Intro to green chemistry

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  • Prilosec heartburn Lipitor cholesterol Rogaine hair loss Celebrex, Vioxx arthritis
  • Its not easy being green
  • .
  • Intro to green chemistry

    1. 1. SOME WELL-PUBLICIZED INCIDENTS FROM THE PAST FEW DECADES… • The Cuyahoga River in Ohio became so polluted with chemicals it caught fire. • A plant accident in Bhopal, India, released methyl isocyanate. Nearly 4000 people died.
    2. 2. SOME WELL-PUBLICIZED INCIDENTS FROM THE PAST FEW DECADES… • An accidental release of chemicals, including dioxin, in Seveso, Italy, in 1976 resulted in death of farm animals and long-term health problems for many local residents.
    3. 3. ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTERS  DDT  CFCs  Love Canal
    4. 4. ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTERS  Became rallying points for environmental laws  Cuyahoga River- 1972 Clean Water Act  Love Canal- 1980 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation & Liability Act, better known as Superfund. Emergency Planning & Community Right-to-Know Act, requires that industries report toxic releases.
    5. 5. MANY COUNTRIES HAVE ALREADY ENACTED LAWS AND SIGNED INTERNATIONAL TREATIES TO REDUCE POLLUTION LEVELS, INCLUDING: • Montreal Protocol to Protect the Ozone Layer • Global Treaty on Persistent Organic Pollutants • Rio Declaration on Environment and Development
    6. 6. Growth in Environmental Regulation AMFA AR PAA AJA A SBCAA E SAA-AECA FFRAA FEAPRA IRA NW PAA CO DRA /NM SPAA FCR PA MM PAA 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 E PACT FFCA C ERFA C RAA PPA PPVA IEREA ANT PA GLC PA ABA CZARA WRDA ED P O PA RECA CAAA G C RA GLFWRA HM T U SA NEEA SDW AA SARA BLRA ERDDAA EAWA NO PPA PT SA UM T RCA E SAA Q GA NC PA T SC A FL PMA RCRA NFM A CZMAA NE PA EQ IA CAA E PA EEA O SH A FAWRAA N PAA FRRRPA SO W A D PA W SRA EA RCFH SA AQ A NAW CA W QA NW PA M PR SA A AR PA H MTA FCM H SA NH PA WLDA FWCAA FWA AEA AE PA FIFRA PAA FAW RAM BCAN P S WA IA N BRA AARHA YA TA FW CA B PA NL RA W PA AQ A FO IA WRPA AFCA FH SA NFM UA BL BA FW PCA M PR SA CZMA NC A FE PCA PW SA MM PA E SA TA PA RCRAA WLDI APA SW DA C ERCLA CZMIA COWL DA FW LCA M PRSAA CAAA CWA SM C RA SW RCA SDW AA Numberof Laws
    7. 7. Risk=f(Hazard, Exposure) environmental laws attempt to control exposure Controlling Exposure = “end of the pipe solution” Risk Due to a Hazardous Substance
    8. 8. Cost to Industry  Industries in the US spend over $100 billion/year on waste treatment, control, and disposal.  1996 Dupont spent $ 1 billion for environmental compliance (research budget $ 1 billion; chemical sales of $18 billion)
    9. 9. THE POLLUTION PREVENTION ACT OF 1990 Risk=f(HAZARD, Exposure) Eliminate the hazard, no need to worry about the exposure!
    10. 10. Chemists Must Place a Major Focus on the Environmental Consequences of Chemical Products and the Processes by which these Products are Made. We must consider our chemical ecological footprint.
    11. 11. GREEN CHEMISTRYGREEN CHEMISTRY PREVENTING POLLUTION SUSTAINING THE EARTH
    12. 12. “ Chemistry has an important role to play in achieving a sustainable civilization on earth.” — Dr. Terry Collins, Professor of Chemistry Carnegie Mellon University
    13. 13. WHAT IS A SUSTAINABLE CIVILIZATION?
