourcing     Many  of  the  above  projects  may  be  considered     pro  bono  publica.     There  are  many  businesses  that  are  looking  for   crowdmembers.     Solve  a  problem  or  work  on  a  team  to  solve  a  problem   and  receive  a  benefit.     There  are  a  growing  number  of  sites  that  offer  to   connect  researchers  with  others  to  share  information.  6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  15. 15. Business  opportuni%es   Innocentive     The  basic  idea  is  that  a  “challenge”  is  posted  and   experts  or  teams  of  individual  experts  submit  ideas.     Due  to  intellectual  property  concerns  true  sharing  can   be  limited.    Rather  than  a  true  crowd,  work  can  be   done  by  individuals  operating  without  influence.     Payments  can  range  from  $1,000  -­‐  $1,000,000  USD  6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  16. 16. Networking  of  Researchers     Peer  review  publication  model?     Unequal  access  to  research  exists  in  this  country  as   well  as  around  the  world.         The  business  model  of  peer  review  journals  has   adopted  the  electronic  access  and  corresponding   reduction  in  print  copies  but  access  and  cost  issues   still  limit  who  can  see  and  use  this  research.     The  Digital  Divide.  6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  17. 17. Networking  of  Researchers  cont.     Combining  the  previous  points  about  the  trend  that   more  people  are  using  the  internet  and  the  rise  of   social  media  we  see  the  potential  for  the  improvement   to  the  ways  in  which  the  results  of  research  is  shared.     There  are  no  shortage  of  existing  social  media,  chat   rooms,  blogs,  podcasts,  etc…  for  researchers  to   participate  in.  6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  18. 18. The  Use  of  Social  Networking     Websites  such  as  ResearchGate,  Nature  Network,   BioMed  Experts,  Scientists  Without  Borders,   ResearchID,  CiteULike  are  actively  looking  for  ways   for  researchers  to  share  information/resources  and   solve  problems.     Interaction  is  through  discussion  boards,  direct  email,   online  chats,  and  instant  messaging.  6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  19. 19. The  Use  of  Social  Networking     Websites  such  as  ResearchGate,  Nature  Network,   BioMed  Experts,  Scientists  Without  Borders,   ResearchID,  CiteULike  are  actively  looking  for  ways   for  researchers  to  share  information/resources  and   solve  problems.     Interaction  is  through  discussion  boards,  direct  email,   online  chats,  and  instant  messaging.  6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  20. 20. Alexa  ranking  of  Science/Research  Groups  and  Centers  6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  21. 21. ResearchGate  Profile   1 11 Enter your search keywords Activity Messages Home Account Recent  Activity   Edit Profile Gregory Phelan Share Profile State University of New York College at Cortland · Chemistry Following Physics, Chemistry, Engineering Social  Points   Show all · Visualization 14 5 18 8 IMPACT POINTS PUBLICATIONS FOLLOWERS FOLLOWING Your Groups Nanobiotechnology Publications Show All (5) Acceptor compounds useful for making hyperpolarizable organic Renewable Energy Info Environmental Engineering chromophores Publications Authors: Nick Buker, Brenden Carlson, Larry Dalton, Todd Ewy, Diyun Huang, Alex Jen, Tim Chemistry Blog Londergan, Greg Phelan Chemistry Ref. No: 7,507,840 Year: 2009 Basic  info   Publications  /   Organic Chemistry Green Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistr... Ch En Py Barometric sensitive coatings based upon osmium complexes Art and Science Academic Degrees Ph.D., M.S., M.Ed., B.S. dissolved in a fluoroacrylic polymer Authors: Brenden Carlson, John P Bullock, Timothy M Hance, Gregory D Phelan Analytical chemistry. 02/2009; 81(1):262-7. (published) Patent  info   Agricultural Science, Anthropology,... Show all Your Library Research Keywords Education, Nanotechnology, Pressure sensitive paints (PSP) that measure the changes in air Entrepreneurship, pressure have proved to be useful in the design of aircraft and other You have not yet added any publications to Research   Nanophotonics, Technology your library. vehicles. In this study we incorporate highly luminescent... Show more Commercialization, OLED, Analytical Chemistry, Materials Science, Materials Chemistry, Interests   Inorganic Chemistry, sensors, Intellectual Property generation, NLO Personal Information Show All (5) Research Skills Traditional wet Chemistry lab Looking for / interested in: Discussion partners skills, OLED manufacture, Past advisor(s): Larry Dalton Current Location Martin Goutermann Cortland, United States of Harry Frisch6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  22. 22. Discussion  Groups   1 11 Enter your search keywords Activity Messages Home Account Gregory Phelan State University of New York Post an Update Find your Colleagues College at Cortland Easily find your colleagues or send Ch En Py Post · Publication · Link · Image · File invitations to research fellows. Edit your profile Related Researchers Home S. Lee Hong Follow Indiana University Groups 420 Share with: Public Share Events Find  People   Publications Lee Nelson Follow Texas A&M University - Jobs Mahmoud Zakria, Sayadi Mohamed Amine and Parthiv Kavi joined the Corpus Christi with  similar   group Nanobiotechnology. 2 hours ago · Like · Bernard Distel Follow Water Enhancement Mounir Bouzguenda joined the group Renewable Energy. 3 hours ago · Like · Technology interests   Nabanita Devadasan Follow Siby Joseph, Zied Ghedira, Ashvin Jaiswal and 2 others joined the group Chemistry. Derick R. Douglas 3 hours ago · Like · Follow Recent     Spherotech, Inc. Manish Srivastav, rajeshwar rao Bojja, Ahmad Taher Al Moradi and Posts   Zafar Ahmed joined the group Organic Chemistry . Show more 1 day ago · Like · Dr.Joseph Abraham, Mahdi Moosavi and Attakarn Jansasithorn joined the group Renewable Energy. 1 day ago · Like ·6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  23. 23. Noyce  Scholars  on  Facebook   Search Home Profile Find Friends Account Edit Settings Search This Group Gregory Phelan Robert Noyce Scholars Edit My Profile Open Group News Feed Share: Post Link Photo Video Question Members (176) See All Messages Events Write something... Friends Sara Ashley 176  Group   Members   Robert Noyce Sch... Are there a lot of scholars on here that will be attending the Conference in D.C. I will be attending and was wondering what I am likely to expect Add Friends to Group Create Group... since this will be my first conference. See All Wednesday at 1:05am · Like · Comment · Subscribe Chat with Group Kym Gresham Welty Im not a scholar but the coordinator of Create Doc Games the program at UMass-Dartmouth. You will LOVE the Apps More conference this summer! It gives you a sense of just how big a deal it is to be accepted to this program! Thursday at 12:57pm · Like Create Event Add  info   to  the  group   View Photos Steven Brooks Went last year, and it was fun, but it seemed Friends on Chat like it was more geared towards PIs. A lot of the talks are Edit Group centered on participant recruitment and whatnot, but there were a few for us sprinkled in. Its definitely fun and you get Leave Group to meet some cool people Thursday at 1:28pm · Like People You May Know See All Write a comment... Don MacDonald 3 mutual friends Add as friend Recent     Kevin Hammond Hello all, I have some questions regarding MTEL preparation. Any Sponsored Create an Ad assistance would be appreciated. June 3 at 6:04pm · Like · Comment · Subscribe Class of 1989 Posts   View all 6 comments Look Up profiles from your high school class now. Reconnect with Kevin Hammond Justin, when you say math parts, are you friends from high referring to taking MTEL Mathematics 09 exam? school today. Wednesday at 12:23am · Like PhD Engineering Mgmt Kevin Hammond Thanks all for your comments!!! I am educationdegreesource.com preparing for Math 09 exam on July 16, 2011. Online PhD in Wednesday at 12:25am · Like6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  24. 24. Noyce  Facebook  cont…   March 18 at 4:57pm · Like · Comment · Subscribe Brendan Noon Science demo of the Day: Simple Harmonic Gummi Bears Multimedia     Gummi Bear Physics gdata.youtube.com We saved big bucks by making our own wave simulator out of skewers and Gummi Bears. Posts   Learn more at: http://www.sciencewithmrnoon.com/ March 17 at 8:21am · Like · Comment · Subscribe Ann Wright-Mockler Noyce Scholars California, Colorado, Maryland, Virgina, Washington (state) or Washington, DC can apply to be a STaR fellow in a paid summer research internship. Early application increases your chance of selection. Deadline for STaR is January 31, 2011. Program dates are June 13 to August 12, 2011. Please share. CESaME - Cal Poly > Programs - STAR Program www.cesame.calpoly.edu departments decription goes here December 3, 2010 at 1:32pm · Like · Comment · Subscribe Ann Wright-Mockler Applications for paid summer research internships for pre-service and Funding     new in-service STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) teachers are being accepted now. Early application increases your chance of selection. Noyce Scholars California, Colorado, Maryland, Virgina, Washington (state) or Washington, DC can also apply as STaR fellows (see Sources   additional post). PNNL: Science & Engineering Education - DOE Pre- Service Teacher (PST) Internshipss science-ed.pnl.gov DOE Pre-Service Teacher (PST) Internships December 3, 2010 at 1:29pm · Like · Comment · Subscribe Joan Pasco Is anyone doing research on systemic change in school districts that is being initiated by leadership from classroom teachers? If so, I would love to hear from you.6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  25. 