    14. 14. WE SHOULD CONSIDER THIS QUESTION FROM SEVERAL VIEWPOINTS: • The environment and human health. • A stable economy that uses energy and resources efficiently. • Social and political systems that lead to a just society.
    15. 15. TO UNDERSTAND THE ROLE OF CHEMISTRY IN SUSTAINABILITY, WE WILL LOOK AT THE FIRST TWO POINTS… • The environment and human health. • A stable economy that uses energy and resources efficiently.
    16. 16. IN A SUSTAINABLE CIVILIZATION… • Technologies used for production of needed goods are not harmful to the environment or to human health. • Renewable resources (such as plant-based substances or solar energy) are used rather than those, like fossil fuels, that will eventually run out.
    17. 17. IN A SUSTAINABLE CIVILIZATION… • At the end of their use, materials are recycled if they are not biodegradable (easily broken down into harmless substances in the environment).
    18. 18. IN A SUSTAINABLE CIVILIZATION… • Manufacturing processes are either designed so as not to produce waste products, – OR – • Waste products are recycled or biodegradable.
    19. 19. WHILE WE HAVE MADE SOME PROGRESS IN ACHIEVING THESE GOALS, WE STILL HAVE A LONG WAY TO GO… • Mountains of solid waste are piling up—particularly in industrialized nations. • Air and water pollution continue to be problems in many places.
    20. 20. BUT HOW CAN CHEMISTRY HELP US TO ACHIEVE A SUSTAINABLE CIVILIZATION?
    21. 21. First, let’s consider chemistry’s benefits… The chemical industry produces many products that improve our lives and upon which we depend.
    22. 22. BENEFITS OF CHEMICAL INDUSTRY: • Antibiotics and other medicines • Fertilizers, pesticides • Plastics • Nylon, rayon, polyester, and other synthetic materials • Gasoline and other fuels • Water purification
    23. 23. “Better Things for Better Living Through Chemistry” DuPont  Ibuprophen  Lipitor  Celebrex  Vioxx  Rogaine  Prozac  Viagra  Prilosec  Nylon  Dacron  PET  Polystyrene  Acrylics  Teflon  Rayon  Polyaniline •DNA •Recombinant Technology •PCR
    24. 24. “Most of the environmental problems of past centuries and decades, such as the biological contamination of drinking water, were solved only when the methods of science in general—and chemistry in particular—were applied to them. The phenomenal rise in human life expectancy and in the material quality of life that has come about in recent decades is due in no small measure to chemicals and chemistry.” — Colin Baird, Environmental Chemistry.
    25. 25. THE POLLUTION PREVENTION ACT OF 1990 • This was the U.S. environmental law stating that the first choice for preventing pollution is to design industrial processes that do not lead to waste production. • This is the approach of green chemistry.
    26. 26. GREEN CHEMISTRY WORKS TOWARD SUSTAINABILITY BY: • Making chemical products that do not harm either our health or the environment, • Using industrial processes that reduce or eliminate hazardous chemicals, and
    27. 27. GREEN CHEMISTRY WORKS TOWARD SUSTAINABILITY BY: • Designing more efficient processes that minimize the production of waste materials.
    28. 28. GREEN CHEMISTRY MEANS… • Preventing pollution before it happens rather than cleaning up the mess later.
    29. 29. GREEN CHEMISTRY MEANS… • Saving companies money by using less energy and fewer/safer chemicals, thus reducing the costs of pollution control and waste disposal.
    30. 30. GREEN CHEMISTRY  Pollution Prevention Act 1990  GC Began in 1991 at EPA, Paul Anastas  1996 Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards  1997 Green Chemistry and Engineering Conference  1999 Journal “Green Chemistry”  Chemical & Engineering News  2001 Journal of Chemical Education
    31. 31. Examples of Green Chemistry  New syntheses of Ibuprofen and Zoloft.  Integrated circuit production.  Removing Arsenic and Chromate from pressure treated wood.  Many new pesticides.  New oxidants for bleaching paper and disinfecting water.  Getting the lead out of automobile paints.  Recyclable carpeting.  Replacing VOCs and chlorinated solvents.  Biodegradable polymers from renewable resources. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award Winners For more informational on Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award Winners: http://www.epa.gov/greenchemistry/presgcc.html
    32. 32. EXAMPLES OF GREEN CHEMISTRY • Safer dry cleaning  Initially gasoline and kerosene were used  Chlorinated solvents are now used, such as perc  Supercritical/liquid carbon dioxide (CO2)
    33. 33. LEAD POLLUTION HAS BEEN DECREASED BY… • Replacing lead in paint with safe alternatives, and • Replacing tetraethyl lead with less toxic additives (e.g., “lead-free” gasoline).