25. The  Future   I)  Biopunk  movement   II)  Entrepreneurship  &  Incubators   III)  Crowdsourcing  and  DARPA  6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  26. 26. I)  The  Biopunks     A  group  of  do  it  yourselfers  who  work  in  the  fields  of   biological  science  and  use  Crowdsourcing  to  solve   problems.     Using  small  scale  “garage  science”  these  groups  have   developed  inexpensive  equipment  and  testing   protocols.    OpenPCR  sells  a  PCR  machine  for  $512  6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  27. 27. II)  Entrepreneurship  &  Incubators     Start-­‐up  companies  are  driving  the  need  for  the   creation  of  additional  technical  laboratory  and   incubator  spaces  where  research  is  being  done   without  academic  and  corporate  influence.     BioCurious  Community  Lab  is  fund  raising  to  create   an  active  laboratory  space  for  Biopunks  in  the  Bay   Area.    In  effect,  attempting  to  bring  the  crowd   together  to  create  in-­‐person  interactions  and  growth.  6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  28. 28. III)  Crowdsourcing  and  DARPA     DARPA  is  sponsoring  a  project  with  Local  Motors  in   Phoenix  to  use  Crowdsourcing  to  design  an  armored   off-­‐road  vehicle.  6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  29. 29. Armored  Off-­‐Road  Vehicle     Using  off-­‐the-­‐shelf  parts  the  vehicle  was  designed  and   built  in  a  matter  of  months  as  opposed  to  the  typical   1-­‐3  year  cycle.     Maintained  a  live  camera  and  blog  site  where  anyone   could  add  comments.  6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  30. 30. Challenges     Who  gets  credit  for  the  “invention”  or  innovation  can   be  challenging  in  some  cases.     What  incentives  are  there  for  academic  researchers?     What  incentives  are  there  for  corporate  researchers?     Who  owns  the  intellectual  property  that  is  generated?  6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  31. 31. What  is  needed  for  wider  par%cipa%on?     A  global  crisis?     Better  cash  prizes?     More  success  stories?  6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  32. 32. Acknowledgements     Work  presented  here  was  supported  by     National  Science  Foundation  award  number  0630460     Intellectual  Ventures  –  Bellevue,  Washington  6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  33. 33. Sources     Howe,  J.  (2009).  Crowdsourcing  Why  the  Power  of  the   Crowd  is  Driving  the  Future  of  Business. New  York  :   Three  Rivers  Press.     Page,  S.E.  (2011).  Diversity  and  Complexity.  Princeton   and  Oxford  :  Princeton  University  Press.     Page,  S.E.  (2007).  The  Difference  :  How  the  Power  of   Diversity  Creates  Better  Groups,  Firms,  Schools,  and   Societies.  Princeton  and  Oxford  :  Princeton  University   Press.     Pew  Research  Center.  Pew  State  of  the  Media.  (2010).     Pew  Research  Center.  Pew  State  of  the  Media.  (2011).  6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  34. 34. Sources     Surowiecki,  J.  (2005).  The  Wisdom  of  Crowds.  New   York  :  Anchor  House  -­‐  Random  House  Inc.     Sloane.  P.  (ed).  (2011).  A  Guide  to  Open  Innovation  and   Crowdsourcing.  London  :  Kogan  Page     Tapscott,  D.  and  Williams,  A.D.  (2010).  Wikinomics  :   How  Mass  Collaboration  Changes  Everything.   London  :  Penguin  Books     Weise,  E.  (2011,  June  1).  DIY  ‘biopunks’  want  science  in   the  hands  of  people  .  USA  Today  (Fairfax  County,  VA)  6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  
  35. 35. Websources     http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics     http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/14.06/ crowds.html    6/13/2011   #NASCrowd            Copyright  Gregory  Phelan  

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