    34. 34. CHEMICAL FOAMS TO FIGHT FIRES • Millions of tons of chemical fire- fighting foams used worldwide have discharged toxic substances into the environment, contaminating water supplies and depleting the ozone layer.
    35. 35. PUTTING OUT FIRES THE GREEN WAY • A new foam called Pyrocool FEF has now been invented to put out fires effectively without producing the toxic substances found in other fire-fighting materials.
    36. 36. CHEMICALS FOR DRY CLEANING • Perchloroethylene (“perc”) is the solvent most widely used in dry cleaning clothing. • Perc is suspected of causing cancer and its disposal can contaminate ground water.
    37. 37. A SAFER METHOD OF DRY CLEANING • Liquid CO2 can be used as a safer solvent if a wetting agent is used with it to dissolve grease. • This method is now being used commercially by some dry cleaners.
    38. 38. GREEN CHEMISTRY DEFINITION Green Chemistry is the utilization of a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture and application of chemical products *. GREEN CHEMISTRY IS ABOUT • Waste Minimisation at Source • Use of Catalysts in place of Reagents • Using Non-Toxic Reagents • Use of Renewable Resources • Improved Atom Efficiency • Use of Solvent Free or Recyclable Environmentally Benign Solvent systems * Green Chemistry Theory & Practice, P T Anastas & J C Warner, Oxford University Press 1998
    39. 39. 1. Prevention It is better to prevent waste than to treat or clean up waste after it has been created. 2. Atom Economy Synthetic methods should be designed to maximise the incorporation of all materials used in the process into the final product. 3. Less Hazardous Chemical Synthesis Wherever practicable, synthetic methods should be designed to use and generate substances that possess little or no toxicity to people or the environment. 4. Designing Safer Chemicals Chemical products should be designed to effect their desired function while minimising their toxicity. 5. Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries The use of auxiliary substances (e.g., solvents or separation agents) should be made unnecessary whenever possible and innocuous when used. 6. Design for Energy Efficiency Energy requirements of chemical processes should be recognised for their environmental and economic impacts and should be minimised. If possible, synthetic methods should be conducted at ambient temperature and pressure. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry (1-6) Source: Green Chemistry Theory and Practice, Anastas & Warner, OUP, 2000
    40. 40. 7 Use of Renewable Feedstocks A raw material or feedstock should be renewable rather than depleting whenever technically and economically practicable. 8 Reduce Derivatives Unnecessary derivatization (use of blocking groups, protection/de-protection, and temporary modification of physical/chemical processes) should be minimised or avoided if possible, because such steps require additional reagents and can generate waste. 9 Catalysis Catalytic reagents (as selective as possible) are superior to stoichiometric reagents. 10 Design for Degradation Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they break down into innocuous degradation products and do not persist in the environment. 11 Real-time Analysis for Pollution Prevention Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real-time, in-process monitoring and control prior to the formation of hazardous substances. 12 Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention Substances and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen to minimise the potential for chemical accidents, including releases, explosions, and fires. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry (7-12)
    41. 41. Green Chemistry Is About... Waste Materials Hazard Environmental Impact COST Risk Energy
    42. 42. Catalysis Process Intensification Separation Processes Energy Efficiency Solvent Replacement Safer Reactions & Reagents Use of Renewable Feedstocks Waste Minimisation Some Aspects of Green Chemistry Green Chemistr y
    43. 43. IN SUMMARY, GREEN CHEMISTRY IS… • Scientifically sound, • Cost effective, and • Leads toward a sustainable civilization.

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